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For the text of this edition I have endeavored to make 
conscientious use of the available critical material. The 
notes owe much to the standard German commentators. 
Except in the rarest instances, I have consulted no Ameri- 
can edition, valuable and important as some of these are. 

To the many kind friends who have helped me with their 
criticisms I here make my grateful acknowledgments. 

Ithaca, July, 1901. 

i]A>u>AAt^ *^^' ^ ^'I'S ^vVi_^/l _ *■■'.[< \^l\^z\,j, 





1. Birth and Early Life. — Quintus Horatius Flaccus was 
born at the little town of Venusia, on the borders of Apulia 
and Lucania, December 8, 65 b.c. His father was a freed- 
man, who seems to have been a collector of taxes. In this 
business he saved some money, and, dissatisfied with the 
advantages offered by the school at Venusia, took the young 
Horace to Rome for his early education. This plan evi- 
dently involved no little personal and financial sacrifice on 
the father's part — a sacrifice appreciated to the full by 
Horace, if not at the time, at least in his later life. In a 
touching passage almost unique in ancient literature (Sat i. 
6. 70 ff.), the poet tells us of the father's devotion at this 
period. Ambitious only for his son's mental and moral 
improvement, without a thought of the larger material 
prizes of life, he not only provided Horace with the best in- 
struction the capital afforded, but watched with anxious care 
over the boy's moral training as well, even accompanying 
him to school and back again to his lodgings. One of Hor- 
ace's teachers at this period was Orbilius, who is referred 
to in Epist ii. 1. 70 as a severe disciplinarian (plagosum). 
Under Orbilius, Horace apparently pursued the grammatical 
studies which formed the staple of the literary training 
of the day. Later, he probably devoted attention to the 

• • 



more advanced rhetorical training; under what teacher is 

2. Athens. — In his nineteenth year or thereabouts (i,e. 
about 46 B.C.), Horace went to Athens to add the finishing 
touches to his education by the study of philosophy, which 
still enjoyed a flourishing existence and was represented 
by several schools, — the Stoic, Epicurean, Peripatetic, and 
Academic. The Greek poets also engaged his attention 
largely. Among his friends at this time may be mentioned 
the young Cicero, son of the orator, and M. Valerius Mes- 
salla, who, with many other young Romans, were residing at 
Athens for the purpose of study. 

3. Brutus and Philippi. — After some two years, the ^ still 
air of delightful studies ' was rudely agitated for Horace by 
political events. Caesar had been assassinated in March of 
44 B.C., and, in September of that year, Brutus arrived in 
Athens, burning with the spirit of republicanism. Horace 
was easily induced to join his standard, and, though with- 
out previous military training or experience, received the 
important position of trihunus militum in Brutus's army. 
The battle of Philippi (November, 42 b.c.) sounded the 
death-knell of republican hopes, and left Horace in bad 
case. His excellent father had died, and the scant patri- 
mony which would have descended to the poet had been 
confiscated by Octavian in consequence of the son's support 
of Brutus and Cassius. 

4. Return to Rome. Beginning of Career as Man of Let- 
ters. Maecenas. The Sabine Farm. — Taking advantage of 
the general amnesty granted by Octavian, Horace returned 
to Bome in 41 b.c. and there secured a position as quaestor's 
clerk (scriba), devoting his intervals of leisure to composi- 
tion in verse. He soon formed a warm friendship with 
Virgil, then just beginning his career as poet, and with 


Varius ; through their influence he was admitted (39 b.c.) 
to the intimax3y and friendship of Maecenas, the confidential 
adviser of Octavian, and a generous patron of literature. 
About six years later (probably 33 b.c), he received from 
Maecenas the Sabine Farm, situated some thirty miles to 
the northeast of Rome, in the valley of the Digentia, a 
small stream flowing into the Anio. This estate was not 
merely adequate for his support, enabling him to devote 
his entire energy to study and poetry, but was an unfailing 
source of happiness as well ; Horace never wearies of singing 
its praises. 

5. Horace's Other Friendships. — Horace's friendship with 
Maecenas, together with his own admirable social qualities 
and poetic gifts, won him an easy entrance into the best 
Eoman society. His Odes bear eloquent testimony to his 
friendship with nearly all the eminent Romans of his time. 
Among these were: Agrippa, Octavian's trusted general, 
and later his son-in-law; Messalla, the friend of Horace's 
Athenian student days, and later one of the foremost ora^ 
tors of the age ; Pollio, distinguished alike in the fields of 
letters, oratory, and arms. The poets Virgil and Varius 
have already been mentioned. Other literary friends were : 
Quintilius Varus, Valgius, Plotius, Aristius Fuscus, and 

6. Relations with Augustus. — With the Emperor, Hor- 
ace's relations were intimate and cordial. Though he had 
fought with conviction under Brutus and Cassius at Phi- 
lippi, yet he possessed too much sense and patriotism to be 
capable of ignoring the splendid promises of stability and 
good government held out by the new regime inaugurated 
by Augustus. In sincere and loyal devotion to his sover- 
eign, he not merely accepted the new order, but lent the 
best efforts of his verse to glorifying and strengthening it. 


In the life of Horace attributed to Suetonius, we learn 
that Augustus offered the poet the position of private sec- 
retary. Horace, with dignified independence, declined the 
offer, a step that seems to have made no difference, how- 
ever, in the cordial friendship with which Augustus con- 
tinued to honor him. 

He remained true to the Muse till his death, November 
27, 8 B.C., a few days before the completion of his fifty- 
seventh year, and but a few weeks after the death of his 
patron and friend, Maecenas. 



7. The Satires. — Horace's first published trork was Book I. 
of the SatireSf which appeared in 35 b.c. Five years later, 
Book II. was published. Though conventionally called 
* Satires,' and alluded to by Horace himself as satirae, these 
were entitled by him Sermones, as being talks, so to speak, 
couched in the familiar language of everyday life. They 
represent a type of literature whose early beginnings are 
obscure, but which is clearly an indigenous Roman product 
and not an imitation of Greek models, as is the case with 
almost every other type of Latin poetry. Horace was not 
the first representative of this kind of writing among the 
Romans. Ennius, Lucilius, and Varro had been his prede- 
cessors in the same field. Of these three, Lucilius beyond 
question exercised the greatest influence upon the poet. In 
Horace's hands, satire consists in the main of urbane com- 
ment upon the vices and foibles of the day, coupled with 
amusing incidents of personal experience and good-natured 
raillery at the defects of the prevailing philosophical systems, 
of which he was always an earnest and intelligent student. 
Besides this we have several pieces dealing directly with 


the scope and function of satire as a species of literary 

8. The Epodes. — These were published in 29 b.c. and 
mark the transition from the Satires to the Odes, They 
resemble the Satires in their frequent polemic character, the 
Odes in the lyric form in which they are cast. Though 
published after the two books of the Satires^ several of 
them apparently represent the earliest of Horace's efforts 
in verse that have been preserved. 

9. The Odes and Carmen Saeoulare. — Books I. -III. of the 

Odes were published in 23 b.c, when Horace was forty-two 
years old. Many of them had unquestionably been written 
several years before, some apparently as early as 32 b.c. 
These Odes at once raised Horace to the front rank of Roman 
poets, and assured his permanent fame. Six years later 
(17 B.C.), he was the natural choice, of Augustus for the com- 
position of the Carmen Saeculare to be sung at the saccular 
celebration held in that year. In 13 b.c. appeared Book IV. 
of the Odes, Though containing some of the poet's best 
work, this last book nevertheless bears certain traces of 
perfunctoriness. The Suetonian life of Horace records that 
it was written at the express request of the Emperor, a 
statement borne out by the lack of spontaneity characteristic 
of some of the poems. 

10. The Epistles and Ars Poetica. — There are two books 
of Epistles. Book I. was published in 20 b.c. Book II 
probably in 14 b.c Of the epistles contained in Book I., 
some are genuine letters such as friend might write to 
friend; others are simply disquisitions in verse form on 
questions of life, letters, or philosophy. Book II. consists of 
but two epistles, one to Julius Florus, the other to Augustus. 
Both these pieces deal with questions of literary criticism 
and poetic composition. 

• - ^ 

I • 


The Ars Poetka, as it is conventionally designated, is an 
essay on the art of poetic composition — chiefly the drama. 
It is addressed to a certain Piso and his two sons, and 
Horace probably entitled it simply Epistxda ad Pisones. 
The date of this composition is uncertain ; but as it is one 
of the ripest, so it is probably one of the latest, if not the 
very latest, of all his extant writings. It is often printed 
as the third epistle of Book II. 

U. Chronological Table of Horace's Works : — 

35 B.C. Satires, Book I. 

ccc^'^-Ht- He- 30 B.C. Satires, Book II. 

" ' -'^ ^"^ 29 B.C. TheEpodes. 

V./i '> 

^ ^ 23 B.C. The Odes, Books I.-III. 

20 B.C. The Epistles, Book I. 
17 B.C. The Carmen Saeculare. 
14 B.C. The Epistles, Book II. 
13 B.C. The Odes, Book IV. 
9 B.C. (?) The Ars Poetica. 


12. Manuscripts. — There are some two hundred and fifty 
manuscripts of Horace's works. No one of these is older 
than the eighth century, and most belong to the eleventh 
century and later. Among the most important manuscripts 
may be mentioned : — 

V. Blandinius Vetustissimus. This manuscript, which 
once belonged to the Abbaye de St. Pierre on Mont Blandin 
(the modern Blankenberg), is now lost. It was destroyed 
by fire, together with the abbey, in 1566. But Cruquius 
(Jacques de Crusque), professor at Bruges, had previously 
examined it with care, and cites its readings with great 


frequency in his edition of 1577. Some critics have chal- 
lenged the very existence of this manuscript, and have 
charged that Cruquius's citations of its alleged readings 
are forgeries. But while Cruquius is often guilty of care- 
lessness and gross blunders, it is improbable that he was 
guilty of dishonesty, and most Horatian critics to-day recog- 
nize that V was a real manuscript, and that its readings as 
noted by Cruquius are of value. 

B, Bemensis, 363, in the municipal library at Berne, 
Switzerland. This belongs to the ninth century, and has 
recently been published in an admirable photographic fac- 

R. Sueco-Vaticanus, No. 1703, formerly the property of 
Queen Christina of Sweden, and now in the Vatican. This 
was written in .the eighth century and, according to Keller, 
is the oldest of our extant manuscripts of Horace. 

Keller attaches the greatest weight to these last two manu- 
scripts, B and R, and holds that in nine cases out of ten 
their agreement points to the reading of the archetype of 
all our extant manuscripts. 

No convincing classification of Horatian manuscripts has 
yet been made, and the great difficulties of the problem ren- 
der extremely doubtful the eventual success of any such 

13. Scholia. — Scholia are explanatory notes on the 
ancient writers. Sometimes these form separate works 
of elaborate scope; at other times they consist simply of 
additions made by copyists to the manuscripts themselves. 
Our Horatian scholia comprise the following : — 

PoRPHYRio, a scholiast who lived probably in the early 
part of the third century a.d. and has left us an extensive 
commentary on all of Horace's writings. 

PsEUDO-AcRON. This collection bears the name of Hele- 


nius Acron, who belonged perhaps in the third century of 
our era ; but these scholia are not the work of Acron. His 
name apparently became attached to them only in late medi- 
aeval times, as a result of the tradition that Acron was the 
author of certain scholia on Horace. These scholia of the 
pseudo- Acron are not even the work of a single hand, but 
are manifestly gathered from several sources. 

Commentator Cruquianus. This is a collective name 
given to the scholia gathered by the Cruquius already men- 
tioned from several manuscripts. They are relatively un- 

14. EditionB. — Only a few of the most important editions 
are here given. 


Richard Bentley, 1711, and often reprinted. 
Keller and Holder. Editio major. Leipzig. 1864-1870. 
Keller and Holder. Editio minor. Leipzig. 1878. 
Keller and Holder. Iterum recensuit Otto Keller. Vol. I. 

(OdeSf Epodes, and Carmen Saeculare), Leipzig. 1899. 

Vol. II. {Satires and Epistles) has not yet appeared. 
Otto Keller, Epilegomena zu Horaz, Leipzig. 1879-1880. 

An exhaustive presentation of variant readings, with 


Complete Editions. 

Orelli, Editio Quarta Major, Curaverunt Hirschf elder et 

Mewes. Berlin. 1886, 1892. With complete word 

A. Kiessling. Berlin. 2d edition. 1890-1898. Vol. L 

{Odes and Epodes) is now in 3d edition. 1898. 
H. Schtltz. Berlin. 1880-1883. Vol. I. (Odes and ^^jodes) 

is now in 3d edition. 1889. 


Wickham. Oxford. Clarendon Press. Odes and Epodes, 

3d edition. 1896. Satires and Epistles, 1891. 
Page, Palmer, and Wilkins. London and New York. 1896. 

Editions op Odes and Epode& 

K. K. Kiister. Paderborn. 1890. 
L. MUller. Leipzig. 1900. i 

Editions of Satires and Epistles. 

G. T. A. Krliger. Leipzig. 14th edition. 1898, 1901. 
L. Miiller. Leipzig. 1891, 1893. 


15. The Name. Sources. — The name epodus (Greek 
e7r(u8o9, lit. * refrain') was first applied to the short verse 
following an iambic trimeter. Hence short poems written 
in similar metres came to be called epodes. The first to 
employ the epode as a form of literature was the Greek poet 
Archilochus of Paros (about 700 b.c). In his hands the 
iambic epode was mainly a vehicle of invective, so that 
* iambics' became synonymous with polemic or abusive 
poetry. In the Epodes Horace consciously followed Archilo- 
chus as a model. With a single exception all the Epodes 
have the epodic form (the first ten being iambic), and many 
of them are characterized also by the bitterness of feeling 
and expression traditionally connected with this form of 


16. InvectiveB. — Of the seventeen poems in the Epodes, 
eight breathe the traditional spirit of Archilochus, and 
thus give the tone to the entire collection. One is directed 
against a disreputable person who had risen to wealth from 


slavery, and who now flaunts himself offensively in the eyes 
of decent people. Another heaps mock imprecations upon 
Maecenas, who, unluckily, had set before the poet a dish 
prepared with garlic that caused him a fit of indigestion. 
Two are directed against the sorceress Canidia. Another 
invokes the wrath of the elements upon the miserable 
poetaster Mevius as he sets sail for Greece. 

17. Patriotic PoemB. — The Epodes also give us tokens of 
the coming patriotic poems that were destined to form so 
conspicuous and successful a feature in the Odes, The 
seventh epode, written in 38 b.c. at a time of threatened 
renewal of civil strife, expresses horror at the thought of 
Rome ^ perishing by her own right hand.' The eighth is a 
jubilant song of triumph at the news of Octavian's victory 
over Antony at Actium ; while the sixteenth, written in the 
early years of the period following Caesar's assassination, 
deplores the civil war then threatening, and calls upon 
patriotic Komans to leave their fatherland, and set sail for 
the Happy Islands of the West. 

18. Love PoemB. — Here belong Epodes 11 and 15, dealing 
with the trials of unrequited love and the triumphs of 
unworthy rivals ; also Epode 14, in which the tender passion 
is made responsible for Horace's failure to complete the 
Book of Epodes and send it to Maecenas. 

19. Convivial. — Here may be put Epode 13, in which the 
raging tempest without is made to furnish an excuse for 
convivial enjoyment indoors. 

20. Of the two remaining epodes, the first, which also 
serves as a dedication of the book, is an appeal to Maecenas 
to be permitted to accompany him to the East in Octavian's 
campaign against Antony; the second is a graceful idyl 
descriptive of the delights of country life. 




21. Sources. — Horace's tastes had made him an earnest 
student of Greek literature, particularly of Greek poetry, 
and we thus find Greek models exercising the most potent 
influence over the form and content of his verse. So far 
as form is concerned, Horace's Odes are founded mainly on 
the measures employed by the Lesbian poets Alcaeus and 
Sappho (about 600 b.c). In the content and motives of his 
OdeSf as well as in many bits of phrase and epithet, he is 
also profoundly indebted to the same writers. But while the 
influence of Alcaeus and Sappho was paramount, as is not 
merely confessed but proudly boasted by Horace himself, 
there is scarcely one of the Greek poets to whom he is not 
indebted in some degree. To Homer and Pindar, Anacreon 
and Archilochus, Stesichorus and Bacchylides, his obliga- 
tions are clear and often great, while the influence of the 
tragic poets, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, was like- 
wise considerable. 


22. Gkiomic Poems. — These deal with fundamental prin- 
ciples of life and conduct, and form one of the largest 
and most characteristic classes of Horace's Odes. Favorite 
motives are the uncertainty of life, the wisdom of a rational 
enjoyment of its pleasures, the cultivation of a spirit of 
tranquillity and contentment, and the observance of the 
^ golden mean.' The growing taste for luxurious living, and 
the spirit of greed that attend it, are also often touched 
upon. Special themes are the satisfaction of the gods with 
the spirit of the giver rather than the gift (iii. 23), and the 
superiority of the righteous man to all the buffetings of 
Fortune (iii. 29). 

xviii THE ODES. 

23. Patriotic Poems. — Horace's earnest patriotism and 
keen solicitude for the weal of the state, together with his 
personal devotion to Augustus and his faith in Augustus's 
wisdom, led him to devote his gifts to stimulating the 
national sense and quickening the national conscience. 
Some of the loftiest and most successful of his poems were 
the outcome of this purpose. Foremost in this class are to 
be ranked the six odes at the beginning of Book III., in 
which the poet emphasizes the cardinal Eoman virtues that 
had made Rome great in the past, and to which, he urges, 
the rising generation must steadfastly cling in order to 
insure the perpetuation of that greatness for the future. 
These virtues are simplicity of living, endurance, fidelity, 
steadfastness of purpose in a righteous cause, a wise re- 
straint, martial courage, piety, and purity. The horrors of 
civil war, already repeatedly touched upon in the Epodes, 
are treated again in the fine apostrophe to the ship of state 
(i. 14), while the song of triumph celebrating the victory of 
Actium {Epode 9) is far surpassed by the brilliant ode 
(i. 37) on the defeat and suicide of the Egyptian queen 
and her paramour. 

24. In Praise of Augustus. — In the odes classed as patriotic 
poems, the name and fame of Augustus are also often 
incidentally alluded to, but there are many odes in which 
Augustus's glory is the exclusive theme. The fourth book 
in particular abounds in such, yet they are not lacking in 
the earlier books, especially Book I. Among the most suc- 
cessful are i. 2, addressed to Augustus as the hope and 
deliverer of the Roman state; i. 12, in which a review of 
'the long glories of majestic Rome' culminates in a lofty 
tribute to the Emperor; also iv. 5 and 15, both of which 
recount the blessings of Augustus's sway, under which fer- 
tility, peace, honor, uprightness, and chastity reign every- 


25. Love Poems. — Love had been the most conspicuous 
theme in the Aeolic lyric poetry on which Horace's Odes are 
chiefly modelled. The love-poems of Alcaeus and Sappho, 
so far as we can judge from the scanty remains of their 
verse that have come down to us, were successful, because 
they dealt with genuine sentiment and genuine experience. 
Horace's passion, on the other hand, lacks, as a rule, every 
token of sincerity ; in the case of those love-poems dealing 
with alleged experiences of his own, the reader with diffi- 
culty escapes the conclusion that the experience is fictitious, 
or else that the poet lacked all depth of feeling. Other 
poems of this category — and they are by far the more 
numerous — deal with the experiences of others. Many of 
these last are more successful, the gem of all being the 
little three-act drama in twenty-four verses in which 
estrangement passes to a happy reconciliation (iii. 9). 

26. Convivial FoemB. — Besides love, the two favorite 
themes of the Aeolic lyric poets were the praises of wine and 
of the gods. True to his models, Horace has a number of 
poems under each of these heads. Of the poems in praise of 
wine, perhaps the most striking is iii. 21, where its various 
beneficent effects are enumerated. Yet i. 18 urges that 
Bacchus's gift is not to be profaned, but is to be used with 

27. Poems in Praise of Gods and Gk)dde8ses. — These 
include odes to Apollo and Diana, to Faunus, to Mercury, 
to the Muse, to Venus, and two stirring dithyrambics in 
honor of Bacchus (ii. 19 ; iii. 25). 

28. Personal Poems. — Under this head fall those odes in 
which Horace gives definite expression to his own ambi- 
tions or records some item of personal experience. Thus, in 
i. 1, he aspires to excel in lyric composition ; in i. 31 his 
prayer to the 'newly enshrined Apollo' is not for lands or 


gold, but for a contented spirit and an old age of honor and 
of song ; ii. 13 tells of his escape from the falling tree. In 
ii. 20 and iii. 30 we have lofty prophecies of the poet's 
eternal fame. 

29. In Honor of PexBons and Places. — Here belong the 
poems celebrating the rustic beauties of the Sabine Farm 
(i. 17), the exquisite ode to the fount Bandusia (iii. 13), 
along with ii. 6, in praise of Tarentum. In ii. 12 we have 
a description of the personal charms of Terentia, the newly 
wedded wife of Maecenas. A part of iv. 9 also is devoted 
to the praise of the integrity of LoUius, a quality to which 
unfortunately his title is not altogether clear. 

30. The Glory of Poetry. — Two odes, iv. 8 and the earlier 
part of iv. 9, are devoted to a glorification of the poet's 
function. *'Tis the poet that lends glory to the great; 'tis 
he that consigns heroes to the Happy Isles, and rescues 
virtue from oblivion.' 

31. Mythological Poems. — Two poems (i. 15 and iii. 27) 
are but the elaboration of mythological themes, the Flight of 
Paris with Helen and the Adventure of Europa ; iii. 11, 
also, is mainly taken up with an account of the Danaids, 
particularly of that Hypermnestra who, ^gloriously false 
to her perjured father,' spared the life of her lover. 

32. MiscellaneouB. — Nearly all of the odes will be felt to 
fall naturally under one or another of the foregoing classes. 
The few remaining pieces treat of miscellaneous themes. 
One is addressed to Pollio, who is venturing the rash experi- 
ment of writing a history of the civil wars. Another rallies 
Iccius on deserting philosophy for schemes of adventure in 
the East. Two celebrate the return of old comrades. An- 
other is an invocation to the lyre; another a warning to 
Maecenas that, though welcome if he comes, he must expect 
plain fare at Horace's home. 


33. Caiaracterization of Horace as a Ljrrlo Poet. ^ As a 

master of lyric form, Horace is unexcelled among Boman 
poets. In content, also, many of his odes represent the 
highest order of poetry. His patriotism was genuine, his 
devotion to Augustus was profound, his faith in the moral 
law was deep and clear. Wherever he touches on these 
themes, he speaks with conviction and sincerity, and rises 
often to a lofty level. But the very qualities of reason and 
reflection that made him successful here, naturally limited 
his success in treating of love and sentiment — the themes 
most frequently chosen for lyric treatment by other poets. 
On this account, he has not infrequently been challenged as 
without title to high poetic rank. But fortunately the ques- 
tion of his eminence is not an academic one. Generation 
after generation continues to own the spell of Horace's 
verse. So long as this is true, while recognizing his limi- 
tations and defects, we may properly ignore any theoretical 
discussions concerning the character of his lyric work. 



34. a) About the time that Horace's Odes and Epodes 
were published, certain orthographical changes were being 
consummated in endings where v, qu, u were originally fol- 
lowed by 0. Horace, however, seems to have clung still to 
the older spelling in the case of the following endings : — 

1) 'V08y 'Voniy -vontf vontur, e.g, flavoSy flavom, solvont, soU 


2) -U08, -uom, 'Uonty -uontur, e.g, mutuos, mutuom, metuont, 


3) -quos, -quom, -quonty -quontur, e,g. iniquos, iniquom, relin' 

quonty relinqicontur. 


See also Bennett, Appendix to Latin Orammar, § 57. 
1. h-d, for fuller details concerning the orthography ot 
words of these classes. 

h) Participles in -ans and -ens and i-stems usually have 
-is in the accusative plural masculine and feminine. 



35. The Aoousative. 

a) Horace is somewhat fond of employing the perfect 
passive participle with middle force and of combining with 
it an accusative of direct object, Odes, ix. 2. 31, nnbe can- 
dentis nmeros amictns, fiaving veiled thy shining shoidders with 
a cloud, 

b) Neuter pronouns and neuter adjectives of number and 
amount are freely used by all writers as accusative of result 
produced (inner object). Horace, in common with other 
poets, extends this idiom farther and uses other adjective? 
freely in this relation, e,g, dxdoe loqnentem, sweetly prattling, 

36. The Dative. 

a) The dative of agency occurs frequently with the per- 
fect passive participle, as well as with the gerundive, e,g, 
Odes, i. 1. 24, bella matribns detestata, wars hated by mothers, 

b) The dative is sometimes used to denote the direction, 
and even the limit, of motion, e.g. Odes, i. 24. 18, nigro compu- 
lerit gregi, has gathered to his sable flock, 

c) In imitation of the Greek, the dative occurs frequently 
with verbs of contending, differing, etc., e.g. Odes, i. 3. 13, 
Africum decertantem Aquilonibns, Africus fighting with Aquilo. 

1 Under this head are considered only the most striking deviations 
from standard prose usage. 

LANGUAGE. xxiii 

37. The Genitive. 

a) The genitive is freely used to complete the meaning of 
many adjectives which in prose do not admit this construc- 
tion, e.g. Odes, i. 22. 1, integer vitae soelerisque purus, upright in 
life and free from guilt, 

b) In imitation of the Greek, the genitive is sometimes 
used to denote separation, etc., e.g. Odes, iii. 27. 69, abstineto 
iramm, refrain from anger! 

38. The Ablative. 

a) The ablative of association occurs with verbs of join- 
ing, mixing, changing, and the like, e.g. Odes, iv. 9. 4, verba 
socianda chordis, words to he linked with music. 


39. Agreement. — Horace almost invariably uses a sin- 
gular verb with a compound subject whose members are 
singular, e.g. Odes, ii. 13. 88, Prometheus et Felopis parens 

40. The Tenses. 

a) The gnomic perfect occasionally occurs. This is used 
of general truths, e.g. Odes, i. 34. 16, hinc apioem rapax Fortuna 
BUBtnlit, from this man Fortune takes away the crown. 

b) The perfect infinitive is sometimes used substantially 
with the force of the present, e.g. Odes, i. 1. 4, pulverem 
Olympicnm coUegisae, to gather the Olympic dust. 

41. The Moods. 

a) Quamvis with the indicative occurs occasionally, e.g. 
Odes, i. 28 (1), qnamvis concesserat, though he had yielded up. 
If we omit two uncertain instances in Cicero and Nepos, 
this usage first appears in the Augustan poets, Virgil and 

b) Clauses of characteristic following sunt qui, est qui, are 
sometimes in the indicative, e.g. Odes, i. 1. 3, snnt quos iuvat 


c) The infinitive is freely used with adjectives of the most 
various significations, to complete their meanings, e.g. Odes, 
iv. 2. 59, niveuB videri. 

d) The infinitive is occasionally used to denote purpose, 
e.g. Odesy i. 2. 8, pecns egit altos visere montes, drove his flock to 
visit the lofty mountains. 

e) The infinitive without subject accusative occurs as 
object with a great variety of governing verbs that in prose 
do not admit this construction, e.g. Odes, i. 37. 22, perire 

42. Participles. 

a) The future active participle, which in classical prose 
is regularly confined to combination with parts of the verb 
esse in the first periphrastic conjugation, occurs frequently 
in Horace, denoting purpose, inclination, or destiny, e.g. 
Odes, ii. 6. 1, aditnre, ready to go; ii. 3. 4,moritnre, destined to 

b) The perfect passive participles of deponent verbs, regu- 
larly active in meaning, are not infrequently used passively, 
e.g. i. 1. 25, detestata, hated. 




general character of latin poetry. 

English poetry, as a rule, is based on stress, i.e. on a 
regular succession of accented and unaccented syllables. 
The versification of — 

This is the forest primeval, the murmaring pines and the hemlocks, 

depends entirely upon this alternation of accented and un- 
accented syllables, and the same thing is true of all ordi- 


nary English verse. This basis of English poetry, moreover, 
is a result of the very nature of the English language. 
Like all languages of the Teutonic group, our English 
speech is characterized by a strong word-accent. 

Latin verse, on the other hand, was based on qvxmtity; 
a line of Latin poetry consisted of a regular succession of 
long and short syllables, Le. of syllables which it took a 
long or short time to pronounce. This basis of Latin 
poetry, as in the case of English poetry, is strictly in con- 
formity with the character of the spoken language; for 
classical Latin was not a language in which there was a 
strong word-accent. The word-accent, in fact, must have 
been extremely weak. Different languages differ very 
greatly in this respect, and we ought to bear this fact in 
mind in thinking of Latin. In Latin, word-accent was so 
weak that it could not be made the basis of versification as 
it is in English, while, on the other hand, quantity was a 
strongly marked feature of the spoken language. Thus we 
see how it came about that quantity was made the basis of 
Latin verse, and why accent was not. 

We are, then, to conceive of a line of Latin poetry as 
consisting simply of a regular arrangement of long and 
short syllables — nothing else. To read Latin poetry, 
therefore, it is necessary simply to pronounce the words 
with the proper quantity. This takes some patience and 
practice, but it is easily within the power of every pupil of 
Latin who can read Latin prose with quantitative accuracy. 
It is in Latin as in English : any one who can read prose 
with accuracy and fluency has no difficulty in reading 
poetry. The poet arranges the words in such wise that 
they make poetry of themselves, if they are only properly 
pronounced. No other kind of poetry was ever known in 
any language. No other is easily conceivable. 

Of course it necessarily takes time for the student's ear 


to become sensitive to quantitative differences and to ac- 
quire a feeling for the quantitative swing of Latin verse. 
Yet, with patience and abundant practice in careful pro- 
nunciation, the quantitative sense is bound to develop. 


Two views of ictus are held. According to one view, 
ictus is a stress accent. This makes Latin verse accentual 
precisely like English poetry. According to the other view, 
ictus is merely the quantitative prominence inherent in 
the long syllable of every fundamental foot, — the iambus, 
trochee, dactyl, and anapaest. 

The editor of this volume advocates the second of these 
two theories,^ as alone satisfying the conception of the quan- 
titative character of Latin verse. For if ictus is stress, a 
dactyl, for example, becomes an accented syllable followed 
by two unaccented syllables, and Latin poetry thus depends 
for its rhythm upon accent, precisely like English verse; 
its rhythm thus has nothing to justify the quantitative 
character which its internal structure and all available evi- 
dence clearly show that it possessed. 

It may take the student some time to appreciate the full 
force of the conception of ictus as simply quantity ; but it 
is believed that careful and exact pronunciation will both 
make this definition plain, and do much to justify it. 


In reading Latin poetry, the ordinary accent of the words 
should not be neglected. But, as we have already seen 
above (p. xxv), the word-accent in Latin was exceedingly 
slight. We almost invariably accent Latin words altogether 

1 Tlie full discussion of this view of ictus may be found in the 
American Journal of Philology ^ vol. xix. No. 76. 


too strongly. As a result we destroy the quantity of the 
remaining syllables of a word. Thus, in a word like evi- 
tdbatur, we are inclined to stress the penultimate syllable 
with such energy as to reduce the quantity of the vowel in 
each of the three preceding syllables. In this way the 
pupil says e'Vl-td-ha-tur, Such a pronunciation is a fatal 
defect in reading. What we ought to do is to make the 
quantity prominent and the accent very slight. Where 
this is done, the accent will be felt to be subordinate to the 
quantity, as it ought to be, and as it must be if one is ever 
to acquire a feeling for the quantitative character of Latin 
poetry. If the quantity is not made more prominent than 
the accent, the accent is bound to be more prominent than 
the quantity, which will be fatal to the acquisition of a 
quantitative sense for the verse. 


Inasmuch as Latin poetry was based on the quantity of 
syllables, it is obvious that the greatest care must be taken 
in the pronunciation of the words with a view to securing 
an absolutely correct syllabic quantity. Otherwise the 
metrical (i.e. quantitative) character of the verse is violated, 
and the effect intended by the poet is lost. To ignore the 
proper quantity of the syllables is as disastrous in a line of 
Latin poetry as it would be in English poetry to misplace 
the word-accent. If one were to read the opening line of 
Longfellow's Evangeline, for example, as follows : — 

This fe the forest primeval 

the result would be no more fatal than to read a line of 
Latin poetry with neglect of the quantity. 

In reading Latin verse, there are two classes of errors to 
which the student is particularly liable, either one of which 
results in giving a wrong syllabic quantity. 

** t 


Class First. 
In * Open ' ^ Syllables. 

Here the quantity of the syllable is always the same as 
the quantity of the vowel. Thus, in morter, the first syllable 
is long ; in porter, the first syllable is short. 

This being so, it is imperative that the pupil should in 
'open' syllables scrupulously observe the quantity of the 
vowel. If he pronounces a short vowel long, or a long 
vowel short, he thereby gives a false quantity to the syl- 
lable, and thus wrecks the line completely. The pupil, 
therefore, must know the quantity of every vowel, and 
must pronounce in the light of his knowledge. He must 
not say gero, tero, sero (for gero, tero, sero) ; nor must he 
say pater, dger, nisi, quod, quibus, ingenium, es Q thou art '), 
etc. One such error in a verse is fatal to its metrical struc- 
ture, and the pupil who habitually commits such errors in 
reading is simply wasting valuable time. 

Class Second. 

In ' Closed ' ^ Syllables. 

It is a fundamental fact that a * closed ' syllable is long. 
But in order to be long it must be actually closed in pro- 
nunciation. Eight here is where the pupil is apt to err. 

1 An * open ' syllable i? one whose vowel is followed by a single con- 
sonant (or by a mute with I or r). This single consonant (or the 
mute with I or r) is joined with the vowel of the following syllable, 
thus leaving the previous syllable ' open.' 

2 A ' closed ' syllable is one whose vowel is followed by two or more 
consonants (except a mute with I ox r). The first of the two (or 
more) consonants is regularly joined in pronunciation with the pre- 
ceding vowel, thus closing the preceding syllable. This is the real 
significance of the common rule that a syllable is long when a short 
vowel is followed by two consonants. It is because one of the con- 
sonants is joined to the preceding vowel, thus closing the syllable. 


He fails to make the syllable 'closed/ i,e. lie does not join 
the first of the two or more consonants to the preceding 
vowel, but joins all of the consonants with the following 
vowel. He thus leaves the preceding syllable 'open.' 
Hence, if the vowel itself is short, the syllable by this in- 
correct pronunciation is made short, where it ought to be 
made long. Thus the student is apt to say tem-pe'StOrti-bus 
where he ought to say tem-pes-ta-ti-bus, i.e. he joins both the 
8 and the t with the following vowel, where he ought to 
join the s with the preceding vowel (thus making a * closed ' 
syllable), and only the t with the following vowel.^ 

Errors of the kind referred to are so liable to occur that 
it seems best to classify them by groups : — 

a) The commonest group consists of those words which 
contain a short vowel followed by doubled consonants (j>p, 
cc, ttf etc.), — words of the type of ap-pardbat, ao-dpiebarriy 
at-tigerantf ges-s^runt, ter-rd-nim, an-^orum, adrdiderat, flam- 
mdrum, excel-lentia, ag-gerimus, etc. In Latin, both of the 
doubled consonants were pronounced, one being combined 
with the previous vowel (thus closing the syllable and 
making it long), one with the following vowel. But in 
English we practically never have doubled consonants. 
We write them and print them, but we do not pronounce 
them. Thus, we write and print kit-ty, fer-ry, etc., but we 
do not pronounce two t's or two r's in these words any 
more than in pity, which we write with one t, or in very, 
which we write with one r. Now, in pronouncing Latin 
the pupil is very apt to pronounce the doubled consonants 
of that language as single consonants, just as he does in 
English. Thus he naturally pronounces the words above 

^ This doctrine, to be sure, contradicts the rules given in grammars 
for division of words into syllables ; but those rules apply only to 
writing, not to actual utterance. See Bennett, Appendix to Latin 
Grammar, § 35. 


given, not ap-porrorbatj etc,, but arpa-rabat, Orcipiebam, oAige- 
ranty ge-serunty te-rdrum, Ornorum, d-diderat, fld-mdram, exce- 
lentia, d-gerimus. In other words, the pupil pronounces only 
one consonant, where he ought to pronounce two, and that 
one consonant he joins with the following vowel. He thus 
leaves the preceding syllable ' open,' i,e, he makes it short 
when it ought to be long. 

The effects of this pronunciation are disastrous in read- 
ing Latin poetry, for these doubled consonants occur on an 
average in every other line of Latin poetry. 

b) The second group consists of words in which a short 
vowel is followed by «p, sc, st; also by sd, scr, str. In 
English, when the vowel following these combinations is 
accented, we usually combine the consonants with the fol- 
lowing vowel. Thus we say Oracribe, Orsto'&fiding, etc. Now, 
the Latin pupil is almost certain to do the same thing in 
pronouncing Latin, unless he is on his guard, Le, he is likely 
to say Orsp^rsus, i-storum, tempe-stivus, corvrsca^at, mi-scAerat, 
magirstrorum, Orscripsity etc. What he ought to do is to join 
the 8 with the preceding vowel (thus making the syllable 
closed, and long), pronouncing as-persus, i94drum, tempes- 
tivus, corus-cdbcUf mis-cueraty magi84rdrum, as-cripsit, etc. By 
joining all the consonants to the following vowel he leaves 
the preceding syllable open. Hence, when the preceding 
vowel is ghort, the syllable also becomes short. This 
destroys the metre of the line. 

c) The third group consists of words containing a short 
vowel followed by r and some consonant. In our common 
English utterance we are very apt to neglect the r. This 
tendency is all but universal in New England, and is widely 
prevalent in the Middle states. As a result, the pupil is 
apt to pronounce Latin with the same neglect of the r as he 
habitually practises in the vernacular. This omission occurs 
particularly where the preceding vowel is unaccented, e.g, in 


portarum^ terminorum, etc. The pupil is likely to say 
po(rytdrum, te{r)-minorum, i.e. he makes the preceding syl- 
lable ^open' and short, where it ought to be 'closed' and 
long. In order to close the syllable, a distinct articulation 
of the r is necessary. When this is overlooked, the quantity 
of the syllable is lost and the metrical character of the line 
is destroyed. 

d) The fourth group of words consists of those ending 
in 8, preceded by a short vowel and followed by words be- 
ginning with c, p, t, V, m, n, /. In English we are very apt 
to join the final s to the initial consonant of the following 
word. Thus we habitually say grievou stale for grievoiis tale; 
Lewi sTaylor for Lewis Taylor, etc. There is great danger 
of doing the same thing m Latin. Experience teaches that 
pupils often say urbi sportas for urbis portds; capi scanem 
for capis canem; even urbi svlci for urbis vici, etc. Care 
must be taken to join the final s clearly with the preceding 
vowel. Otherwise the preceding syllable will be left ' open ' 
and short where it ought to be ' closed ' and long. 

The foregoing cautions are not mere theoretical inventions. 
They are vital, and are based on experience of the errors 
which we as English-speaking people naturally commit when 
we pronounce Latin. It is only by a conscientious observ- 
ance of the principles above laid down that any one can 
read Latin poetry quantitatively ; and unless we do so read 
it, we necessarily fail to reproduce its true character. 

Common Syllables. 

As is well known, when a short vowel is followed by a 
mute with ^ or r (pi, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr; etc.), the syllable is 
common, i.e. it may be either long or short in verse at the 
option of the poet. The explanation of this peculiarity is 
as follows : — 


In a word like pdtrem, for example, it was recognized 
as legitimate to pronounce in two ways : either to combine 
the tr with the following vowel (portrem), thus leaving the 
preceding syllable 'open' and short, or to join the t with 
the preceding vowel {paJtrem), thus closing the preceding 
syllable and making it long. Hence, in the case of common 
syllables, the quantity in each individual instance depends 
upon the mode of pronunciation, i.e. the mode in which we 
divide the syllable. In reading Latin poetry, therefore, it 
will be necessary for the pupil to observe how the poet 
treats each common syllable, and to pronounce accordingly. 


The rule for Elision, as stated in our Latin grammars, is 
m substance as follows : " A final vowel, a final diphthong, 
or m with a preceding vowel,^ is regularly elided before a 
word beginning with a vowel or A." 

The exact nature of Elision, as observed by the ancients 
in reading Latin verse, is still very uncertain. The Eomans 
may have slurred the words together in some way, or they 
may have omitted the elided part entirely. In practice, the 
latter procedure is probably the wiser one to follow. 

Lyric Metres. 

The various lyric metres employed by the Latin poets 
are, like the dactylic hexameter, imitated from the lyric 
metres of the Greeks. Greek lyric poetry, as its name 
implies, was primarily written for musical performance, i.e. 
for singing to the accompaniment of the lyre. Therefore, in 
the rendition of such poetry, the utterance of the words nat- 
urally conformed to the musical tempo. It accordingly not 

1 The elision of final m with a preceding vowel is sometimes called 

METRES. xxxiii 

infrequently happened that the normal quantity of the sylla- 
bles was either shortened or lengthened in order to secure 
such conformity. The performance of Greek lyric poetry, 
in other words, was entirely analogous to the performance 
of a modern song, in which a single syllable often extends in 
time over an entire measure, or even more. 

Now, there is nothing to show that the Eoman poets, in 
borrowing the lyric measures of the Greeks, employed them 
for the composition of poetry which was intended to be sung 
to a musical accompaniment. In fact, everything seems to 
point the other way, viz, to the fact that Eoman lyric poetry 
was primarily intended for oral reading.^ At all events, for 
the student the only practical thing is to read such poetry. 
He cannot sing it to a musical accompaniment, and the 
problem which confronts him is ; How to read it. 

Most of our American grammarians who touch on Latin 
prosody make Latin lyric metres conform to a strict musical 
notation. In carrying out this principle, they inculcate the 
frequent necessity of abnormally shortening some syllables 
and of abnormally lengthening others, as was above ex- 
plained to be the regular practice in the rendition of Greek 
lyric poetry. • • 

Thus, the opening line of Horace's first ode, in accordance 
with the doctrine alluded to, is divided as follows : — 

Mae'Ce\nas arta\vis\\e-di-te \ re-gi\hus 

That is, the musical tempo of f time is assumed as the basis 
of the construction of this poem, and the words are supposed 
to be artificially adapted to that movement. This is indi- 
cated by the notation above printed. The sign __ > (the 
irrational spondee) indicates a spondee (really f ) shortened 

1 The article by Otto Jahn in Hermes, ii, Wie wurden die Oden des 
Horaz vorgetragen f does not succeed in disproving this. 


to f ; -v^ ^ (the cyclic dactyl) indicates a dactyl (really f ), 
likewise shortened to f ; ^ i__ is used to indicate that the long 
syllable (ordinarily J) is here equivalent to f ; while the sign 
A indicates a pause sufficient to prolong -bus, the final sylla- 
ble (equal ^), to the time of |. That is, in order, in reading, 
to make the verse conform to the prescribed musical nota- 
tion, the student is obliged in every foot but one to intro- 
duce an artificial pronunciation at variance with the natural 
employment of the same words in everyday speech. Were 
the pupil singing the ode to musical accompaniment, such an 
artificiality would seem perfectly natural, since in singing 
the text is habitually made subordinate to the notes; but 
that in the reading of Latin lyric poetry there was any such 
artificial adaptation to a musical tempo is a priori inconceiv- 
able. No such process ever occurs in the poetry of any 
language. The poet simply takes the choicer words of 
familiar speech and employs them in their ordinary equiv- 
alence with their regular pronunciation. He must do so, 
for his appeal is to the many, not to a select handful who 
may have been initiated into the secret trick of his versifi- 
cation. In reading poetry in any language the reader gains 
sufficient consciousness of the metrical structure of the 
verse by pronouncing the words with their ordinary every- 
day values ; he does not first hunt up the metrical scheme, 
and in his reading adapt the words to the scheme. So, too, 
one would naturally assume, it must have been in Latin. 

Moreover, there is no evidence of any kindtwhich inti- 
mates that the Romans did otherwise. The ancient gram- 
marians, in fact, who wrote extensively on the subject of 
lyric poetry, particularly on the lyric metres of Horace, 
so far from suggesting a musical tempo as the basis of 

1 The exact distribution of the syllables is often explained by the 
musical notation j ^ T • 


lyric verse, group the syllables on entirely different prin- 

It would seem plain, therefore, that the Latin lyric poets, 
in adopting the form of Greek lyric poetry, did not also 
adopt the specifically musical tempo which, as above ex- 
plained, was inherent in the musical lyric poetry of the 

Latin lyric poetry, accordingly, is to be read like poetry 
in any language. The reader is to pronounce the words 
with accuracy, endeavoring to attain a strictly quantitative 
pronunciation. If he does that, the metre will take care of 
itself, and an ear already accustomed to a correct quantita- 
tive reading of the dactylic hexameter will have no difficulty 
in at once apprehending the form of a Latin lyric even with- 
out the help of a metrical key ; i.e. a correct pronunciation 
of the words in Latin, as in English, itself reveals the met- 
rical structure of the verse ; and the student who is curious 
to see the verse scheme set down in long and short syllables 
can easily deduce the scheme himself, and group the sylla- 
bles into appropriate feet. 

Rules for Reading. 

1) Observe the quantity of each syllable scrupulously, 
taking care to observe the division of the syllables as indi- 
cated above, p. xxviii ff. 

2) Make the word-accent light ; subordinate it carefully 
to quantity. 

3) Endeavor to cultivate the quantitative sense, i.e. to feel 
the verse as consisting of a succession of long and short 

4) Do not attempt to give special expression to the ictus 
in any way. The ictus will care for itself if the syllables 
are properly pronounced. 

xxxyi METRES. 

Metres used by Horace.^ 

43. Alcaic Strophe.' 

2^|_w| ll_vyw|_vy|^ (twice) 

^1— w| I— v^l — ^ 

In the first two lines a diaeresis regularly occurs after the 
second complete foot, but this is sometimes neglected, e.g. 
Odes, i, 37. 14; iv. 14. 17. 

The extra syllable at the beginning of the first three lines 
of each stanza is called an anacrusis. 

This metre occurs in Odes, i. 9. 16. 17. 26. 27. 29. 31. 34. 
35. 37 ; ii. 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. 13. 14. 15. 17. 19. 20; iii. 1-6. 17.; iv. 4. 9. 14. 15. 

44. Sapphic and Adonic' 

_w| I — llwo|_«v>|__^ (three times) 

<j \^ \ ^ 

The regular caesura of the first three lines falls after the 
long syllable of the dactyl ; but a feminine caesura, after the 
first short of the dactyl, sometimes occurs. This is especially 
frequent in Book IV. of the Odes, and in the Carmen Saecu- 

Now and then we find a hypermetric verse, e,g. Odes, ii. 

^ For those who adhere to the theory of a musical tempo for Latin 
lyric poetry, alternative metrical schemes are given at the foot of the 

"43. e:_v^|_>l|^yv^|_v^|_A (twice) 

—^ <j I — vy v^ I ^ I ^ 

For the notation used in these schemes, see p. xxxiii f. 
' 44. _ ^ I _ > I _ II KA^ I _ w I _« v^(three times) 


This metre occurs in Odes, i. 2. 10. 12. 20. 22. 25. 30. 32. 
38 ; ii. 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 16 ; iu. 8. 11. 14. 18. 20. 22. 27; iv. 2. 6. 
11 ; Carmen Saeculare, 

45. First Asclepiadean.^ 

_ 1 — \j w|-_|| — \j \j \ w|^ 

A diaeresis regularly occurs after the sixth syllable of the 
verse, but exceptions occur in Odes, ii. 12. 25, and iv. 8. 17. 
This metre occurs in OdeSy i. 1 ; iii. 30 ; iv. 8. 

46. Second Asdepiadean.' 

I vywl v>|^ 

|^_v^vy I ||_V>V>|_-.V>|^ 

The second line of the couplet is the First Asclepiadean. 
The special name Glyconic is given to the metre of the first 

This metre occurs in Odes, i. 3. 13. 19. 36 5 iii. 9. 15. 19. 
24. 25. 28 ; iv. 1. 3. 

47. Third Asclepiadean.' 

I — ww|-_||__v^v>|-«v^|^ (three times) 

This consists of the First Asclepiadean and the Glyconic. 
This metre occurs in Odes, i. 6. 15. 24. 33; ii. 12; iii. 10. 
16 ; iv. 5. 12. 

48. Fourth Asclepiadean.^ 

I— v^vy|— ll — wwl — w|!^ (twice) 

I _ W W I Js^ 

I \J \J I \J |v^ 

»45. «>|-vw|i_||^w|_w|-A 

•47. _>|-^v^|i__||--v^w|_w|^A (three times) 

*48. _>|^^v^|i_||^^^|_v^|_A (twice) 

-> 1 -^KJ I L_| _A 

_> 1-^w I -_w I _ A 

xxxviii METRES. 

The first two lines are the First Asclepiadean. The third 
is called Pherecratean. The fourth is the Glyconic. 

This metre occurs in Odes, i. 5. 14. 21. 23 ; iii. 7. 13 ; iv. 13. 

49. Fifth Asclepiadean.^ 

This metre occurs in Odes, i. 11. 18 ; iv. 10. 

50. Iambic Trimeter. — The strict scheme is : — 

w_| v^ — I vyll_l vy — l v^ — I v^_; 

but the spondee is occasionally substituted for the iambus 
in the odd feet of the verse, and at times even other substi- 
tutes occur, e.g, the tribrach {kj ^ o), dactyl, and rarely the 
anapaest (v^ vy _). A caesura regularly occurs after the 
short syllable of the third foot (penthemimeral caesura), 
less frequently after the short syllable of the fourth foot 
(hepthemimeral caesura). 
This metre occurs in Epode 17. 

51. Iambic Strophe. 

vy_|w_|wll_|w— lw_|\^ — 

This consists of the iambic trimeter (see § 50) followed 
by the iambic dimeter, which admits the same substitutes as 
the trimeter. 

This metre occurs in Epodes 1-10. 

52. Alcmanic Strophe. 

This consists of the dactylic hexameter followed by a 
dactylic tetrameter. The spondee is freely substituted for 
the dactyl as in Virgil. 

This metre occurs in Odes, i. 7. 28 ; Epode 12. 


53. First Pythiambic. 

— ov^l — wv^l — ||v>w| ww| ww| W 

A dactylic hexameter followed by an iambic dimeter 
(§ 51). 

This metre occurs in Epodes 14, 15. 

54. Second Pythiambic. 

\J |v^ loll \ \J |v^ \ \J 

A dactylic hexameter followed by an iambic trimeter 
(§ 50). In this metre no substitutes for the iambus are 

This metre occurs in Epode 16. 

55. First Archilocbian. 

<w'w| wwl llvywl ww| v^w| i^ 

V-y O I KJ KJ \ 

A dactylic hexameter followed by a dactylic trimeter cata- 
lectic (' stopping short '). 
This metre occurs in Odes, iv. 7. 

56. Second Archilochian. 

v>w| ov-y| llv^wl v^v^l wwl ^ 

\J I V^ I V^ I \J II WV^j KJ KJ \ 

A dactylic hexameter followed by a line consisting of an 
iambic dimeter combined with a dactylic trimeter catalectic 
(§ 55), In the first and third feet of the dimeter the spondee 
may take the place of the iambus. 

This metre occurs in Epode 13. 

57. Third Archilochian. 

KJ |v^ Iwll \ KJ — |v^ \ KJ 

— w>^l v^wl W \j |v^ |w-«|vy 


The first line is an iambic trimeter (§ 50). The second is 
the same as the second line of the Second Archilochian (§ 56), 
with the two parts reversed. 

This metre occurs in Epode 11. 

58. Fourth Arohilochian Strophe. 

\j \j \ ww| ||>^wl ww| \j \ v^l \j 

The first line is called a greater Archilochian, and admits 
the substitution of the spondee for the dactyl in the first 
three feet. The second line is an iambic trimeter catalectic 
(* stopping short'); cf, § 50. 

This metre occurs in Odes, i. 4. 

59. Second Sapphic Strophe.^ 

KJ KJ \ yj \ vz 

— KJ I |_Ilww|__|_-WwI— V^l ^ 

A so-called Aristophanic verse, followed by a greater 
This metre occurs in Odes, i. 8. 

60. Trochaic Strophe. 

A so-called Euripidean verse, followed by an iambic trime- 
ter catalectic (' stopping short ') ; cf. § 50. 
This metre occurs in Odes, ii. 18. 

61. Ionic a Minora. 

WW I WW I WW I WW (twice) 


This metre occurs in Odes, iii. 12. 

1 59. ^y w I _ w I _ w 








1. Oatline of the Poem : The poet enumerates some of the chief 
ambitions and pursuits of mankind, in order to bring out more clearly 
by contrast the nature of his own aspirations : 

a) Some seek the glory of victory in the public games, 1-6 ; 

b) Others aim at political distinction or success in trade, 7-18 ; 

c) Self-indulgence, war, and hunting furnish attractions for others, 

19^28 ; 

d) As for Horace, his aspiration is to excel in poetry, more par- 

ticularly in lyric composition, 29-36. 

2. Time : 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : First Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

MaecSpas atayisfledite^regibus, 
O et praesidium et dulce decus meum, 
Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicmn 
CoUegisse iuvat metaque fervidis 
Evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 
Terramm dominos evehit ad deos ; 
Hunc, si mobilium turba Quirltium 
Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 



lUum, si proprio condidit horreo, 

Quicquid de Libycis verritur areis. 10 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 

Agros Attalicis condicionibus 

Numquam demoveas, ut trabe Cypria 

Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare. 

Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 15 

Mercator metuens otium et oppidi 

Laudat rura sui ; mox reficit rates 

Quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

Est qui nee veteris pocula Massici 

Nee partem solido demere de die 20 

Spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto 

Stratus, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae. 

Multos castra iuvant et lituo tubae 

Permixtus sonitus bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub love frigido 26 

Venator tenerae coniugis immemor, 

Seu visa est catulis cerva fidelibus, 

Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagas. 

Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium 

Dis miscent superis, me gelidum nemus 30 

Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori 

Secernunt populo, si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet nee Polyhymnia 

Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton. 

Quodsi me lyricis vatibus inseris, 36 

Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 





1. Occasion of the Poem : In January, 27 b.c, Octayian, who had 
just entered upon his seventh consulship, suddenly announced his 
intention of resigning the extraordinary powers with which he had 
previously been invested, and which he had exercised so effectively 
for the restoration and maintenance of public order. This announce- 
ment, though probably intended merely as a test of public opinion, 
was sufficient to arouse the keenest solicitude on the part of all patri- 
otic citizens. Added to this, fierce storms had just visited the city, 
and the Tiber had risen in a wild flood above its banks. These por- 
tents naturally intensified the existing feeling, to which Horace gives 
eloquent expression in this ode. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Distress at the recent portents, 1-20 ; 

b) Causes of the gods' displeasure, — the horrors of the civil 

wars, 21-24 ; 

c) Who is the destined deliverer of the state? Is it Apollo? 

Or Venus? Or Mars? Or is it Mercury in the guise of 
Augustus ? 25-44 ; 

d) May Augustus long live to direct the destinies of Rome, 46-62. 

3. Time : January, 27 b.c. 

4. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

lam saptis terris nivis atque dirae 
Grandmis misit Pater et rubente 
Dextera sacras iaculatus arces 
Terruit urbem, 

Temiit gentis, grave ne rediret 6 

Saeculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questae, 
Omne cum Proteus pecus egit altos 
Visere montes, 

Piscium et summa genus baesit ulmo, 

Nota quae sedes fuerat columbis^ 10 


Et superiecto pavidae natarunt 
Aequore dammae. 

Vidimus flavom Tiberim, retortis 
Litore Etrusco violenter undis, 
Ire deiectum monumenta regis 15 

Templaque Vestae, 

Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
lactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
Labitur ripa, love non probante, ux- 

orius amnis. ao 

Audiet civis acuisse ferrum, 
Quo graves Persae melius perirent, 
Audiet pugnas vitio parentum 
Kara iuventus. 

Quem vocet divom populus ruentis 25 

Imperi rebus ? Prece qua f atigent 
Virgines sanctae minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

Cui dabit partis scelus expiandi 
luppiter ? Tandem venias, precamur, 30 

Nube candentis umeros amictus, 
Augur Apollo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Quam locus circum volat et Cupido; 
Sive neclectum genus et nepotes 85 

Respicis, auctor, 

Heu nimis longo satiate ludo, 
Quem iuvat clamor galeaeque leves 
Acer et Marsi peditis cruentum 

Voltus in hostem. 40 


Sive mutata mvenem figura 
Ales in terris imitaris almae 
Filius Maiae, patiens vocari 
Caesaris ultor : 

Serus in caelum redeas, diuque 45 

Laetus intersis populo Quirini^ 
Neve te nostris vitiis iniquom 
Ocior aura 

Tollat ; bic magnos potius triumphos, 
Hie ames dici pater atque princeps, 60 

Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos, 
Te duce, Caesar. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The poet wishes his friend a prosperous voyage, 1-8 ; 

b) Courage of him who first braved the perils of the deep, 9-20 ; 

c) Man^s restless enterprise has ever led him to transgress proper 

bounds; consequences of this, 21-40. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Sic te diva potens Cypri, 

Sic f ratres Helenae, lucida sidera^ 

Ventommque regat pater 

Obstrictis aliis praeter Iftpyga, 

Navis, quae tibi creditum ff 

Debes Vergilium ; finibus Atticis 
Eeddas incolumem, precor, 

Et serves animae dimidium meae. 


Illi robur et aes triplex 

Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci lO 

Commisit pelago ratem 

Primus, nee timuit praecipitem Africum 

Decertantem Aquilonibus 
Nee tristis Hyadas nee rabiem Noti, 

Quo non arbiter Hadriae 15 

Maior, tollere seu ponere volt freta. 

Quern mortis timuit gradum, 

Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia, 

Qui vidit mare turbidum et 

Inf amis scopulos, Acroceraunia ? 20 

Nequiquam deus abscidit 

Prudens Oceano dissociabili 
Terras, si tamen impiae 

Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada. 

Audax omnia perpeti 25 

Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas. 

Audax lapeti genus 
Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit. 

Post ignem aetheria domo 

Subductum macies et nova febrium 30 

Terris incubuit cohors, 

Semotique prius tarda necessitas 

Leti corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuom Daedalus a^ra 
Pinnis non homini datis ; 85 

Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 


Nil mortalibus ardui est ; 

Caelum ipsum petimus stultitiai neque 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 

Iracunda lovem ponere fulmina. 40 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Winter has fied ; spring with its delights is again at hand, 1-12 ; 
6) Yet death comes sure to all, nor may we cherish hopes of a 
long existence here, 13-20. 

2. Time: Probably 28 B.C. 

3. Metre : Fourth Archilochian Strophe. Introd. § 58. 

Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, 

Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas, 
Ac neque iam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igni, 

Nee prata canis albicant pruinis. 

Iam CytherSa chores ducit Venus imminente luna, ^ 5 

lunctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Alterno terram quatiunt pede, dum gravis CyclCpum 

Volcanus ardens visit officinas. 

Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto 
Aut flore, terrae quern f erunt solutae ; 10 

Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, 
Seu poscat agna sive malit haedo. 

Pallida Mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabemas 

Regumque turris. O beate Sesti, 
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam. 16 

Iam te premet nox fabulaeque Manes 


Et domus exilis Plutonia ; quo simul mearis, 

Nee regna vini sortieie talis, 
Kec teuerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calet iuventus 

Nimc omnis et mox vlrgines tepebunt 20 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) What youth now courts thee, Pyrrha ? 1-6 ; 

b) Alas ! he little knows how inconstant is thy fancy, 5-13 ; 

c) I am thankful to have escaped betimes, 13-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Gui flavam religas comam. 

Simplex munditiis ? Heu quotiens fidem 5 

Mutatosque deos flebit et aspera 
Nigris aequora ventis 
Emirabitur insolens. 

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea. 
Qui semper vacuam, semper amabilem 10 

Sperat, nescius aurae 
Fallacis. Miseri, quibus 

Intemptata nites. Me tabula sacer 
Votiva paries indicat uvida 

Suspendisse potenti 16 

Yestimenta maris dec. 





1. Occasion of the Poem : Agrippa had aaked Horace to write an 
epic poem in celebration of his own military successes and those of 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Varius is the poet fittingly to celebrate thy achievements, 

Agrippa, 1-4 ; 

b) My lyric muse is unequal to epic themes, 5-10 ; 

c) Wine and love are the subjects of my song, 17-20. 

3. Time : 29 b.c, or soon after. 

4. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium 
Victor, Maeonii carminis aliti, 
Quam rem cumque ferox navibus aut eqiiis 
Miles te duce gesserit. 

Nos, Agrippa, neque haec dicere nee gravem 5 

Pelidae stomaehum cedere nescii 
Nee cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei 
Nee saevam Pelopis domum 

Gonamur, tenues grandia, dum pudor 
Imbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Caesaiis et tuas 
Culpa deterere ingeni. 

Quis Martem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit aut pulvere Troico 
Nigrum Merionen aut ope Palladis U 

Tydiden superis parem ? 


Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum 
Sectis in iuvenes unguibus acrium 
Gantamus^ vacui, s^ive quid urimur, 
Non praeter solitum leyes. : 90 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Earth has many fair spots, — Rhodes, Mytilene, Ephesus, 

Corinth, Thebes, Tempers Tale, Athens, Argos, and My- 
cenae, — but fairest of all is Tibur by the falls pf the dash- 
ing Anio, 1-14 ; 

b) Nature is not always sad ; nor should mati be, Plslncus ; so at 

your favorite Tibur (or wherever you may be) away with 
sorrow I Seek in mellow wine consolation for care t 16-21 ; 

c) So did Teucer, when driven by Telamon from his native 

Salamis, 21-32. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; possibly as early as 82,b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcmanic Strophe. Introd. § 52. 

Laudabunt alii claram Ehodon aut MytilSnen 

AutEphesum bimarisve Corinthi 
Moenia vel Baccho Thebas vel Apolline Delphos 

Insignis aut Thessala Tempe. 

Sunt quibus unum opus est, intactae Palladis urbem 5 

Carmine perpetuo celebrare et 
Undique decerptam fronti praeponere olivam. 

Plurimus in lunonis honorem 

Aptum dieet equis Argos ditesque MycSnas. 

Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon 10 

Nee tarn Larlsae percussit campus opimae, 

Quam domus Albuneae resonantis 

Vn.] LIBEH I. llfc 

Et praeceps Anio ac Tibumi lucus et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut qbscuro deterget nubila ca^elo 15 

Saepe Notus neque partui-it imbris 

Perpetuos, sic tu sapiens finire memeuto 

Tristitiam vitaeque labores 
Molli, Plance, mero, seu te fulgentia signis 

Castra tenent seu densa tenebit 20 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 

Cum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristis adf atus amicos : 

* Quo nos cumque f eret melior f ortuna parente, 25 

Ibimus, o socii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro ! 

Certus enim promisit Apollo 

Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 

O fortes peioraque passi 30 

Mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas ; 

Cras ingens iterabimus aequor.' 





1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Lydia, why wilt thou ruin Sybaris by love ? 1-3 ; 
h) Why has he abandoned all manly sports, — riding, swim- 
ming, and the discus ? 3-12 ; 
c) Why is he skulking, as did once Achilles ? 13-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Sapphic Strophe. Introd. § 59. 

Lydia, die, per omnis 

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 
Perdere ; cur apricum 

Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque soils; 

Cur neque militaris 5 

Inter aequalis equitet, Gallica nee lupatis 

Temperet ora f renis. 

Cur timet flavom Tiberim tangere ? Cur olivom 

Sanguine viperino 

Cautius vitat, neque iam livida gestat armis lO 

Bracchia, saepe disco, 

Saepe trans finem iaculo nobilis expedito ? 

Quid latet, ut marinae 

Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Troiae 
Funera, ne virilis 15 

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 

IX.] LIBEB L 13 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The snow is deep ; the frost is keen, 1-4 ; 

V) Pile high the hearth and bring out old wine, 6-8 ; 

c) Leave all else to the gods, 0-12 ; 

d) Think not of the morrow, but enjoy what fortune bestows, — 

love, the dance, and the other delights of youth, 13-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Like Epode 13, this ode is an imitation of a fragment of Alcaeus, 
and is thought to belong among the earliest of Horace^s lyric compo- 

Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee lain sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto. 

Dissolve frigus ligna super foco 6 

Large reponens atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
Thaliarche^ merum diota. 

Permitte divis cetera, qui simul 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deproeliantis, nee eupressi 
Nee veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit futurum eras, fuge quaerere et 
Quern Fors dierum cumque dabit, luero 
Appone nee duleis amores U 

Speme puer neque tu choreas, 


Donee virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et campus et areae 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri 
Composita repetantur hora^ 20 

Nunc et latentis proditor intumo 
Gratus puellae lisus ab angulo 
Piguusque dereptum lacertis 
Aut digito male pertinaci. 


1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) Thou, Mercury, didst endow primitive man with speech,. and 

didst institute the palaestra, 1-4 ; 

b) Thou didst invent the lyre, and wast ever clever to deceive, 


c) Thou wast Priam's trusty guide at Troy, and art the trusty 

messenger, not only of the gods above, but of those below 
as well, 13-20. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. In trod. § 44. 

Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recentuni 
Voce formasti catus et decorae 
More palaestrae, 

Te canam, magni lovis et deorum 5 

Nuntium curvaeque lyrae parentem, 
Callidum, quicquid placuit, iocoso 
Condere f urto. 

Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses 
Per dolum amotas, puerum minaci 10 

Voce dum terret, viduos pharetra 
Bisit Apollo. 


Quin et Atridas duce te superbos 
Ilio dives Priamus relicto 

Thessalosque ignis et iniqua Troiae 15 

Castra fefellit. 

Tu pias laetis animas reponi^ 
Sedibus virgaque levem coerces 
' Aurea turbam, superis deorum 

Gratus et iinis. 20 




1. Outline of the l^oem : 

. ' . .. 

a) Seek not to learn by signs, Leucono6, what limit of life the gods 
J ^ have graj^ted thep, rl-^ ;^ 

6) Follow thy humble duties ; enjoy the present hour, and put no 
trust in the future, 6-8. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fifth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 49. 


Tu ne quaesieris — scire nef as — quein mihi, quern tibi 
Finem di dederint, Leuconoe, nee Babylonios 
Temptaris numeros. Ut melius, quicquid erit, pati I 
Seu plures hiemes, seu tribuit luppiter ultimam, 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 
Tyrrhenum. Sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invida 
Aetas : carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 


TxiL ] 


1. The Probable Occasion of the Ode : In the year 24 b.c. Angustus 
adopted his nephew Marcellus as his son and gave him his daughter 
Julia in marriage. Probably he cherished the further purpose of 
making Marcellus his successor. Horace makes the union of Julia 
and Marcellus the occasion of glorifying the rule of Augustus and 
of Toicing the general wish for its prosperous continuance. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Invocation to the Muse, 1-12 ; 

b) Praise of the gods, — Jupiter first of all, then Pallas, Liber, 

Diana, Apollo, 13-24 ; 
e) Praise of heroes, — Hercules, Castor and Pollux, 25-32 ; 

d) Praise of Roman kings and patriots, Romulus, Pompilius, 

Tarquin, Cato, Regulus, Scaurus, Paulus, Fabricius, Curius, 
Camillus, 33-44 ; 

e) Praise of the Marcelli and the Julian house, particularly 

Augustus, 46-60. 

3. Time : 24 b.c. 

4. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Quern yirum aut heroa lyra vel acri 
Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio ? 
Quern deum ? Cuius recinet iocosa 
Nomen imago 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris 6 

Aut super Pindo gelidove in Haemo^ 
Unde vocalem temere insecutae 
Orphea silvae, 

Arte matema rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus celerisque rentos, lo 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canons 
Ihicere quercus ? 

Xn.] LIBER I. 17 

Quid prius dicam solitis parentis 
Laudibus, qiii res hominum ac deorum. 
Qui mare et terras variisque mundum ifi 

Temperat horis ? 

XJnde nil mains generatur ipso, 

Nee viget quicquam simile aut secundum. 

Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores, 20 

Proeliis audax ; neqne te silebo, 
Liber, et saevis inimica virgo 
Beluis, nee te, metuende certa 
Phoebe sagitta. 

Dicam et Alciden puerosque Ledae, 26 

Hunc equis, ilium superare pugnis 
Nobilem ; quorum simul alba nantis 
Stella refulsit, 

Defluit saxis agitatus umor, 

Concidunt venti fugiuntque nubes, 30 

Et minax, quod sic voluere, ponto 
Unda recumbit. 

Bomulum post hos prius an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem an superbos 
Tarquini fasces, dubito, an Catonis 35 

Nobile letum. 

Eegulum et Scauros animaeque magnae 
Prodigum Paulum, superante Poeno, 
Gratus insigni referam camena 
Fabriciumque. 40 


Hunc et intonsis Curium capillis 
Utilem bello tulit et Camillum 
Saeva paupertas et avitus arto . 
Cum lare fundus. 

Crescit occulte velut arbor aevo 46 

Fama Marcelli ; micat inter omnis 
lulium sidus, velut inter ignis 
Luna minores. 

Gentis humanae pater atque custos^ 
Orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 60 

Caesaris f atis data : tu secundo 
Caesare regnes. 

Ille sen Parthos Latio imminentis 
Egerit iusto domitos triumpho, 
Sire subiectos Orientis orae 66 

Seras et Indos, 

Te minor latum reget aequos orbem : 
Tu gravi curru quaties Olympum, 
Tu parum castis inimica mittes 
Fulmina lucis. 60 

Xm.] .LIBER L 19 

' ^ xin. ■' 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Thy praises of Tel^hus, Lydia, SH my heart with keenest 

jealousy, IS ; 

b) I kindle, too, at his savage treatment of thee, 0-12 ; 

c) Believe not that he will be constant, 13-16 ; 

d) Happy they whose union is perfect, untom by dissension, 17-20. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Cum tu, Lydia, Telephi 

Cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi 
Laudas bracehia, vae, meum 

Fervens difficili bile tumet ieeur. 

Tunc nee mens mihi nee color 6 

Certa sede manent, umor et in genas 

Furtim labitur, arguens 
Quam lentis penitus macerer ignibus. 

Uror, seu tibi candidos 

Turparunt umeros immodicae mero 10 

Eixae^ sive puer f urens 

Impressit memorem dente labris notam. 

Non, si me satis audias, 

Speres perpetuom dulcia barbare 
Laedentem oscula, quae Venus 15 

Quinta parte sui nectaris imbuit. 

Felices ter et amplius, 

Quos inrupta tenet copula nee malis 
Divolsus querimoniis 

Suprema citius solvet amor die. 90 




1. Occasion of the Ode : Some threatened renewal of civil strife, 
— possibly that which culminated in the rupture between Octavian and 
Antony in 32 b.c. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Beware, ship, of fresh perils I Keep safely in harbor I Thy 

oars, mast, yards, and hull are no longer staunch, nor hast 
thou favoring deities to protect thee in distress, 1-10 ; 

b) Despite thy noble name, the sailor trusts thee no more. Be- 

ware lest thou become the sport of the gale I Avoid, too, 
the treacherous reefis of the sea I 11-20. 

3. Time : 32 b.c, if the references in the ode are to the approach- 
ing struggle between Octavian and Antonius. 

4. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

The allegorical character of this ode was recognized by the eminent 
rhetorician Quintilian ( about 90 a.d.), who remarks, Inst. Or. viii. 
6. 44, navem pro republica, tempestates pro bellis civilibus, portum 
pro pace atque concordia dicit. Still we must not undertake to carry 
the allegory too far. Many of the allusions apply to a ship only, and 
cannot be applied to existing political conditions. 

navis, referent in mare te novi 
Fluctus. O quid agis ! Eortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides, ut 
Nudum remigio latus 

Et malus celeri saucius Africo 5 

Antemnaeque gemant, ac sine funibus 
Vix durare carinae 
Possint imperiosius 

Aequor ? Kon tibi sunt integra lintea, 
Non di, quos iterum pressa voces malo. 10 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
Silvae filia nobilis, 


XV.] LIBER I. 21 

lactes et genus et nomen inutile : 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 

Fidit. Tu, nisi rentis 15 

Debes ludibrium, cave. 

Nuper soUicitum quae mihi taedium, 
Nunc desiderium curaque non levis, 
Interfusa nitentis 
Vites aequora Cycladas. 20 

XV. ^ 



1. Outline of Poem : As Paris hurries from Sparta to Troy with 
Helen, Nereus stills the winds and prophesies : 

a) Tis nnder evil auspices that thou art taking home thy bride ; 

Greece will avenge the wrong, and great war is in store for 

the race of Dardanns, 1-12 ; 
6) Vain will be Venus*s protection ; vain, too, the music of thy 

lyre ; thou canst not escape the foe, 13-20 ; 

c) Heedest thou not Ulysses, Nestor, and the other Grecian war- 

riors, Meriones and Diomede, from whom thou shalt fly, as 
the deer flies from the wolf ? 21-32 ; 

d) Though postponed for a while, Ilium's doom is inevitable, 


2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

' ^ 3. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

According to Porphyrio, the third century scholiast of Horace, this 
poem is an imitation of an ode of the Greek poet Bacchylides in which 
Cassandra is represented as prophesying the doom of Troy. 

Pastor cum traheret per f reta navibus 
Idaeis Helenen perfidus hospitam, 
Ingrato celeris obruit otio 
Ventos, ut caneret f era 


Nereus fata: ^Mala duels avi domum, 5 

Quam multo repetet Graecia milite, 
Coniurata tuas riunpere nuptias 
Et regnum Priami vetus. 

Eheu, quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
Sudor ! quanta moves funera Dardanae 10 

Genti ! lam galeam Pallas et aegida 
Currusque et rabiem parat. 

Kequicquam Veneris praesidio ferox 
Peetes caesariem grataque feminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides ; 16 

Kequiequam thalamo gravis 

Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis strepitumque et celerem sequi 
Aiaeem : tamen, heu serus ! adulteros 

Criues pulvere coUines. 20 


Non Lagrtiaden, exitium tuae 
Gentis, non Pylium Kestora respicis ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer, te Sthenelus, sciens 

Pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equis, 25 

Non auriga piger. Merionen quoque 
Nosees. Ecce furit te reperire atrox 
Tydides melior patre, 

Quern tu, cervos uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte lupum graminis immemor, 30 

Sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu, 
Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 


Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
Matronisque Phrygum classis Achiliei ; 
Post certas hiemes uret Achaicus S5 

Ignis Pergameas domos.' 


1. Occasion of the Poem : The poet had offended some fair one by 
the intemperate utterances of his Terse ; he now seeks forgiveness for 
the fault. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Destroy the guilty verses as thou wilt, 1-4 ; 

6) The violence of anger surpasses all else ; His the ^ mad lion ' in 
our natures, and has ever brought ruin to kings and nations, 

c) I too once yielded to its fury ; but now I repent and beg for- 
giveness, 22-28. 

3. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.o. 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

matre pulchra filia pulchrior, 
Quern criminosis cum que voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive flamma 
Sive mari libet Hadriano. 

Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 6 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 
Non Liber aeque, non acuta 
Sic geminant Corybantes aera, 

Tristes ut irae, quas neque Noricus 
. . Deterret ensis nee mare naufragum 10 

Nee saevos ignis nee tremendo 
luppiter ipse mens tumultu. 


Fertur Prometheus addere principi 
Limo*coactus particulam undique 

Desectam et iusani leonis is 

Vim stomacho apposuisse nostro. 

Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
Stravere et altis urbibus ultimae 
Stetere causae, cur perirent 
Funditus imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compesce mentem : me quoque pectoris 
Temptavit in dulci iuventa 
Fervor et in celeres iambos 

Misit furentem ; nunc ego mitibus 26 

Mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis arnica 

Opprobriis animumque reddas. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Faunus often delights to come to fair Lucretilis and bless it 

with his presence, 1-12. 

b) Hither come, my Tyndaris : here thou shalt find rustic plenty, 

cool air, song, and wine, freedom, too, from the cruelties 
of an ill-matched lover, Cyrus, 13-28. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Tyndaris, apparently is some meretrix, accustomed to the boister- 
ous conviviality of the city. Horace pictures to her the idyllic delights 
of the country as exhibited by his own Sabine farm. 

XVn.] LIBER L 26 

Velox amoeniun saepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus et igneam 
Defendit aestatem capellis 
Usque meis pluviosque rentos. 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 6 

Quaerunt latentis et thyma deviae 
Olentis uxores mariti, 
Nee viridis metuont colubras 

Nee Martialis haediliae lupos, 
Utcumque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

Valles et Usticae cubantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 

Di me tuentur, dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hie tibi copia 

Manabit ad plenum benigno 16 

Ruris honorum opulenta cornu. 

Hie in reducta valle Caniculae 
Vitabis aestus, et fide Teia 
Dices laborantis in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen ; 20 

Hie innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra, nee Semeleius 
Cum Marte confundet Thyoneus 
Proelia, nee metues protervom 

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 25 

Incontinentis iniciat manus 
Et scindat haerentem coronam 
Crinibus immeritamque vestem. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The blessings tliat wine brings, 1-6 ; 

b) Yet Bacchos's gifts are not to be profaned in riotous brawl, 


2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fifth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 40. 

The ode is apparently, in part at least, an imitation of a similar ode 
by Alcaeus. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 

Circa mite solum Tiburis et moeuia Catili ; 

Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit neque 

Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines. 

Quis post yina gravem militiam .aut pauperiem crepat ? 5 

Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus ? 

Ac nequis modici transiliat munera Liberi, 

Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mere 

Debellata, monet Sithoniis non levis Euhius, 

Cum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum lO 

Discernunt avidi. Kon ego te, candide Bassareu, 

Invitum quatiam nee variis obsita frondibus 

Sub divom rapiam. Saeva tene cum Berecyntio 

Cornu tympana, quae subsequitur caecus Amor sui 

Et tollens vacuom plus nimio Gloria verticem 16 

Arcanique Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 

XIX.] LIBBR I. 27 

^ XIX. 

1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) I am constrained to .yield again to the might of loye, 1-4 ; 

b) *Tis radiant Glyc^ra's beauty that charms me, 5-8 ; 

c) Venus's power prevents my giving heed to other things, 9-12 ; 

d) I will appease the goddess by incense and a sacrifice ; so will 

she relent, 13-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Mater saeva Cupidiimm 

Thebanaeque iubet me Semelae puer 
Et lasciva Licentia 

Finitis animum reddere amoribus. 

Urit me Glyc6rae nitor, 5 

Splendentis Pario marmore purius j 

Urit grata protervitas 
Et voltus nimium lubricus aspici. 

In me tota mens Venus 

Cypnim deseruit, nee patitur Scythas 10 

Et versis animosum equis 

Parthum dicere, nee quae nihil attinent. 

Hie vivom mihi caespitem^ hie 

Verbenas, pueri, ponite turaque 
Bimi cum patera meri : US 

Mactata veniet lenior hostia. 




' 1. Occasion of the Poem : The ode is evidently written in reply to 
a letter from Maecenas stating that he was coming to visit the poet 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) 'Twill be plain wine, Maecenas, thou shalt drink with me, yet 

'twas put up on a day thou well rememberest, 1-8 ; 

b) Better vintages thou hast at home than any that fill my goblets, 


3. Time : Between 30 and 23 b.c. 

4. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
Conditum levi, datus in theatro 
Cum tibi plausus, 

Care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 5 

Fluminis ripae simul et iocosa 
Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 
Montis imago. 

Caecubum et prelo domitam Caleno 
Tu bibas uvam : mea nee Falernae 10 

Temperant vites neque Formiani 
Pocula coUes. 




1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Praise Diana, O ye maidens I Praise, O boys, Apollo I Praise 

Latona, beloTed of Jove I 1-4 ; 
h) Praise Diana who delights in stream and wood I Praise Tempe, 

Apollo's haunt, and Delos his birthplace, 5-12 ; 
e) May they ward off from Rome war, plague, and famine, and 

turn them against the foe, 13-16. 

2. Time : Probably 27 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

Dianam tenerae dicite virgines, 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus lovi. 

Yos laetam fluviis et nemorum coma, 5 

Quaecumque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis aut viridis Cragi ; 

Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus 
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis, lO 

Insignemque pharetra 

Fraternaque umerum lyra. 

Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram famem 
Pestemque a populo et principe Caesare in 

Persas atque Britannos ifi 

Vestra motus aget prece. 





1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The upright man needs no weapon, Fuscus, wherever his path 

may lead him, 1-8 ; 
6) The proof : A wild wolf fled from me in the Sabine wood as I 

roamed about unprotected, 9-16 ; 
c) So, wherever my lot is cast, — in the cold north or under a 

tropic sun, — I will love my Ladage, 17-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

This ode is manifestly intended by the poet merely as a humorous 
glorification of his own virtue. The exaggerated description of the 
wolf, along with the sportive stanzas at the close, tally admirably with 
the mock philosophical reflections of the opening strophes. 

Integer vitae scelerisque purus 
Non eget Mauris iaculis neque arcu 
Nee venenatis gravida sagittis, 
Fusee, pharetra, 

Sive per Syrtis iter aestuosas 6 

Sive facturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus 
Lambit Hydaspes. 

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra lo 

Terminum curis vagor expeditis, 
Fugit inermem ; 

Quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis 

Nee lubae tellus generat, leonum 16 

Arida nutriz. 

XXm.] LIBER I. 31 

Pone me pigris ubi nulla campis 

Arbor aestiva recreatur aura, 

Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque 

luppiter urget ; 20 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Soils in terra domibus negata : 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabO| 
Dulce loquentem. 



1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) Thou shunnest me like a timid fawn that seeks its mother on 

the trackless mountain and trembles at the rustling bramble 
or the darting lizard, 1-8 ; 

b) I'll do thee no harm. Cease to cling to thy mother 1 Thou art 

ripe for a mate, 9-12. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

Vitas hinnuleo me similis, Chlo^, 
Quaerenti pavidam montibus aviis 
Matrem non sine yano 
Aurarum et siluae metu. 

Nam sen mobilibus vepris inhorruit 5 

Ad ventos foliis, sen virides rubum 
Dimovere lacertae, 
Et corde et genibus tremit. 

Atqui non ego te tigris ut aspera 
Gaetulusve leo frangere persequor: M 

Tandem desine matrem 
Tempestiva sequi viro. 




1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) 'Tis meet to indulge our sorrow for our lost Quintilius, 1-4 ; 
h) Is he, then, really gone, he who had no peer in honor, in 
loyalty, and truth ? 6-8 ; 

c) Dear he was to many, yet dearest to thee, Virgil, 9, 10 ; 

d) In vain dost thou pray for his return to earth ; wert thou to 

play the lyre of Orpheus more sweetly than the bard him- 
self, thou couldst not bring back the dead to life, 11-18 ; 

e) *Tis hard to bear ; yet suffering softens pain, 19, 20. 

2. Time : 24 b.c. 

3. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn carl capitis ? Praecipe lugubris 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam pater 
Vocem cum cithara dedit. 

Ergo Quintilium perpetuos sopor B 

Urget ? Cui Pudor et lustitiae soror, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet parem ? 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit, 
Nulli flebilior quam tibi, VergilL lo 

Tu frustra pius heu nonita creditum 
Poscis Quintilium deos. 

Quid, si Threicio blandius Orpheo^ 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem ? 
Num vanae redeat sanguis imagini, 15 

Quam virga semel horrida, 

XXV.] LIBER I. 33 

Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi ? 
Durum : sed leviu9 fit patientia, 
Quicquid corrigere est nefas. 20 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Admirers come less often, and thou hearest their plaints less 

frequently than of old, 1-8 ; 
li) Thou in tarn shalt pine for them, complaining that they prefer 

youth^s fresliness to withered age, 0-20. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.g. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Parcius iunctas quatiunt fenestras 
Ictibus crebris iuvenes protervi, 
Kec tibi somnos adimunt, amatque 
lanua limen, 

Quae prius multum facilis movebat 5 

Cardines. Audis minus et minus iam : 
* Me tuo longas pereunte noctes, 
Lydia, dermis ? ' 

Invicem moecbos anus arrogantis 
Flebis in solo levis angiportu, 10 

Thracio bacchante magis sub inter- 
lunia vento, 

Cum tibi flagrans amor et libido, 
Quae solet matres furiare equorum, 
Saeviet circa iecur ulcerosum, J6 

Non sine questu, 


Laeta quod pubes hedera virentl 
Gaudeat puUa magis atque myrto, 
Aridas f rondes Hiemis sodali 
Dedicet Euro. 20 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The Muse^s favor bids me heed not wars and rumors of wars, 


b) Rather will I call on thee, Muse, to aid me in weaving a 

worthy cbaplet in verse to honor my Lamia, 6-12, 

2. Time : 30 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Musis amicus tristitiam et metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis, quis sub Arcto 
Kez gelidae metuatur orae, 

Quid Tiridaten terreat, unice 5 

Securus. quae f ontibus integris 
Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
Kecte meo Lamiae coronam, 

Pimplei dulcis. Nil sine te mei 
Prosunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro 
Teque tuasque decet sorores. 


XXVn.] LIBER L 36 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Away with strife and quarrels from the festal board 1 1-8 ; 

6) 1^11 drain my bumper of stout Falernian on one condition 
only : Let Megylla^s brother confide to my trusty ear tlie 
object of his affections. — Ah, luckless wight, worthy of a 
better maiden, I fear thy case is hopeless, 9-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; before 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 48. 

The poem is apparently an imitation of an ode of Anacreon, part 
of which is preserved. 

Katis in usum laetitiae scyphis 
Pugnare Thracum est : tollite barbarum 
Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 5 

Immane quantum discrepat : impium 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remanete presso. 

Voltis severi me quoque sumere 
Partem Falerni ? Dicat Opuntiae lo 

Frater Megyllae, quo beatus 
Volnere, qua pereat sagitta. 

Cessat voluntas ? Non alia bibam 
Mercede. Quae te cumque domat Venus, 

Non erubescendis adurit 16 

Ignibus ingenuoque semper 


Amore peccas. Quicquid habes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus. — A miser, 
Quanta laboras in Cbarybdi, 
Digne puer meliore flammat 20 

Quae saga, quis te solvere Tbessalis 
Magus venenis, quis poterit deus ? 
Vix inligatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimaera. 

XXVIII., 1- 


1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) Thou, Archytas, art now confined by a small mound of earth, 

and it avails thee naught to have explored in life the realms 
of space, and to have measured the earth and sea, 1-6 ; 

b) So all the great have passed away, — Pelops and Tithonus, 

Minos and Pythagoras ; Death^s path must be trodden by 
us all, 7-20. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcmanic Strophe. Introd. § 52. 

In the Mss., and in most editions of Horace, this ode appears as a 
part of the following, but it is practically impossible to interpret the 
two as constituting a single poem. 

Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis harenae 

Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera, nee quicquam tibi prodest 

Aerias temptasse domos animoque rotundum 6 

Percurrisse polum morituro. 
Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva deorum, 

TithOnusque remotus in auras 

XXVIII., 2.] LIBER I. 37 

Et lovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 
Tartara Panthoiden iterum Oreo 10 

Demissum, quamvis clipeo Troiana refizo 
Tempora testatus nihil ultra 

Nervos atque cutem morti concesserat atrae, 

ludice te non sordidus auctor 
Naturae verique. Sed omnis una manet nox^ 16 

Et calcanda semel via leti. 

Dant alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti, 

Exitio est avidum mare nautis ; 
Mixta senum ac iuvenum densentur funera, nullum 

Saeva caput Proserpina f ugit. 20 

XXVIII., 2. 

1. Outline of tlie Poem : 

a) 1 am another victim of the Adriatic wave; but do thou, 

mariner, cast a bit of sand upon my unburied head, 1-5 ; 

b) So may all blessings be showered upon thee by Jove and Nep- 

tune I Neglect not the duty 1 Three handfuls of sand suf^ 
fice, 5-16. 

2. Time: Uncertain; not after 28 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcmanic Strophe. Introd. § 52. 

In the Mss., and in most editions of Horace, this ode appears as 
a part of the preceding, but it is practically impossible to interpret 
the two as constituting a single poem. 

Me quoque devexi rapidus comes Ononis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus harenae 

Ossibus et capiti inhumato 


Particulam dare : sic, quodcumque minabitur Eurus 5 

Fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae te sospite, multaque merces, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 

Ab love Neptunoque sacri custode Tatenti. 

Keclegis immeritis nocituram 10 

Postmodo te natis fraudem committere ? Fors et 

Debita iura vicesque superbae 

Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis, 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent. 
Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa ; licebit 15 

Iniecto ter pulvere curras. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Can it be, Iccius, that in eagerness for wealth you are prepar- 

ing to join thQ expedition against Arabia, with the possibility 
of later enterprises against the Parthians ? 1-5 ; 

b) I picture your successes in my mind ; maids and youths of 

high degree shall be your booty, 5-10 ; 

c) Nothing is impossible. Even rivers may be expected to flow 

up hill, when a man of your fair promise changes philosophy 
for coat of mail, 10-16. 

2. Time : 27 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

The expedition alluded to in the ode was that of Aelius Gallus, 
prefect of Egypt. Egypt had been subdued in 29 b.c, and ever since 
that time the fabulous wealth of Arabia had offered an alluring and ap- 
parently easy field for Roman conquest. A pestilence, however, broke 
out among Galluses troops, and the undertaking ended in failure. 


Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante deyictis Sabaeae 
Kegibus, horribilique Medo 

Nectis catenas ? Quae tibi virginum fl 

Sponso necato barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 
Ad cyathum statuetur unctis^ 

Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Arcu paterno ? Quis neget arduis IQ 

Pronos relabi posse rivos 
Montibus et Tiberim reverti, 

Cum tu coSmptos undique nobilis 
Libros Panaeti, Socraticam et domum 

Mutare loricis Hiberis, ifl 

PoUicitus meliora, tendis ? 



1. Outline of the Poem : Come, Venus, to Glycera's chapel ; and 
with thee come Cupid, the Graces, the nymphs, Youth, and Mercury. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre .- Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique, 
Sperne dilectam Cypron et vocantis 
Ture te multo Glyc6rae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

Fervidus tecum puer et solutis 6 

Gratiae zonis properentque nymphae 
Et parum comis sine te luventas 




1. Occasion of the Poem : In the year 28 b.c. (October 24) Angus* 
tus dedicated to Apollo the splendid temple which had been eight 
years in process of building. The structure was one of the most mag- 
nificent Rome had ever known. Its pillars were of solid marble, and 
the interior was lavishly decorated with the most costly works of art. 
Connected with the temple were two libraries, one of Greek books, 
the other of Latin. Doubtless this evidence of Augustus's interest in 
the literary life of Rome heightened Horace's interest in the auspi- 
cious occasion. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) What wish do I cherish as I pour new wine at the dedication 
of Apollo's shrine? Not herds, nor gold, nor ivory, nor 
lands, nor costly wines, 1-15 ; 

5) My simple fare is of olives, endive, and wholesome mallows ; 
and my prayer to the god begs only for health of body and 
of mind, contentment with what Fortune gives, and an old 
age of honor and of song, 15-20. 

3. Time : October, 28 b.c. 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates ? Quid orat, de patera novom 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimae 
Sardiniae segetes feraces, 

Non aestuosae grata Calabriae 6 

Armenia, non aurum aut ebur iDdicum, 
Non rura, quae Liris quieta 
Mordet aqua taeitumus amnis. 

Premant Galena f alee quibus dedit 
Fortuna vitem, dives ut aureis 10 

Mercator exsiccet eulillis 
Vina Syra reparata merce. 


Dis carus ipsis, quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 
Impune. Me pascunt olivae, 15 

Me cichorea levesque malvae. 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones et, precor, Integra 
Cum mente, nee turpem senectam 
Degere nee cithara carentem. 20 


1. Outline of the Poem : I am asked for a song. Lend me thy 
aid to sing a genuine Roman lay that shall be immortal, thou, lyre, 
lirst tuned by Alcaeua, who, in storm and stress, was ever faithfiU to 
the Muse. Do thou, glory of Apollo and honored of Jove, lend me 
thy aid whenever I invoke thee duly. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. In trod. § 44. 

Poscimur. Siquid vacui sub umbra 
Lusimus tecum, quod et hunc in annum 
Vivat et pluris, age die Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 

Lesbio primum modulate civi, 6 

Qui ferox bello tamen inter arma, 
Sive iactatam religarat udo 
Litore navim, 

Liberum et Musas Veneremque et illi 
Semper haerentem puerum canebat, lO 

Et Lycum nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 


decus Phoebi et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo lovis, o laborum 
Dulce lenimen medicumque, salve ll 

Kite vocanti ! 


1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) Grieve not o'ermuch, Tibullus, over the faithless Glycgra, 1-4 ; 

b) So is it ever ; Lycoris yearns for Cyrus, Cyrus for Pholofi, yet 

Pholoe shuns his suit. Venus in cruel sport delights to 
bring to her yoke ill-mated hearts, 5-12 ; 

c) I, too, have known this fate. Despite the allurements of a 

worthier love, the shrewish Myrtale has held me fast in her 
fetters, 13-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; before 23 b.c. . 

3. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

Albi, ne doleas plus nimio memor 
Immitis Glyc6rae neu miserabilis 
Decantes elegos, cur tibi iunior 
Laesa praeniteat fide. 

Insignem tenui fronte Lycorida 6 

Cyri torret amor, Cyrus in asperam 
Declinat Pholoen : sed prius Apulis 
lungentur capreae lupis, 

Quam turpi Pholo^ peccet adultero. 
Sic visum Veneri, eui placet imparls lo 

Formas atque animos sub iuga a^nea 
Saevo mittere cum ioco. 

Ipsum me melior cum peteret Venus, 
Grata detinuit compede Myrtale 
Libertina, fretis acrior Hadriae 15 

Curvantis Calabros sinus. 

XXXIV.] LIBER 1. 43 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) I am compelled to renounce my former errors of belief and to 

make sail for a new haven, 1-5 ; 

b) The cause : Jove recently hurled his thunderbolts with a 

mighty crash through the clear sky, 5-12 ; 

c) The god hcis power; he can abase the high and exalt the 

lowly ; from one man he swiftly takes away the crown, to 
bestow it on another, 12-16. 

2. Time : Probably between 29 and 25 b.g. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Parous deorum cultor et infrequens, 
Insanientis dum sapieutiae 
Consultus erro, nunc retrorsum 
Vela dare atque iterare cursus 

Cogor relictos : namque Diespiter, 5 

Igni corusco nubila dividens 
Plerumque, per purum tonantis 
Egit equos volucremque currum ; 

Quo bruta tellus et vaga flumina 
Quo Styx et invisi horrida Taenari lo 

Sedes Atlanteusque finis 
Concutitur. Valet ima summis 

Mutare et insignem attenuat deus, 
Obscura promens; hinc apicem rapax 
Fortuna cum stridore acute 16 

Sustulit^ hie posuisse gaudet. 




1. Occasion of the Poem : In the year 27 b.c. Augustus began 
preparations for two expeditions, one against the Britons, the other 
under Aelius Gallus against Arabia Felix (see i. 29). The poet in- 
vokes the protection of the goddess Fortuna for both undertakings. 
Inasmuch as the Fortuna Anticts, who is here addressed, was some- 
times consulted for oracular deliverances, it is possible that Augustus 
had consulted her with reference to one or both of these two enter- 
prises, and that this circumstance was the immediate cause of the ode. 

2. Outline of the Poem: 

a) O goddess, that art omnipotent to determine the affairs of 

men, all acknowledge thy might, all court, all fear, 1-16 ; 

b) Thy attendant is Necessity, with her emblems of power; 

Hope and rare Faith, too, cherish thee, when in hostile 
mood thou bringest trouble upon the great, and when 
others, alas, prove faithless, 17-28 ; 

c) Preserve, O goddess, our Caesar, who is setting forth against 

the Britons, and the soldiers who are departing for Arabia 
and Parthia, 20-32 ; 

d) Forgive our past iniquity, and guide our weapons against the foe, 


3. Time : 27 b.c. • 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

diva, gratum quae regis Antium, 
Praesens vel imo toUere de gradu 
Mortale corpus vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumplios, 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 6 

Kuris colonus, te dominam aequoris, 
Quicumque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina, 

Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae 
Urbesque gentesque et Latium ferox lO 

Kegumque matres barbarorum et 
Purpurei inetuont tyranni, 


Iniurioso ne pede pronias 
Stantem columnam, neu populus frequens 
Ad arma cessantis, ad arma 16 

Concitet imperiumque frangat. 

Te semper antit saeva Necessitas, 
Clavos trabalis et cuneos manu 
Geatans aena, nee severus 

Uncus abest liquidumque plumbum. 20 

Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
Yelata panno, nee comitem abnegate 
Uteumque mutata potentis 
Veste domos inimica linquis. 

At volgus infidum et meretrix retro 25 

Periura cedit, difFugiunt cadis 
Cum faece siccatis amici, 
Ferre iugum pariter dolosi. 

Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 
Orbis Britannos et iuvenum recens 30 

Examen, Eois timendum 
Partibus Oceanoque rubro. 

Eheu, cicatricum et sceleris pudet 
Fratrumque. Quid nos dura refugimus 
Aetas ? Quid intactum nefasti 35 

Liquimus ? Unde manum inventus 

Metu deorum continuit ? Quibus 
Pepercit aris ? utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massagetas Arabasque ferrum ! 40 




1. Outline of the Poem: 

a) Let us make sacrifice in celebration of Namida's safe return. 

Dear is he to many, yet dearest of all to Lamia, his old 
schoolmate and friend, 1-0 ; 

b) A white mark to commemorate the day, and let indulgence in 

wine and the dance know no bound ; let roses, parsley, and 
lilies grace our banquet ; let even Bassus drink generously 
to-day and not be outdone by Damalis, the fair, 10-20. 

2. Time : Possibly 24 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Et ture et fidibus iuvat 

Placare et vituli sanguine debito 
Custodes Numidae decs, 

Qui nunc Hesperia sospes ab ultima 

Garis multa sodalibus, 5 

Nulli plura tamen dividit oscula 
Quam dulci Lamiae, memor 

Actae non alio rege puertiae 

Mutataeque simul togae. 

Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, 10 

Neu promptae modus amphorae, 

Neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum, 

Neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vincat amystide. 
Neu desint epulis rosae 15 

Neu vivax apium neu breve lilium ; 


Omnes in Damalin putris 
Deponent oculos, nee Damalis novo 

Divelletur adultero, 
Lascivis hederis ambitiosior. 20 



1. Occasion of the Poem : In September of 31 b.c. Augustas had 
defeated at Actium the fleets of Antony and Cleopatra. Although 
this success almost completely annihilated the naval resources of 
Antony and Cleopatra, they still remained masters of formidable land 
forces. When these were finally defeated and Augustus entered 
Alexandria in August of 30 b.c., Antony and Cleopatra both com- 
mitted suicide. Thus was removed what at one time had constituted a 
serious menace to the welfare of Rome, and Horace gives voice to the 
sentiments of his countrymen in the following stirring ode. 

2. Outline of the Poem: 

a) Now is the time for drinking and dancing, now for offering to 

the gods our grateful thanksgiving; an earlier day had 

been premature, so long as a foreign queen was planning 

ruin against our Roman temples, 1-12 ; 
5) But her crushing defeat at Actium sobered her wild dreams of 

conquest, and fear of Caesar drove her in terror over the 

sea, 12-21 ; 
c) Yet her death was heroic ; she showed no fear, and boldly took 

the serpent to her bosom, too proud to deign to grace the 

triumph of her conqueror, 21-32. 

3. Time : September, 30 b.o. 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero 
Pulsanda tellus, nunc Saliaribus 
Ornare pulvinar deorum 
Tempus erat dapibuS; sodales. 


Antehac uefas depromere Caecubum ft 

Gellis avitis, dum Capitolio 
Begina dementis ruinas, 
Funus et imperio parabat 

Containinato cum grege turpium 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens 10 

Sperare fortunaque dulci 
Ebria. Sed minuit f urorem 

Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus, 
Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico 

Bedegit in veros timores 10 

Caesar, ab Italia volantem 

Bemis adurgens, accipiter velut 
Mollis columbas aut leporem citus 
Venator in cam pis nivalis 

Haemoniae, daret ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum. Quae generosius 
Perire quaerens nee muliebriter 
Expavit ensem nee latentis 
Glasse cita reparavit oras. 

Ansa et iacentem visere regiam 25 

Voltu sereno, fortis et asperas 
Tractare serpentes, ut atrum 
Corpore combiberet venenum, 

Deliberata morte ferocior ; 

Saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 30 

Privata deduci superbo 
Non humilis muUer triumpha 



1. Outline of the Poem: Away with oriental luxury 1 Bring 
hither no linden garlands nor wreaths of late-blooming roses. Chap^ 
lets of simple myrtle are enough, alike for master and for man. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus^ 
Displicent nexae phily ra coronae ; 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 
Sera moretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil adlabores 6 

Sedulus, cura : neque te ministrum 
Dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta 
Vite bibentem. 





1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Thou art chronicling the details of the civil commotions that 

began with the first Triumvirs, — a task full of danger and 
hazard, 1-8 ; 

b) But withdraw not thy energies for long from the tragic muse, 

O PoUio, famed at the bar, in council, and in the field, 9-16 ; 
e) In imagination already I seem to see the martial deeds des- 
cribed in thy story ; I hear the sound of trumpets and clarions, 
the clash of arms and behold the flight of horses, — great 
leaders, too, begrimed with the dust of battle, and all the 
world at Caesar* s feet save dauntless Cato, 17-24 ; 

d) Well may our civil strife be regarded as satisfaction to Jugur- 

tha's shade. What field, or stream, or sea has not been 
stained with Roman blood ? 25-36 ; 

e) But a truce to such dismal themes! Assume, O Muse, a 

lighter mood ! 37-40. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; probably before Actium (31 b.o.). 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Motum ex Metello consule civicum 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos 
Ludumque Fortunae gravisque 
Principum amicitias et arma 


L] LIBER II. 61 

Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus, 6 

Periculosae plenum opus aleae, 
Tractaset incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 

Paulum severae Musa tragoediae 
Desit theatris : mox, ubi publicas 10 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes coturao, 

Insigne maestis praesidium reis 
Et consulenti, PoUio, curiae, 

Cui laurus aeternos honores 16 

Delmatico peperit triumpho. 

lam nunc minaci murmure cornuum 
Perstringis auris, iam litui strepunt, 
lam fulgor armorum fugacis 
Terret equos equitumque voltus. 20 

Audire magnos iam videor duces, 
Non indecoro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuncta terrarum subacta 
Praeter atrocem animum Catonis. 

luno et, deorum quisquis amicior 26 

Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure, victorum nepotes 
Rettulit inferias lugurthae. 

Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris impia proelia 30 

Testatur auditumque Medis 
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae ? 

62 CARMINUM pi- 

Qui gurges aut quae flumina lugubris 
Ignara belli ? Quod mare Dauniae 
Non decoloravere caedes ? 35 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro ? 

Sed ne relictis, Musa, procax iocis 
Geae retractes munera ueniae, 
Mecum Dionaeo sub antro 
Quaere modos leviore plectro. 40 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Money, Sallust, is of no worth, unless it be put to wise uses ; 

imitate the example of generous Proculeius, 1-8 ; 
5) To subdue one^s own desire for more is better than the 

widest dominion of the world ; resist the passion, lest it 

become a dire disease increasing by indulgence, 9-16 ; 
c) *Tis not the mighty potentate that is really happy ; rather he 

who can gaze upon vast treasure without envy, 17-24. 

2. Time : 26 b.o., or soon after. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

The ode is an embodiment of the Stoic doctrine often emphasized 
by Horace, that the wise man (the ideal sapiens of the Stoics) alone 
is happy and worthy. 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamnae 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
Splendeat usu. 

Vivet extento Proculeius aevo, 6 

Notus in f ratres animi paterni : 
Ilium aget pinna metuente solvi 
Fama superstes. 

in.] LIBER II. 53 

Latius regnes avidum domando 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 10 

Gadibus iungas et uterque Poenus 
Serviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 
!N"ec sitim pellit, nisi causa iporbi 
Fugerit venis et aquosus albo 15 

Corpore languor. 

Eedditum Cyri solio Phraaten 
Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
Eximit Virtus populumque falsis 
Dedocet uti 20 

Vocibus, regnum et diadema tutum 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
Quisquis ingentis oculo inretorto 
Spectat acervos. 

^ TIL 


1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) Be courageous in adversity, modest in prosperity, 1-8 ; 

b) Nature^s charms are for man to enjoy ; let us seek them while 

we may, 9-16 ; 

c) Be we rich or poor, high or low, our days on earth are num- 

bered, 17-28. 

2. Time : Probably between 29 and 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Aequam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Laetitia, moriture Delli, 


Seu maestus omni tempore vixens, 5 

Seu te in remoto gramixie per dies 
Festos reclinatum bearis 
Interiore nota Falerni. 

Quo pinus ingens albaque populus 
Umbram hospitalem consociare amant 10 

Eamis ? Quid obliquo laborat 
Lympha f ugax trepidare rivo ? 

Hue vina et unguenta et nimium brevis 
Flores amoenae ferre iube rosae. 
Bum res et aetas et sororum 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes GO@mptis saltibus et domo 
Villaque, flavos quam Tiberis lavit, 
Cedes, et exstructis in altum 
Divitiis potietur heres. 90 

Divesne, prisco natus ab Inacho, 
Nil interest aD pauper et infima 
De gente sub divo moreris ; 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium 26 

Versatur urna serius ocius 

Sors exitura et nos in aeternum 
Exsilium impositura cumbae. 

IV.] LIBER n. 55 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Be not ashamed, O Xantbias, of thy love for a slave-maiden ; 

thou*rt not the first to cherish such a passion, 1-12 ; 

b) Doubtless she comes of a noble ancestry ; her beauty, her 

devotion, her dignity, all betoken this, 13-20 ; 

c) Suspect me not; I praise her charms from no unworthy 

motive, 21-24. 

2. Time : 26 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori, 
Xanthia Phoceu. Prius insolentem 
Serva Brisfiis niveo colore 
Movit Achillem ; 

Movit Aiacem Telamone natum 6 

Forma captivae dominum Tecmessae ; 
Arsit Atrides medio in triumpho 
Virgine rapta, 

Barbarae postquam cecidere turmae 
Thessalo victore et ademptus Hector 10 

Tradidit fessis leviora toUi 
Pergama Grais. 

Kescias an te generum beati 
Phyllidis flavae decorent parentes : 
"Rfio-inm fifirte ffeniia. et •nenatia 

Eegium certe genus, et penatis 
Maeret iniouos. 


Maeret iniquos 


Grede non illam tibi de scelesta 
Plebe dilectam neque sic fidelem. 
Sic lucro aversam potuisse nasci 
Matre pudenda. ao 

Braechia et voltum teretisque suras 
Integer laudo ; fuge suspicari, 
Cuius octavom trepidavit aetas 
Glaudere lustrum. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The maid thou loyest is still too young to return thy passion, 

1-10 ; 
h) Soon ^twill be otherwise ; she shall seek thee of her own 

accord, 10^16; 
e) None shalt thou cherish more than her, 17-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Nondum subacta f erre iugum valet 
Gervice, noudum munia comparis 
Aequare nee tauri mentis 
In venerem tolerare pondus. 

Circa virentis est animus tuae 5 

Campos iuvencae, nunc fluviis gravem 
Solantis aestum, nunc in udo 
Ludere cum vitulis salicto 

Praegestientis. Telle cupidinem 
Immitis uvae : iam tibi lividos 10 

Distinguet autumnus racemos 
Purpureo varius colore. 


lam te sequetur (currit enim ferox 
Aetas, fet illi, quos tibi dempserit, 
• Apponet annos), iam proterva 10 

Fronte petet Lalage maritum, 

Dilecta, quantum non Pholo6 fugax^ 
Non Chloris, albo sic umero nitens, 
Ut pura nocturno renidet 
Luna mari Cnidiusve Gyges, 20 

Quem si puellarum insereres choro, 
Mire S£^cis falleret hospites 
Discrimen obscurum solutis 
Crinibus ambiguoque voltu, 

^ VI. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Be Tibur the haven of my old age, 1-8 ; 

&) If the Fates keep me from there, lUl seek salubrious Taren- 

tum, with its honey, oil, and wine, 9-20 ; 
c) Tarentum invites us both, Septimius; there shall my ashes 

rest, 21-24. 

2. Time : 25-23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Septirai, Gadis aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoctum iuga ferre nostra et 
Barbaras Syrtis, ubi Maura semper 
Aestuat unda, 

Tibur Argeo positum colono 5 

Sit meae sedes utinam senectae^ 
Sit modus lasso maris et viarum 


Unde si Parcae prohibent iniquae, 
Dulce pellitis ovibus GaJaesi 10 

Flumen et regnata petani Laconi 
Bura Phalantho. 

Ille terrarum mihi praeter omnis 
Angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
Mella decedunt viridique certat 16 

Baca Venafro ; 

Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
luppiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho Tnin i mum Falemis 

Invidet uvis. 20 

Ille te mecum locus et beatae 
Postulant arces ; ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima f avillam 
Yatis amici. 

•^ vn. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Greetings on thy return, O Pompey, old comrade in pleasure 

and in arms, 1-12 ; 

b) Since Philippi*s day our ways have lain apart, 18-16 ; 

c) Now, then, give thanks to Jove ; fill up the cup ; let us have 

perfumes, garlands, a master of the feast, and let our joy 
know no restraint, 17-28. 

2. Time : 29 B.C. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

saepe mecum tempus in ultimum 
Deducte Bruto militiae duce, 
Quis te redonavit Quiritem 
Dis patriis Italoque caelo^ 

VIL] LIBER n. 69 

Pompei, meorum prime sodalium, 5 

Gum quo morantem saepe diem mero 
Fregi, coronatus nitentis 
Malobathro Syrio capillos ? 

Tecum Philippos et celerem fugam 
Sensi relicta non bene parmula, 10 

Cum fracta. virtus et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 

Sed me per hostis Mercurius celer 
Denso paventem sustulit aere ; . 
Te rursus m belliim resr^rbens 16 

Unda f retis tulit aestuosis. 

Ergo obligatam redde lovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea nee 
Farce cadis tibi destinatis. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciboria exple, funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. Quis udo 
Deproperare apio coronas 

Curatve myrto ? Quern Venus arbitrum 25 

Dicet bibendi ? Non ego sanius 
Bacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce mihi furere est amico. 



1. Outline of tlie Poem : 

a) Faithless art thou, Barine ; yet not less fair than faithless, 

h) Thou profitest by violating the most solemn pledges ; Venus, 
too, and the nymphs, and Cupid lend thee encouragement, 

e) Not only dost thou hold the slaves thou hast, but the new 
generation growing up seems doomed to yield to thy en- 
chantments, 17-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.o. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. { 44. 

XJlla si iuris tibi peierati 
Poena, Barine, nocuisset umqaam^ 
Dente si nigro fieres vel uno 
Turpior ungui, 

Grederem. Sed tu simul obligasti 6 

Perfidum votis caput, enitescis 
Pulchrior multo iuvenumque prodis 
Publica cura. 

Expedit matris cineres opertos 
Fallere et toto taciturna noctis 10 

Signa cum caelo gelidaque divos 
Morte carentis. 

Bidet hoc, inquam, Venus ipsa ; rident 
Simplices Nympbae ferus et Cupido, 
Semper ardentis acuens sagittas 16 

Cote cruenta. 

IX] L3ER II. 61 

Adde quod pubes tibi crescit omnisi 
Servitus crescit nova, nee priores 
Impiae tectum dominae relinquont^ 

Saepe minati. 20 

Te suis matres metuont iuvencis, 
Te senes parci miseraeque, nuper 
Virgines, nuptae, tua ne retardet 
Aura maritos. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Nature's phases, Valgius, are not always those of gloom, 1-8 ; 

b) Yet thou art ever sorrowful, 9-12 ; 

c) Others have found consolation in their bereavement, 13-17 ; 

d) Cease thy laments, therefore ; let us sing the glories of great 

Caesar, 17-24. 

2. Time : Probably 24 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Kon semper imbres nubibus bispidos 
Manant in agros aut mare Caspium 
Yexant inaequales procellae 
Usque nee Armeniis in oris, 

Amice Valgi, stat glacies iners 

Menses per omnis, aut Aquilonibus 
Querqueta laborant 
Et f oliis viduantur omi : 

Tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
Mysten ademptum, nee tibi Vespero 10 

Surgente decedunt amores 
Nee rapidum fugiente solem. 


At non ter aeyo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnis Antilochum senex 
Annos, nee impubem parentes 15 

Troilon aut Phrygiae sorores 

Flevere semper. Desine molliiun 
Tandem querellarum, et potius nova 
Cantemus August! tropaea 
CaesariS; et rigidum Niph&ten 20 

Medumque flumen gentibus additum 
Victis minores volvere vertices, 
Intraque praescriptum GelOnos 
Exiguis equitare campis. 

^ X. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Not too far out to sea, Licinius, nor yet too near the shore ; 

so let thy dwelling be neither a hovel nor a palace, 1-8 ; 
h) The loftier thy aspirations, the greater the possible disaster, 

c) Be on thy guard in prosperity; in adversity cherish hope. 

Nature is not ever sad ; nor the gods always hostile, 13-24. 

2. Time : Before 28 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Bectius vives, Licini, neque altum 
Semper urgendo neque^ dum procellas 
Cautus horrescis; nimium premendo 
Litus iniquom. 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 6 

Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 
Sobrius aula. 

XL] LIBER n. 63 

Saepius ventis agitatur ingens 
Pinus et celsae graviore casu 10 

Decidunt turres f eriuntque summos 
Fulgura montis. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
Pectus. Informis hiemes reducit 16 

luppiter; idem 

Summoyet. Non^ si male nunc^ et olim 
Sic erit : quondam cithara tacentem 
Suscitat Musam neque semper arcum 
Tendit Apollo. 20 

Bebus angustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare : sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 
Turgida vela. 


1. Outline of the Poem: 

a) Away with all useless worry, Hirpinus ; youth and beauty are 
gliding swiftly by ; nothing endures, 1-12 ; 

h) Rather under plane and pine let us have garlands and per- 
fumes, wine and music, 13-24. 

2. Time : Somewhere between 26 and 24 b.o. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes, 
Hirpine Quincti, cogitet Hadria 
Divisus obiecto, remittas 
Quaerere, nee trepides in usum 


Poscentis aevi pauca : f ugit retro 5 

Levis iuventas et decor, arida 
Pellente lascivos amores 
Cfanitie facilemque somnum. 

Non semper idem floribus est honor 
Yernis, neqae uno luna rubens nitet 10 

Voltu : quid aetemis minorem 
Consiliis animum fatigas ? 

Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hao 
Finu iacentes sic temere et rosa 

Canos odorati capillos, 16 

Dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 

Potamus uncti ? Dissipat Euhius 
Guras edacis. Quis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falemi 
Pocula praetereunte lympha ? 20 

Quis devium scortum eliciet domo 
Lyden ? Eburna, die age, cum lyra 
Maturet, incomptam Lacaenae 
More comam religata nodo ! 



1. Occasion of the Ode : In the year 29 b.c, Augostns celebrated 
a triple triumph commemorative of his victories at Actium, in Egypt, 
and in Pannonia. Maecenas seems at that time to have called upon 
Horace to commemorate these achievements in lyric verse, a task 
which the poet declined on the ground that history was ill suited to 
the lyric Muse. As compensation for his refusal, however, he de- 
scribes the charms of Maecenas's wife Terentia, here designated by the 
pseudonym Ltcymnia- 

xn.] LIBER n. 65 

2. Outline of the Poem: 

a) No one would choose lyric poetry to describe events of history 

or of mythologlc legend, 1-8 ; 

b) Let prose be the vehicle of celebrating Augustus's glory, and do 

thou, not I, Maecenas, essay the task, 9-12 ; 

c) As for me, let me rather sing the praises of thy consort 

Licymnia, her lustrous eyes, her true heart, and her win- 
some ways, 13-28. 

3. Time : Between 29 and 24 b.c. 

4. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Litrod. § 47. 

Nolls longa ferae bella Kumantiae 
Kec durum Hannibalem nee Siculum mare 
Poeno purpureum sanguine mollibus 
Aptari citharae modis^ 

Nee saevos Lapithas et nimium mero 5 

Hylaeum domitosque Herculea manu 
Telluris iuvenes, unde periculum 
Fulgens contremuit domus 

Saturn! veteris : tuque pedestribus 
Dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 10 

Maecenas^ melius ductaque per vias 
Eegum colla minacium. 

Me dulcis dominae Musa Licymniae 
Cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 
Fulgentis oculos et bene mutuis M 

Fidum pectus amoribus ; 

Quam nee f erre pedem dedecuit choris 
Nee certare ioco nee dare braochia 
Ludentem nitidis virginibus sacro 
Dianae Celebris die. 90 


Num tu quae tenuit dives Achaemenes 
Aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias opes 
Permutare velis crine Licymniae, 
Plenas aut Arabum domos. 

Cum flagrantia detorquet ad oscula 25 

Cervicem^ aut facili saevitia negat, 
Quae poscente magis gaudeat eripi^ 
Interdum rapere occupat ? 

^ XIII. 


1. Occasion of the Poem: On the 1st of March, 30 b.c, Horace 
had narrowly escaped death by the fall of a tree on his Sabine 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) 'Twas on an ill-omened day that thou wast planted, tree ; 
and with a sacrilegious hand wast thou reared, 1-12 ; 

&) Man never realizes the unseen dangers that threaten from 
every side, 18-20 ; 

c) How narrowly did I escape passing to the realms of Proser- 
pine, where Sappho and Alcaeus charm the shades with the 
music of their lyres, 21-40. 

3. Time : Probably 30 b.c. 

4. Metre: Alcaic. Introd. §43. 

The ode falls into two distinct parts, the first on the uncertainty 
of human existence, the second on the glory of poetry. 

Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicumque primum, et sacrilega manu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
Perniciem opprobriumque pagi. 


Ilium et parentis crediderim sui 5 

Fregisse cervicem et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturno cruore 
Hospitis ; ille venena Golcha 

Et quicquid usquam concipitur nefas 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Te, triste lignum, te caducum 
In domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisque vitet, numquam homini satis 
Cautum est in horas : navita Bosphorum 
Poenus perhorrescit neque ultra M 

Caeca timet aliunde fata ; 

Miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi, catenas Parthus et Italum 
Robur ; sed improvisa leti 
Vis rapuit rapietque gentis. 20 

Quam paene furvae regna Proserpinae 
Et iudicantem vidimus Aeacum 
Sedesque discriptas piorum et 
Aeoliis fidibus querentem 

Sappho puellis de popularibus 26 

'Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis, 
Dura fugae mala, dura belli. 

Utrumque sacro digna silentio 
Mirantur umbrae dicere; sed magis 30 

Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 
Densum umeris bibit aure volgus. 


Quid mirum, ubi illis carminibus stupens 
Demittit atras belua centiceps 

Auris, et intorti capillis 36 

Eumenldum recreantur angues ? 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborum decipitur sono, 
Nee curat Orion leones 

Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 

^' XIV. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Nothing, Postumus, avails to withstand the approach of death ; 

not goodness, nor sacrifices, nor lofty station, 1>-12 ; 
h) In vain do we evade the dangers of this life, — war, shipwreck, 

and disease; death^s dark night is the final doom of all, 

c) The joys of this life, — lands, homes, family, — are ours only 

to be renounced, and handed over to worthier successors, 


2. Time : Uncertain ; probably about 30 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Eheu fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
Labuntur anni, nee pietas moram 
Eugis et instanti senectae 
Adferet indomitaeque morti ; 

Non, si trecenis, quotquot eunt dies, 6 

Amice, places inlacrimabilem 
Plutona tauris, qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tityonque tristi 


Compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
Quicumque terrae munere vescimur, lO 

Enaviganda, sive reges 
Sive inopes erimus cbloni. 

Frustra cruento Marte carebimus 
Fractisque rauci fluctibus Hadriae, 
Frustra per autumnos nocentem 15 

Corporibus metuemus Austrum : 

Visendus ater flumine languido 
Cocytos errans et Danai genus 
Infame damnatusque longi 
Sisyphus Aeolides laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus et domus et placens 
Uxor, neque harum, quas colis, arborum 
Te praeter invisas cupressos 
XJlla brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet heres Caecuba dignior 26 

Servata centum clavibus et mero 
Tinguet pavimentum superbis 
Pontificum potiore cenis. 


1. Outline of the Poem ; 

a) Our princely estates with their fish-ponds bid fair to banish 
farming from the land ; plane-trees, myrtle, and violets 
threaten to supplant the vine and olive, 1-10 ; 

&) Far different was it in the days of old ; then private wealth 
was small, and simple were men's abodes ; but rich was the 


state and splendid were the public buildings, 10-20 {cf, Cic. 
pro Murena 36. 76, odU populus Bomanita priviUam luxu- 
riam, puhlicam magnijicentiam diligit), 

2. Time : Probably 28 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 48. 

This poem stands alone among Horace* s odes in that it is not ad- 
dressed to any individual. 

lam pauca aratro iugera regiae 
Moles relinquent, undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu, platanusque caelebs 

Evincet ulmos; turn violaria et 5 

Myrtus et omnis copia narium 
Spargent olivetis odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori* 

Turn spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
Excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli 10 

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis veterumque norma. 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Commune magnum : nulla decempedis 

Metata privatis opacam 15 

Portions excipiebat Arcton, 

Nee f ortuitum spernere caespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumptu iubentes et deorum 

Templa novo decorare saxo. 20 


^ XVI. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Peace and happiness, O Grosphus, are the quest of all, 1-6 ; 
h) But these cannot be bought with jewels or with gold ; wealth 
avails not to still the restless tumults of the soul, 7-12 ; 

c) Simple tastes and self-restraint must be the means, not eager 

striving for more, nor yet roving in foreign lands ; let our 
hearts enjoy the present, meet its ills with resignation, and 
refuse to borrow care for the future, 13-27 ; 

d) Yet no one can be altogether happy ; witness Achilles and 

Tithonus. Fortune, too, grants to one man what she denies 
another ; to thee she has given lands and kine, horses, and 
purple ; me she has endowed with the glorious gift of song, 

2. Time : Probably 28 b.o. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Otium divos rogat in patenti 
Prensus Aegaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit lunam neque certa fulgent 
Sidera nautis ; 

Otium bello f uriosa Thrace, 5 

Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura ve- 
nale neque auro. 

Kon enim gazae neque consularis 
Summovet lictor miseros tumultus lo 

Mentis et curas laqueata circum 
Tecta volantis. 


Vivitur parvo bene, cui paternnm 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum 
Nee levis somnos timor aut cupido 15 

Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes iaculamur aevo 
Multa ? Quid terras alio calentis 
Sole mutamus ? Patriae quis exsul 

Se quoque f ugit ? 20 

Scandit aeratas vitiosa navis 
Cura nee turmas equitum relinquit, 
Ocior cervis et agente nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 

Laetus in praesens animus quod ultra est 26 

Oderit curare et amara lento 
Teraperet risu. Nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatum. 

Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem, 
Longa Titbonum minuit senectus ; 90 

Et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 
Porriget bora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccae, tibi tollit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa, te bis Afro 35 

Murice tinctae 

Vestiunt lanae; mihi parva rura et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae 
Parca non mendax dedit et malignum 

Spemere volgus. 40 

XVIL] LIBER n. 73 




1. Occasion of the Poem : The ode seems to have been called forth 
by a serioos illness which befell Maecenas in the fall of SO b.o. and 
threatened to prove fatal. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Think not that thou shalt die before me, Maecenas! Why 

should I linger after thee ? One and the same day shall see 
us enter on that final journey, nor shall any power of earth 
or hell tear me from thee, 1-16 ; 

b) Whatever planet guides our destinies, our fates are surely 

linked together. Thee Jove, me Faunus, saved from de- 
struction, 17-30; 

c) And so an offering to the gods in commemoration of their 

favor I 30-32. 

3. Time : 30 b.c. 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Cur me querellis exanimas tuis ? 
Nee dis amicuin est nee mihi te prius 
Obire^ Maecenas, mearum 

Grande deeus eolumenque rerum. 

A, te meae si partem animae rapit 

Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Nee carus aeque nee superstes 
Integer ? Ille dies utramque 

Ducet ruinam. Non ego perfidum 
Dixi saeramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 10 

Utcumque praecedes, supremum 
Carpere iter oomites parati. 


Me nee Chimaerae spiritus igneae 
Nee, si resuTgat, centimanus Gyas 

Divellet umquam : sie potent! 15 

lustitiae placitumque Parcis. 

Sen Libra sen me Seorpios adspicit 
Formidolosus pars violentior 
Natalis horae seu tyrannus 
Hesperiae Capricomus undaei 20 

Utnimque nostrum incredibili modo 
Consentit astrum. Te lovis impio 
Tutela Saturno refulgens 
Eripuit volucrisque Fati 

Tardavit alas, cum populus frequens 26 

Laetum theatvis ter crepuit sonum ; 
Me truncus inlapsus cerebro 
Sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 

Dextra levasset^ Mereurialium 
Gustos virorum. Eeddere victimas 80 

Aedemque votivam memento ; 
Nos humilem feriemus agnam. 

XVm.] LIBER II 76 



1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) No glittering splendor of gold and ivory and marble marks 

my house, 1-8 ; 

b) But loyal devotion to my friends and the inspiration of the 

muse are mine; these make me content vfith my little 
Sabine farm, 0-14 ; 

c) Others, heedless of timers swift passage, think only of rearing 

splendid palaces, encroaching now on the sea^s domain, now 
on the lands of their helpless tenants, 16-28 ; 

d) Tet Death is the doom of all alike, ~ of the rich lord no less 

than the poor peasant, 20-40. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; probably soon after the gift of the Sabine 
farm (about 33 b.g.)* 

3. Metre : Trochaic Strophe. Introd. § 60. 

Non ebur neque aureum 

Mea renidet in dome lacunar^ 
Non trabes Hymettiae 

Fremont columnas ultima recisas 

Africa, neque Attali 6 

Ignotus heres regiam occupavi, 
Nee Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honestae purpuras clientae. 

At fides et ingeni 

Benigna vena est, pauperemque dives lo 

Me petit : nihil supra 

Decs lacesso nee potentem amicum 


Largiora flagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die, 16 

Kovaeque pergunt interire lunae. 

Tu secanda marmora 

Locas sub ipsum funus et sepulcri 
Immemor stniis domos, 

Marisque Bais obstrepentis urges 20 

Summovere litora, 

Parum locuples continente ripa. 
Quid quod usque proximos 

Revellis agri terminos et ultra 

Limites clientium 25 

Salis avarus ? Pellitur paternos 
In sinu ferens deos 

£t uxor et vir sordidosque natos. 

Nulla certior tamen 

Bapacis Orci fine destinata so 

Aula diyitem manet 

Erum. Quid ultra tendis ? Aequa tellus 

Fauperi recluditur 

Regumque pueris, nee satelles Orel 
Callidum Promethea 86 

Eevexit auro captus. Hie superbum 

Tantalum atque Tantali 
Genus coercet, hie levare functum 

Pauperem laboribus 
Yocatus atque non vocatus audit. 40 

XIX.] LIBER n. 77 



1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) My heart still thrills with delight at my recent glimpse of 

Bacchus amid the rocks teaching the nymphs and satyrs, 1-8; 
6) And so I am moved to sing of the votaries of the god and of 

the wine, the milk, the honey that flow forth at his bidding ; 

of Ariadne, too, his deified consort; of the dire fates of 

Pentheus and Lycurgus, 9-16 ; 
c) Thy power, O Bacchus, is universal ; river and sea, man and 

god, confess thy might ; even Cerberus stood in awe of thee, 


2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 28 b.o. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

In its wild enthusiasm this ode' suggests that Horace is here imitat* 
ing some Greek dithyramb. 

Bax^chum in remotis carmina rupibus 
Vidi docentem — credite posteri — 
Kymphasque discentis et auris 
Capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 

Euhoe^ recenti mens trepidat metu^ 6 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Laetatur. Euhoe, parce^Liber^ 
Parce, gravi metuende thyrso. 

Pas pervicacis est mihi Thyiadas 
Vinique fontem lactis et uberes 10 

Cantare rivos atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterare mella ; 

Pas et beatae coniugis additum 
Stellis honorem tectaque Penthei 
Disiecta non leni ruina U 

Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. 


Tu flectis amnes, tu mare barbammy 
Tu separatis uvidus in iugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine fraude crinis. 20 

Tu, cum parentis regna per arduom 
Cohors Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhoetum retorsisti leonis 
Unguibus horribilique mala | 

Quamquam choreis aptior et iocis 25 

Ludoque dictus non sat idoneus 
Pugnae f erebaris ; sed idem 
Pacis eras mediusque belli. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Cornu decorum, leniter atterens 30 

Caudam, et recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 

/ XX. 

1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) On mighty pinion I shall mount aloft, soaring above the cities 
of earth and the envy of men, escaping the Stygian wave, 

6) Already I feel the plumage of my new form, 9-12 ; 

c) North and south, east and west, shall I fly in my course, 13-20 ; 

d) Therefore refrain from tears and weeping ; and rear no tomb 

in my honor when I seem to be gone, 21-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Non usitata nee tenui ferar 
Pinna biformis per liquidum aethera 
Vates, neque in terris morabor 
Longius invidiaque maior 

XX.] LIBER II. 79 

Urbes relinquam. Non ego, pauperum 5 

Sanguis parentum, non ego, quern vocas, 
Dilecte Maecenas, obibo 
Nee Stygia cohibebor unda. 

lam iam residunt cniribus asperae 
Pelles, et album mutor in alitem 10 

Superne, nascunturque leves 
Per digitos umerosque plumae. 

Iam Daedaleo tutior Icaro 
Yisam gementis litora Bosphori 

Syrtisque Gaetulas canorus 15 

Ales Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus et, qui dissimulat metum 
Marsae cohortis, Dacus et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni, me peritus 

Discet Hiber Rbodanique potor. 20 

Absint inani f unere neniae 
Luctusque turpes et querimoniae ; 
Compesce clamorem ac sepulcri 
Mitte supervacuos honores. 




The first six odes of Book III. form an organic whole. This is 
clear, not merely from the special lyrical form (Alcaic) in which 
they all are cast, but more particularly from their content. These 
six poems all emphasize the cardinal Roman virtues, which had 
made Rome great in the past, and to which, the poet declares, the 
rising generation must steadfastly cling to ensure the perpetuation 
of that greatness for the future. These virtues, in the order of 
their presentation in the successive odes, are simplicity of living 
{frugalitas), Ode I. ; endurance (patientia) and fidelity to a trust 
{fides), Ode II.; steadfastness of purpose in a righteous cause 
(iustitia atque constantid), Ode III.; wisdom and deliberation in 
action (consilium) j Ode IV. ; martial courage (virtus, fortitudo), 
Ode V. ; reverence for the gods and righteous doing (pietasycastitas), 
Ode VI. As befits a poet, Horace urges the importance of these 
fundamental virtues, not by way of systematic treatment or detailed 
analysis, but rather by a wealth of poetic illustration. The special 
theme of each ode is nowhere obtruded upon the reader ; in some 
of the odes, indeed, as, for example, the fourth, the central thought 
is kept carefully in the background, not being suggested till near 
the close. Nowhere has the poet evinced more art than in the 
opening odes of this book ; with fine instinct he has embodied the 
advocacy and enforcement of the loftiest ethical ideals in stanzais 



which, apart from the high purposes of his teaching, constitute some 
of the choicest verse he ever wrote. 

Whether or not composed at the express solicitation of Augustus, 
it is clear that these odes were intended to indorse and support 
the emperor in the social and religious reforms which he had 
inaugurated for promoting the stability and perpetuity of the 
Roman state. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Introductory to the series of the six odes, 1-4 ; 

b) As kings hold sway over their subjects, and as Jove holds 

sway over kings, so upon all men, despite their differences of 

outward station, does inexorable Destiny pronounce her 

decrees, 5-16 ; 
e) Not choice viands nor sound of music can bring sweet sleep, 

but only contentment with our humble lot and indifference 

to the blows of Fortune, 17-32 ; 
d) No palace, no galley, however swift, no purple, or wines, or 

perfumes, can secure us from fear and care ; and so why 

should I exchange my Sabine valley for a palace reared in 

the splendid fashion of the day ? 33-48. 

2. Time : Probably about 27 b.o. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

'Odi profanum volgus et arceo; 
Favete Unguis.' Carmina non priuB 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. 

Begom timendorum in proprios greges, 

Beges in ipsos imperium est lovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Guncta supercilio moventis. 


Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbusta sulcis, hie generosior 10 

Descendat in Campnm petitor, 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 

Contendat, illi turba clientium 
Sit maior ; aequa lege Necessitas 

Sortitur insignis et imos ; 15 

Omne capax movet urna nomen. 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
Dulcem elaborabunt saporem^ 
Kon avium citharaeque cantus 20 

Somnum reducent. Somnus agrestium 
Lenis virorum non humilis domos 
Fastidit umbrosamque ripam, 
Non zephyris agitata Tempe. 

Desiderantem quod satis est neque 25 

Tumultuosum soUicitat mare 
Nee saevos Arcttlri cadentis 
Impetus aut orientis Haedi^ 

Non verberatae grandine vineae 
Fundusque mendax, arbore nunc aquas 30 

Culpante, nunc torrentia agros 
Sidera, nunc biemes iniquas. 

Contracta pisces aequora sentiunt 
lactis in altum molibus : hue f requens 

Gaementa demittit redemptor 35 

Cum famulis dominusque terrae 

n.] LIBER ni. 88 

Fastidiosus. Sed Timor et Minae 
Scandunt eodem quo dominus^ neque 
Decedit aerata triremi et 

Post equitem sedet atra Gura. 40 

Quodsi dolentem nee Phrygius lapis 
Nee purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus nee Falerna 
Yitis Achaemeniumque costum : 

Cur invidendis postibus et novo 46 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores? 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Let our youDg soldiers learn to endure with patience the priva- 

tions of the field, and may they prove a terror to oiir foes ; 
for sweet and glorious is it to die for fatherland, while 
cowardice can expect only its just reward, 1-16 ; 

b) True worth, self-poised, recks not the judgment of the mob, 

but pursues serenely its own lofty course, 17-24 ; 

c) Praiseworthy, too, is he who is faithful to his trust; let no 

other share my hearth. Though the outraged god at times 
may not spare the innocent, yet the guilty never escape, 25-82. 

2. Time : Probably about 27 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Angustam amice pauperiem pati 
Kobustus acri militia puer 
Condiscat et Parthos ferocis 
Yexet eques metuendus basts. 

84 CABMmuM [n. 

Vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat 5 

In rebus. Ilium ex moenibus bosticis 
Matrona bellantis tyranni 
Frospiciens et adulta virgo 

Suspiret : ^ ebeu^ ne rudis agminum 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum lo 

Tactu leoneiU; quern cruenta 
Per medias rapit ka caedes.' 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. 
Mors et f ugacem persequitur virum, 
Nee parcit imbellis iuventae 16 

Poplitibus timidove tergo. 

Virtus, repulsae nescia sordidae, 
Intaminatis fulget bonoribus, 
Nee sumit aut ponit securis 

Arbitrio popularis aurae. 20 

Virtus, recludens immeritis mori 
Caelum, negata temptat iter via, 
Coetusque volgaris et udam 
Spernit bumum fugiente pinna. 

Est et fideli tuta silentio 26 

Merces : vetabo, qui Cereris sacrum 
Volgarit arcanae, sub isdem 

Sit trabibus fragilemque mecum 

Solvat pbaselon ; saepe Diespiter 
Neclectus incesto addidit integrum, ao 

Raro antecedentem seelestum 
Deseruit pede Poena claudo. 

in.] LIBER m. 85 



1. Outline of the Poem .* 

a) The man tenacious of his purpose in a righteous cause, no 
terrors of earth or heaven can move from his course, 1-8 ; 

6) 'Twas such merit that won divine honors for Pollux and Her- 
cules and Bacchus ; 'twas such merit on the part of Romulus 
that induced Juno to admit him to the ranks of the celes- 
tials, 9-36 ; 

c) But the goddess imposed conditions : * Provided a wide sea 

roll between Rome and Ilium ; provided the cattle and wild 
beasts roam with impunity over the site of ancient Troy and 
the ashes of Priam, let Rome extend her name and prowess 
to the confines of the world ; but let her never, in excess of 
devotion, think of restoring the walls of the ancient city. 
Should Troy thrice rise, thrice should she be destroyed by 
my Greeks,' 37-68. 

d) But cease, O Muse, to repeat the words of the gods, and to 

belittle great themes with thy trivial song 1 69-72. 

2. Time : About 27 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

lustum et tenacem propositi virum 
Non civium ardor prava iubentium, 
Non voltus instantis tyranni 
Mente quatit solida neque Auster, 

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae, 5 

Kec f ulminantis magna manus lovis i 
Si fractiis inlabatur orbis, 
( Impavidum ferient ruinae. 

Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas, 10 

Quos inter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibet ore nectar. 


Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae 
Vexere tigres, indocili iugum 

CoUo trahentes ; hac Quirlnus 10 

Martis equis Acheronta fugit^ 

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
lunone divis : * Ilion, Ilion 
Fatalis incestusque iudex 
Et mulier peregrina vertit 90 

In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Gastaeque damnatum Minervae 
Cum populo et duce fraudulento. 

lam nee Lacaenae splendet adulterae 25 

Famosus hospes nee Priami domus 
Periura pugnaces Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit, 

Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et gravis * 30 

Iras et invisum nepotem, 
Troica quem peperit sacerdos, 

Marti redonabo ; ilium ego lucidas 
Inire sedes, ducere nectaris 

Sucos et adscribi quietis 35 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion 
Bomamque pontus, qualibet exsules 
In parte regnanto beati ; 
Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

in.] LIBER III. 87 

Insultet armentum et catulos ferae 
Celent inultae, stet Capitolium 
Fulgens triumphatisque possit 
Roma f erox dare iura Media. 

Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 45 

Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 
Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus, 

Aurum inrepertum et sic melius situm. 
Cum terra eelat, spernere fortior 60 

Quam eogere humanos in usus 
Omne sacrum rapiente dextra. 

Quicumque mundo terminus obstitit, 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens, 

Qua parte debacchentur ignes, fiO 

Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 

Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 

Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii 

Rebusque iidentes avitae 

Tecta velint reparare Troiae. 00 

Troiae renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Coniuge me lovis et sorora 

Ter si resurgat murus a6neus 66 

Auctore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis, ter uxor 

Capta virum puerosque ploret.' 


Non hoc iocosae conveniet lyrae : 
Quo, Musa, t^ndis ? Desine pervicaz 70 

Beferre sermones deorum et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 



1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) Invocation to the Muse, 1-8 ; 

b) Horace's boyhood adventure on Mt. Vultur, 0-20 ; 

c) His devotion to the Muses ; 'tis as their minister that he visits 

his Sabine farm, his villa at Tivoli, or fair Baiae ; 'tis their 
care that has watched over him in the past and gives him 
heart to face the future, 21-86 ; 

d) The Muses lend cheer and comfort to Caesar, too ; more than 

that, they impart wise counsel also, against which no forces 
of evil can prevail, — no more than the Titans could prevail 
against the wisdom of the gods of Olympus, 37-64 ; 

e) Wisely ordered might will ever prosper, while brute force 

falls with its own weight, — witness the fates of Gyas, of 
Orion, of the giants, Tityos, and Pirithous, 65-80. 

2. Time : Probably about 27 b.g. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 48. 

Descende caelo et die age tibia 
Eegina longum Calliope melos^ 
Seu voce nunc mavis acuta. 
Seu fidibus citharaque Phoebi. 

Auditis^ an me ludit amabilis S 

Insania ? Audire et videor pios 
Errare per lucos, amoenae 
Quos et aquae subeunt et aurae. 

IV.] LIBER m. 89 


Me fabulosae Volture in avio 
Nutricis extra limen Apuliae 20 

Ludo fatigatumque somno 
Fronde nova puerum palumbes 

Texere, minim quod foret omnibus, 
Quicumque eelsae nidum Acherontiae 

Saltusque Bantinos et arvom 15 

Pingue tenent humilis Forenti, 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Dormirem et ursis, ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque conlataque myrto, 
Non sine dis animosus infans. 

Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos 
Tollor Sabinos, seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste seu Tibur supinum 
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 

Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 
Non me Philippis versa acies retro, 
Devota non extinxit arbor, 
Nee Sicula PalinfLrus unda. 

Uteumque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem navita Bosphorum 80 

Temptabo et urentis harenas 
Litoris Assyrii viator; 

Yisam Britannos hospitibus feros 
Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum, 
Visam pharetratos Gelonos 35 

Et Scythicum inviolatus amnem. 


Yos Caesarem aJtum, militia simul 
Fessas cohortes addidit oppidis, 
Finire quaerentem labores, 
Pieho recreatis antro. 40 

Yos lene consilium et datis et dato 
Gaudetis, almae. Scimus, ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turbam 
Fulmine sustulerit caduco^ 

Qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat 45 

Yentosum et urbes regnaque tristia, 
Divosque mortalisque turmas 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 

Magnum ilia terrorem intulerat lovi 
Fidens iuventus horrida bracchiis BO 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 

Quid Rhoetus evolsisque truncis 66 

Enceladus iaculator audax 

Contra sonantem Palladis aegida 
Possent ruentes ? Hinc avidus stetit 
Yolcanus, hinc matrona luno et 

Numquam umeris positurus arcum, 60 

Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
Crinis solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

v.] LIBER m. 91 

Yis consili expers mole ruit sua : 65 

Vim temperatam di quoque provehunt 
In maius ; idem odere viris 
Omne nefas animo moventis. 

Testis mearum centimanus Gyas 
Sententiarum, notus et integrae 70 

Temptator Orion Dianae, 
Yirginea domitus sagitta. 

Iniecta monstris Terra dolet suis 
Maeretque partus fulmine luridum 
Missos ad Orcum ; nee peredit 75 

Impositam celer ignis Aetnen, 

Incontinentis nee Tityi iecur 
Keliquit ales, nequitiae additus 
Gustos ; amatorem trecentae 
Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 80 

I/' V. 


1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) Jove^s thunders proclaim him god of the sky ; but Augustus 
will be recognized as a god on earth for his subjugation of 
the Britons and the Parthians, 1-4 ; 

5) The decay of Roman courage, as exemplified by the conduct 
of Crassus^s troops, — men who forgot their Roman birth- 
right, 5-12 ; 

c) *Twas no such spirit that Regulus displayed in the good old 
days. * Victory or death,' was then the watchword. * Ran- 
som not the man who has once surrendered 1 ' he urged ; 
* such a one will never again display true courage, no more 
than the wool once dyed can regain its whiteness ; no more 
than the deer will fight the hounds,' 13-40 ; 



d) The departure of Begulus : sternly repulsing wife and child, 
kinsmen and friends, he went away, well knowing to what 
doom, 41-66. 

2. Time : Probably about 27 b.g. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Caelo tonantem credidimus lovem 
Regnare ; praesens divos babebitur 
Augustus adiectis Britannis 
Imperio gravibusque Persis. 

Milesne Crassi coniuge barbara 5 

Turpis maritus vixit et hostium 
(Pro curia inversique mores I) 
Consenuit socerorum in armis 

Sub rege Medo, Marsus et Apulus, 
Anciliorum et nominis et togae 10 

Oblitus aeternaeque Vestae, 
Incolumi love et urbe Roma? 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli 
Dissentientis condicionibus 

Foedis et exemplo trahenti lA 

Perniciem veniens in aevom, 

Si non periret immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes.» ' Signa ego Punicis 
Adfixa delubris et arma 

Militibus sine caede' dixit 20 

* Derepta vidi, vidi ego civium 
Retorta tergo bracchia libero 
Portasque non clausas et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 

v.] LIBER m. 93 

Auto repensus scilicet acrior 26 

Miles redibjit. Flagitio additis 
Damnum : neque amissos colores 
Lana refert medicata fuco, 

Nee vera virtus, cum semel excidit. 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 30 

Si pugnat extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille f ortis 


Qui perfidis se credidit hostibus, 
Et Marte Poenos proteret altero, 
Qui lora restrictis lacertis 36 

Sensit iners timuitque mortem. 

Hie, unde vitam sumeret inscius, 
Pacem duello miscuit. O pudor 1 
O magna Carthago, probrosis 
Altior Italiae minis ! ' 40 

Fertur pudicae coniugis osculum 
Parvosque natos ut capitis minor 
Ab se removisse et virilem 
Torvos humi posuisse voltum, 

Donee labantis consilio patres 46 

Firmaret auctor numquam alias dato, 
Interque maerentis amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 

Atqui sciebat quae sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet. Non aliter tamen 60 

Dimovit obstantis propinquos 
Et populum reditus morantem, 

94 CAHMlNtJM [Vl. 

Qaam si clientum longa negotia 
Diiudicata lite relinqueret, . 
Tendens Venafranos in agros 66 

Aut Lacedaemonium Tarentam. 



1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) Restore, O Roman, the crumbling shrines and stataes of the 
gods ; all that thoa art thou owest to the gods ; their neglect 
has already brought upon Hesperia many woes, — from 
Parthian, Dacian, and Numidian, 1-16 ; 

6) From the family and the home threaten the greatest dangers. 
Our women are no longer pure, 17-32 ; 

c) Not of such pai'entage were the warriors who in former days 

dyed the waves with Punic blood and crushed Antiochus 
and Hannibal, 33-44 ; 

d) Alas the ravages of time 1 As we are less worthy than our sires, 

so our offspring promise to be more degenerate than we, 45-48. 

2. Time : Probably about 27 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Delicta maiorum immeritus lues, 
Komane, donee templa refeceris 
Aedisque labentis deorum et 
Foeda nigro simulacra f umo. 

Dis te minorem quod geris, imperas : 6 

Hinc omne principium ; hue refer exitum. 
Di multa neclecti dederunt 
Hesperiae mala luctuosae. 

lam bis Monaeses et Pacori manus 
Non auspicatos contudit impetus 10 

Nostros et adiecisse praedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet. 


Paene occupatam seditionibus 
Delevit urbem Dacus et Aethiops, 
Hie classe f ormidatus, ille IB 

Missilibus melior sagittis. 

Fecunda calpae saecula nuptias 
Primum inquinavere et genus et domos: 
Hoc f onte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque fluxit. 20 

Motus doceri gaudet lonicos 
Matura virgo et fingitur artibus 
lam nunc et incestos amores 
De tenero meditatur ungui. 

Mox iuniores quaerit adulteros 26 

Inter mariti vina, neque eligit 
Cui donet impermissa raptim 
Gaudia luminibus remotis, 

Sed iussa coram non sine cdnscio 
Surgit marito, seu vocat institor ao 

Sen navis Hispanae magister, 
Dedecorum pretiosus emptor. 

Non Ms iuventus orta parentibus 
Infecit aequor sanguine Punico 

Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 85 

Antiocbum Hannibalemque dirum; 

Sed rusticorum mascula militum 
Proles, Sabellis docta Jigonibus 
Versare glaebas et severae 

Matris ad arbitrium recisos 40 


Port^re f ustis, Sol ubi montium 
Mutaret umbras et iuga demeret 
Bobus fatigatis, amicum 
Tempus agens abeunte curru. 

Damnosa quid non imminuit dies ? ^ 

Aetas parentum, peior avis, tnlit 
Kos nequiores^ mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorQin. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Weep not, Asterie 1 With spring's first zephyrs thy lover will 

be back again, 1-5 ; 
5) Meanwhile he longs for thee, and yields not to the arts of 

those who plot to steal his love, 6-22 ; 
c) Bat do thoa thyself have a care lest thy affection be won by 

thy neighbor, Enipeos ; mighty he is in prowess ; but yield 

not to his advances, 22-32. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

Quid fles, Asterie, quern tibi caudidi 
Primo restituent vere Favonii 
Thyna merce beatum, 
Constantis iuvenem fide, 

Oygen ? Ille Notis actus ad Oricum 5 

Post insana Caprae sidera frigidas 
Noctes non sine multis 
Xnson^uis lacrimis agit. 


Atqui sollicitae nuntius hospitae, 
Suspirare Cbloen et miseram tuis 10 

Dicens ignibus uri, 
Temptat mille vafer modis. 

Ut Proetum mulier perfida credulum 
Falsis impulerit criminibus nimis 

Casto Belleropbontae 16 

Maturare necem ref ert ; 

Narrat paene datum Pelea Tartaro^ 
Magnessam Hippoly ten dum f agit abstinens ; 
Et peccare docentis 

Fallax historias movet. 20 

Frustra : nam scopulis surdior Icari 
Voces audit adhuc integer. At tibi 
Ne vicinus Enlpeus 
Plus iusto placeat cave ; 

Quamvis non alius flectere equom sciens 25 

Aeque conspicitur gramine Martio, 
Nee quisquam citus aeque 
Tusco denatat alveo. 

Prima nocte domum claude neque in vias 
Sub cantu querulae despice tibiae, 90 

Et te saepe vocanti 
Duram difficilis mane. 

98 CARMINUM [vni 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) What mean my flowers and offerings ? *Tis in commemora- 
tion of my escape from the falling tree, 1-8 ; 

h) This anniversary shall ever be the signal for good cheer, 0-12 ; 

c) Share thou my celebration, O Maecenas I Leave meanwhile 
the cares of state! Naught threatens from without; our 
foes are quelled ; enjoy the passing hour 1 13-28. 

2. Time: 20 B.o. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
Quid velint flores et acerra turis 
Plena miraris positusque carbo in 
Caespite vivo, 

Docte sermones utriusque linguae. 5 

Voveram dulcis epulas et album 
Libero caprum prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu. 

Hie dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem adstrictum pice demovebit lO 

Amphorae f umum bibere institutae 
Consule Tullo. 

Sume, Maecenas, cyatbos amici 
Sospitis centum et vigiles lucemas 
Perf er in lucem : procul omnis esto 15 

Clamor et ira. 


Mitte civilis super urbe curas : 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen, 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 
Dissidet armis, 

Servit Hispanae vetus bostis orae 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena, 
lam Scythae laxo meditantur area 
Cedere campis. 

Neclegens, nequa populus laboret, 
Parce privatus nimium cavere et 
Dona praesentis cape laetu3 horae ao 
Linque severa. 




1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Thb Loybr : ^ While I was dearer than all others to thee, my 

happiness knew no boands,' 1-4 ; 
6) Ltdia : » Nor mine, while I was thy only flame,' 6-8 ; 

c) The Lovek : * Chloe is my mistress now, and for her I*d 

suffer death itself,' 9-12 ; 

d) Ltdia : ^ Calais is my lover ; twice would I die for him,' 13-16 ; 

e) Thb Loyeb : ^ What if the old love be renewed, and Lydia 

be welcomed again ? ' 17-20 ; 
/) Ltdia : * Fair though he be, and fickle thou, with thee will I 
cast my lot,' 21-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

* Donee gratus eram tibi 

Kec quisquam potior bracchia candidae 
Cervici iuvenis dabat, 

Persarum vigui rege beatior.' 


' Donee non alia magis 5 

Arsisti neque erat Lydia post Cbloeiii 

Multi Lydia nominis 
Bomana vigui clarior Ilia.' 

* Me nunc Thressa Cbloe regit, 

Dulcis docta modos et citharae sciensi 10 

Pro qua non metuam mori, 
Si pareent animae fata superstiti.' 


' Me torret face mutua 

Thurini Calais filius Omyti, 
Pro quo bis patiar mori, 16 

Si pareent puero fata superstiti.' 

* Quid si prisca redit Venus 

Diductosque iugo cogit adneo ? 
Si flava excutitur Cbloe 

Beiectaeque patet ianua Lydiae ? ' 90 

' Quamquam sidere pulcbrior 
lUe est, tu levior cortice et improbo 

Iracundior Hadria, 
Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens I ' 

X.] LIBER IIL 101 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) No barbarian, Lyce, would be so cmel as art thou to let me 

lie outside thy door in wind and cold, 1-8 ; 

b) Banish thy haughty disdain, and have compassion on thy sup- 

pliant; not alway will I submit to such harsh treatment, 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.o. 

3. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

Extremum Tanain si biberes, Lyce, 
Saevo nupta viro, me tamen asperas 
Porrectum ante fores obicere ineolis 
Plorares Aquilonibus. 

Audis, quo strepitu ianua, quo nemus 6 

Inter pulcbra satum tecta remugiat 
Ventis, et positas ut glaciet nives 
Puro numine luppiter ? 

Ingratam Veneri pone superbiam, 
Ne currente retro funis eat rota : 10 

Non te Penelopen difficilem procis 
Tyrrbenus genuit parens. 

quamvis neque te munera nee preces 
Nee tinctus viola pallor amantium 
Nee vir Pieria paelice saucius 16 

Curvat, supplicibus tuis 

Parcas, nee rigida mollior aesculo 
Nee Mauris animum mitior anguibus. 
Non hoc semper erit liminis aut aquae 
Caelestis patiens latus. 20 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) O lyre of Mercury, cast the magic of thy spell upon the stub- 

born Lyde, who now resists the claims of Cupid, 1-12 ; 

b) Thy might, O lyre, can tame the tigers and stay the course 

of torrents ; it can even still the torment of those in Tarta- 
rus, — Ixion, Tityos, and the Danaids, 13-24 ; 

c) Let Lyde heed the fate of these, impious all but one, who, 

** gloriously false'* to her pledge, saved her lover, well 
knowing the risk it meant, 25-62. 

2 Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 
3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Mercuri (nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphlon lapides canendo), 
Tuque testudo resonare septem 
Callida nervis^ 

Nee loquax olim neque grata, nune et IS 

Divitum mensis et amiea templis, 
Die modos^ Lyde quibus obstinatas 
Applicet auris, 

Quae velut latis equa trima campis 
Ludit exsultim metuitque tangly 10 

Nuptiarum expers et adhuc protervo 
Gruda marito. 

Tu potes tigris comitesque silvas 
Ducere et rivos celeres morari ; 
Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 16 

lanitor aulae^ 

XL! LIBER m. 108 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput eius atque 
Spiritus taeter saniesque manet 

Ore trilingui. 20 

Quin et Ixlon Tityosque voltu 
Kisit invito, stetit urna paulum 
Sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 
Carmine mulces. 

Audiat Lyde scelus atque jiotas 
Virginum poenas et inane lymphae 
Dolium f undo pereuntis imo 
Seraque fata, 

Quae manent culpas etiam sub Oreo. 
Impiae (nam quid potuere mains?) 
Impiae sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multis face nuptiali 
Digna periurum f uit in parentem 
Splendide mendax et in omne virgo 
Nobilis aevom, 

* Surge ' quae dixit iuveni marito, 
< Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, unde 
Non times^ detur ; socerum et scelestas 
Falle sorores, 40 

Quae, velut nanctae vitulos leaenae, 
Singulos eheu lacerant : ego illis 
Mollior nee te feriam neque intra 
Claustra tenebo. 


Me pater saevis oneret catenis, 45 

Quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremos Numidarum in agros 
Classe releget. 

I, pedes quo te rapiunt et aurae, 
Dum f avet Nox et Venus ; i secundo 60 

Omine, et nostri memorem sepulcro 
Scalpe querellam/ 


1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) Hard is the lot of maidens who may not indulge Love's 

fancy or drown their cares in wine, for fear of being 

chidden by some stem guardian, 1-^ ; 
h) Ah me I all heart for my wonted tasks is driven away by the 

beauty of radiant Hebrus, who excels alike in feats of skill 

and prowess, 4-12. 

2. Time : Uncertain ^ not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metxe *. Ionic a Minore. Introd. § 61. 

Miserarum est neque amori dare ludum neque dulci 
Mala vino lavere aut exanimari metuentis 
Patruae verbera linguae. 

Tibi qualum GytberSae puer ales, tibi telas 
Operosaeque Minervae studium aufert, Neobale, 5 

Liparaei nitor Hebri, 

Simul unctos Tiberinis umepw lavit in undis, 
Eques ipso melior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 
Neque segni pede victus, 

Gatus idem per apertum fugientis agitato 10 

Grege cervos iaculari et eeler arto latitantem 
Fruticeto excipere aprum. 

XIIL] LIBER m. 105 

v^ XIII. 

1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) To-morrow, beauteous fount, shalt thou receive thy annual 
sacrifice, 1-8; 

&) Thy gracious coolness is vouchsafed to flock and herd ; im- 
mortal shalt thou be through the tribute of my verse, 9-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne inero non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis haedo, 
Cui frons turgida cornibus 

Primis et venerem et proelia destinat. 

Frustra: nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi suboles gregis. 

Te flagrantis atrox hora Oaniculae 
Nescit tangere, tu frig us amabile 10 

Fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes et pecori vago. 

Pies nobilium tu quoque fontium^ 
Me dicente cavis impositam ilicem 

Saxis^ unde loquaces is 

Lymphae desiliunt tuae. 




1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) Augustus is returning in triumph from his Spanish victo- 

ries, 1-4 ; 

b) Let all rejoice, his consort and his sister, matrons, boys, and 

maids, 5-12 ; 

c) This glorious day shall banish gloomy care for me ; my lad, 

bring perfumes hither, wine, and garlands ; command Neaera, 
too, to hasten to the feast ; but linger not, if she delay ; in 
other days I had not brooked refusal, 13-28. 

2. Time : 24 b.g. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, o plebs, 
Morte venalem petiisse laurum 
Caesar Hispana repetit penatis 
Victor ab ora. 

Unico gaudens mulier marito 5 

Prodeat iustis operata divis 
Et soror clari duels et decorae 
Supplice vitta 

Virginum matres iuvenumque nuper 
Sospitum. Vos, o pueri et puellae 10 

Kon yirum expertae, maleominatis 
Parcite verbis. 

Hie dies vere mihi festus atras 
Eximet curas ; ego nee tumultum 
Nee mori per vim metuam tenente 16 

Caesare terras. 


I, pete unguentum, puer, et coronas 
Et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum siqua potuit vagantem 
Fallere testa. 20 

Die et argutae properet Keaerae 
Murreum nodo cohibere crinem ; 
Si per invisum mora ianitorem 
Fiet, abito. 

Lenit albescens animos capillus 25 

Litium et rixae cupidos protervae ; 
Non ego hoc ferrem calidus iuventa 
Consule Planco. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) A truce to thy shameless flirtations, Chloris I Cease longer to 

frolic among maidens, and cast a shadow on their fair com- 
pany, 1-8 ; 

b) Leave such gayety to thy daughter PholoS ; thee household tasks 

become, — not the lyre, the rose, and jars of wine, 8-16. 

2. Time: Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadeau. Introd. § 46. 

Uxor pauperis Ibyci, 

Tandem nequitiae fige modum tuae 
Famosisque laboribus ; 

Maturo propior desine funeri 

Inter ludere virgines 

±nier maere virgines 

Et stellis nebulam spargere candidis. 
Non, siquid Pholoen, satis 

Et te^ Chlori^ decet : filia rectius 


Expugnat iuvenum domos, 

Pulso Thyias uti concita tympano. 10 

Illam cogit amor Nothi 

Lascivae similem ludere capreae ; 

Te lanae prope nobilem 

Tonsae Luceriam, non citharae decent 
Nee flos purpureus rosae 15 

Nee poti yetulam faece tenus cadi 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The power of gold : It laughed at AcriBius's towers aud guards ; 

it corrupts courts; destroys citadels; works the ruiu of 
prophets even ; lays cities and dynasties in the dust ; and 
sounds the doom of famous captains, 1-ljS ; 

b) But its possession brings care and restlessness ; true riches is 

to be contented with a little ; my Sabine farm gives me more 
joy than would a fertile province ; happy he to whom the 
god with sparing hand has given just enough, 17-44. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

Inclusam Danaen turris aenea 
Robustaeque fores et vigilum canum 
Tristes excubiae munierant satis 
Noctumis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium Virginia abditae 6 

Custodem pavidum luppiter et Venus 
Brisissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 
Converso in pretium deo. 


Aurum per medios ire satellites 
Et perruinpere amat saxa, potentius lO 

Ictu fulmineo: concidit auguris 
Argivi domus^ ob lucrum 

Demersa exitio ; diffidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos 
Keges muneribus ; munera navium 15 

Saevos inlaqueant duces. 

Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam 
Maiorumque fames. lure perhorrui 
Late conspicuom tollere verticem, 
Maecenas, equitum decus. 20 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negaverit, 
Ab dis plura feret : nil cupientium 
Nudus castra peto et transf uga divitum 
Partis linquere gestio, 

Contemptae dominus splendidior rei, 25 

Quam si, quidquid arat impiger Apulus, 
Occultare meis dicerer horreis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 

Purae rivos aquae silvaque iugerum 
Paucorum et segetis certa fides meae 30 

Fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae 
Fallit sorte beatior. 

Quamquam nee Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
Nee Laestrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
Languescit mihi, uec pinguia Gallicis 35 

Crescunt vellera pascuis : 


Importuna tamen pauperies abest^ 
Kec si plura veliin tu dare deneges. 
Gontracto melius parva cupidine 
Yectigalia porriganiy 40 

Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Gampis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa ; bene est, cui deus obtulit 
Parca quod satis est manu. 


1. Outline of the Poem: The crow foretells a rainy morrow. 
Lamia. Gather some firewood while you may, and make ready for a 
meny time within the house. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.o. 
3* Metre : Alcaic Introd. § 48. 

Aeli yetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
Quando et priores hinc Lamias ferunt 
Benominatos et nepotum 

Per memores genus omne f astos ; 

Auctore ab illo duels originem, 6 

Qui Formiarum moenia dicitur 
Princeps et innantem Maricae 
Litoribus tenuisse Lirim^ 

Late tyrannus. Gras foliis nemus 
Multis et alga litus inutili 10 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Stemety aquae nisi f allit augur 

XVm.] LIBER m. Ill 

Annosa cornix. Dum potes^ aridum 
Compone lignum : eras Genium mero 
Curabis et porco bimenstri 15 

Cum famulis operum solutis. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Lend the blessing of thy presence to my flocks and fields, 

Faunus, if duly I pay thy annual sacrifice, 1-8 ; 

b) When thou art near, the whole countryside is glad, fiock and 

herd, and woodland, too, 9-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.g. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Faune, Nympharum fugientum amator. 
Per meos finis et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas abeasque parvis 
Aequos alumnis, 

Si tener pleno cadit haedus annOy I 

Larga nee desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina craterae, vetus ara multo 
Pumat odore. 

Ludit herboso pecus omne campo. 
Gum tibi nonae redeunt Deeembres ; 10 

Festus in pratis vacat otioso 
Cum bove pagus ; 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnos ; 
Spargit agrestis tibi silva frondes; 
Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor Ifi 

Ter pede terram. 




1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) No more learned lore I Consider rather when and where we 

may hold glad revel, 1-8 ; 

b) A health to the day, the hour, and our host Murena, 9-11 ; 

c) J jet each drink much or little as he will, 11-17 ; 

d) But let jollity rule the hour, with flute and lyre, and roses, 

that our neighbors may hear the din, with Rhode by thy 
side, Glycera by mine, 18-28. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 e.g. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Quantum distet ab Inacho 

Codrus pro patria non timidus mori 

Narras et genus Aeaci 

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio; 

Quo Chium pretio cadum fi 

Mercemur, quis aquam temperet ignibus, 

Quo praebente domum et quota 
Paelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 

Da lunae propere novae, 

Da noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 10 

Murenae : tribus aut novem 

Miscentor cyathis pocula commodis. 

Qui Musas amat imparis, 

Temos ter cyatho*' attonitus petet 

Vates ; tris prohibet supra IS 

Brixarum metuens tangere Gratia 


Nudis iuncta sororibus. 

Insanire iuvat : cur Berecyntiae 
Cessant flamina tibiae ? 

Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyra ? 20 

Parcentis ego dexteras 

Odi : sparge rosas ; audiat invidus 

Dementem strepitum Lycus 
Et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 

Spissa te nitidum coma, 25 

Puro te similem, Telephe, vespero 

Tempestiva petit Rhode ; 
Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meae. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) 'Tis at great peril, Pyrrhus, that tbou possessest thyself of 
young Nearchus. Soon the maid who claims him for her own 
will descend apon thee, and a pretty fight thereUl be, 1-8 ; 

6) But Nearchus is indifferent to the outcome, standing with flow- 
ing locks kissed by the breezes, as fair as Nireus or Gany- 
mede, 9-16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.g. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Non vides, quanto moveas periclo, 
Pyrrhe, (iaetulae catulos leaenae ? 
Dura post paulo fugies inaudax 
Proelia raptor^ 


Cum per obstantis iuvenum catervas 6 

Ibit insignem repetens Nearchum : 
Grande certamen, tibi praeda cedat, 
Maior an ilia. 

Interim, dum tu celeris sagittas 
Promis, haec dentes acuit timendos, 10 

Arbiter pugnae posuisse nudo 
Sub pede palmam 

Fertur et leni recreare vento 
Sparsum odoratis umerum capillis, 
Qualis aut Kireus fuit aut aquosa 15 

Kaptus ab Ida. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) goodly jar of Massic wine, fraught with whatever destiny, 

descend from thy store-room at the bidding of Corvinus, 
who'll not ignore thy claims, 1-12 ; 

b) Manifold are thy powers, O wine ; thou makest stubborn 

hearts to yield ; the secrets of the wise thou dost unlock, 
lending hope and courage to the troubled and the weak, 

c) If Liber, Venus, and the Graces but attend, we'll bide by thee 

till mom, 21-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.g. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

nata mecum consule Manlio, 
Seu tu querellas sive geris iocos 
Seu rixam et insanos amores 
Seu facilem, pia testa, somnum^ 

XXL] LIBER in. 116 

Quocumque lectum nomine Massicum 6 

Servas, moveri digna bono die, 
Descende Corvino iubente 
Promere languidiora vina. 

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te necleget horridus : 10 

Narrator et prisci Catonis 
Saepe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
Plerumque duro ; tu sapientium 

Curas et arcanum iocoso 15 

Consilium retegis Lyaeo ; 

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 

Viresque et addis cornua pauperi, 

Post te neque iratos trementi 

Kegum apices neque militum arma. 20 

Te Liber et si laeta aderit Venus 
Segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae 
Vivaeque producent lucernae, 
Dum rediens f ugat astra Phoebus. . 




1. Outline of the Poem : O maiden goddess, helper of women in 

travail, bless the pine tree that overhangs my home ! I prom- 
ise in return the yearly offering of a boar. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.g. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, 
Quae laborantis utero puellas 
Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, 
Diva triformis, 

Imminens villae tua pinus esto, 5 

Quam per exactos ego laetus annos 
Verris obliquom meditantis ictum 
Sanguine donem. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) A simple offering, Phidyle, insures thy crops and vines from 

blight, thy lambs from dire disease, 1-8 ; 

b) The sheep now grazing on Mt. Algidus is destined for the 
. priests, not thee, 9-16 ; 

c) Thou needst no costly sacrifice to make thy gods propitious ; a 

bit of salted meal suffices, 17-20. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.o. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Caelo supinas si tuleris manus 
Nascente luna, rustica Phidyle, 
Si ture placaris et homa 
Fruge Lares avidaque porca: 


Nec pestilentem sentiet Africum 5 

Fecunda vitis nee sterilem seges 
Rpbiginem aut dulces alumni 
Pomifero grave tempus anno. 

Nam quae nivali pascitur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et ilices 10 

Aut crescit Albanis in herbis 
Victima, pontificum securis 

Cerviee tinguet : te nihil attinet 
Temptare multa caede bidentium 

Parvos coronantem marine 15 

Rore deos f ragilique myrto. 

Immunis aram si tetigit manus, 
Non sumptuosa blandior hostia, 
Mollivit aversos Penatis 
Earre pio et saliente mica. 20 



1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) Though richer than the treasures of the Arabs or of India, 
thou canst not free thy soul from terror or the snare of 
Death, 1-8 ; 

&) Better the simple ways of Scythians or the Getae, whose homes 
are but their rolling wains, and whose dower but chastity 
and virtue, 9-24 ; 

c) Truest service will he render to the state, who shall curb our 
present license ; character, not laws, is what we need ; our 
thirst for wealth sends us to the four corners of the earth, 
and drives us far from Virtue's path, 26-44 ; 


d) To the temples or the sea with our useless gauds, the cause of 
all our woe 1 Let our lads learn hardihood, and their parents 
truth and justice, 45-^. 

2. Time : Probably about 28 b.o. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Intactis opulentior 

Thesauris Arabum et divitis Indiae 
Caemeutis licet occupes 

Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum ; 

Si figit adamantines 6 

Summis verticibus dira Necessitas 

GlavoSy non animum metu, 
Non mortis laqueis expedies caput. 

Campestres melius Scythac^, 

Quorum plaustra vagas iite trahunt domes, 10 
Vivont et rigidi Getae, 

Immetata quibus iugera liberas 

Fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

Kec cultura placet longior annua, 
Defunctumque laboribus U 

Aequali recreat sorte vicarius. 

Ulic matre carentibus 

Privignis mulier temperat innocens, 
Nee dotata regit virum 

Coniunx nee nitido fidit adultero. 2G 

Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus et metuens alterius viri 
Certo foedere castitas, 

Et peccare nefas aut pretium est mori. 

XXIV.] LIBER nL 119 

quisquis volet impias 26 

Gaedes et rabiem toUere civioaniy 
Si quaeret ' Pater urbium ' 

Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 

Eefrenare licentiam^ 

Clarus postgenitis : quateuus^ heu nefas, 90 

Virtutem incolumem odimus, 

Sublatam ex oculis quaerimus^ invidi. 

Quid tristes querimoniae, 

Si non supplicio culpa reciditur ; 
Quid leges sine moribus 86 

Vanae proficiunt ? si neque f ervidis 

Pars inclusa caJoribus 

Mundi nee Boreae finitimuin latus 

Durataeque solo nives 
Mercatorem abigunt, horrida caJlidi 40 

Vineunt aequora navitae, 
Magnum pauperies opprobrium iubet 

Quidvis et facere et pati, 

Virtutisque yiam deserit arduae. 

Vel nos in Capitolium, 46 

Quo clamor vocat et turba faventium^ 

Vel nos in mare proximum 

Gemmas et lapides aurum et inutile, 

Summi materiem mali, 

Mittamus, scelerum si bene paenitet. 80 

Eradenda cupidinis 

Fravi sunt elementa et tenerae nimis 


Mentes asperioribas 

Formandae studiis. . Kescit equo rudis 
Haerere ingenuos puer fift 

Venarique timet, ludere doctior, 

Sen Graeco iubeas trocho, 

Seu mails vetita legibus alea, 
Cum periura patris fides 

Gonsortem socium fallat et hospites eo 

Indignoque pecuniam 

Heredi properet. Scilicet improbae 
Crescunt divitiae ; tamen 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 

' XXV. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Whither, Bacchiu, dost thou hurry me through wood and glen 

in fresh inspiration, planning to sing great Caesar's praise ? 

b) Like a Bacchanal beholding Hebrus^s flood and the snowy 

plains of Thrace, I love to gaze on grove and river bank. 
Suffer me, O mighty God, to strike no mortal note, as I fol- 
low thee, my temples wreathed with vine leaves, ^20. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.g. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

Plenum ? Quae nemora aut quos agor in specus, 
Velox mente nova ? Quibus 

Antris egregii Caesaris audiar 

Aeternum meditans decus 8 

Stellis inserere et consilio lovis ? 
Dicam insigne, recens, adhuc 

Indictum ore alio. Non secus in iugis 


Exsomnis stupet Euhias, 

Hebnim prospiciens et nive candidam 10 

Thracen ac pede barbaro 

Lustratam Ehodopen, ut mihi devio 

Ripas et vacuom nemus 
Mirari libet. Naiadum potens 

Baccharumque valentium 15 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos, 

Nil parvom aut humili modo, 

Nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum est, 
O Lenaee, sequi deum 

Cingentem viridi tempora pampino. 20 

] XXVT. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Not long ago I served with glory in the lists of Love ; but now 

I ofEer up at Venus' s shrine all tokens of my former tri- 
umphs, — lyre, and torch, and bar, 1-8 ; 

b) But yet, one final boon ; touch Chloe's stubborn heart, before 

I go, 9-12. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not later than 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Vixi duellis nuper idoneus 
Et militavi non sine gloria ; 
Nunc arma defunctumque bello 
Barbiton hie paries habebit, 

Laevom marinae qui Veneris latus 5 

Custodit. Hie, hie ponite lucida 
Funalia et vectes et arcus 
Oppositis foribus minacis. 


quae beatam diva tenes Cyprum et 
Memphin carentem Sithonia nive, 10 

Eegina, sublimi flagello 

Tange Chloen semel arrogantem. 



1« Outline of the Poem : 

a) May evil omens attend the wicked, fair ones my friends. A 

blessing on thee, Galatea, wherever thou goest, and may no 
ill betide, 1-16 ; 

b) Yet beware the rising storm. *Twas such rashness sealed 

Europa's doom, 17-28 ; 

c) Europa^s lament : ^ Whence, whither, have I come, abandoning 

home and duty ? One death is too little for such a sin. Do 
I wake, or am I dreaming ? Let me become the prey of lions 
or of tigers I Or swing my body from the limb of yonder 
ash, or cast it on the jagged rocks I ' 29-66 ; 

d) But Venus : ' Thou art the spouse of Jove invincible. Come, 

stay thy sobs I A district of the world shall bear thy name,* 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.o. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Impios parrae recinentis omen 
Ducat et praegnas canis aut ab agro 
Eava decurrens lupa Lanuvino 
Fetaque volpes ; 

Eumpat et serpens iter institutum, 5 

Si per obliquom similis sagittae 
Terniit mannos : ego cui timebo, 
Providus auspex, 

xxvn.] LIBER m. 123 

Antequam stantis repetat paludes 
Imbrium divina avis imiDinentuin, 10 

Oscinem corvom prece suscitabo 
Soils ab orta. 

Sis licet felix, ubicumque mavis, 
Et memor nostri, Galatea, vivas ; 
Teque nee laevos vetet ire picus 15 

Nee vaga comix. 

Sed vides, quanto trepidet tumultu 
Pronus Orion. Ego quid sit ater 
Hadriae novi sinus et quid albus 
Peccet lapyx. 20 

Hostium uxores puerique caecos 
Sentiant motus orientis Austri et 
Aequoris nigri fremitum et trementis 
Verbere ripas. 

Sic et Europe niveum doloso 26 

Credidit tauro latus et scatentem 
Beluis pontum mediasque f raudes 
Palluit audax. 

Nuper in pratis studiosa florum et 
Debitae Nymphis opifex coronae 30 

Nocte sublustri nihil astra praeter 
Vidit et undas. 

Quae simul centum tetigit potentem 
Oppidis Creten, " Pater, o relictum 
Filiae nomen pietasque " dixit 35 

" Victa furore. 


IJnde quo veni ? Levis una mors est 
Virginum culpae. Vigilansne ploro 
Turpe commissum an vitiis carentem 
Ludit imago 40 

Yana, quae porta fugiens ebuma 
Somnium ducit ? Meliusne fluctus 
Ire per longos fuit an recentis 
Carpere flores ? 

Siquis infamem mihi nunc iuvencum 40 

Dedat iratae, lacerare ferro et 
Frangere enitar modo multum amati 
Cornua monstri. 

Impudens liqui patrios Penates, 
Impudens Orcum moror. deorum fiO 

Siquis haec audis, utinam inter errem 
Kuda leones ! 

Antequam turpis macies decentis 
Occupet malas teneraeque sucus 
Defluat praedae, speciosa quaero 05 

Pascere tigris. 

' Vilis Europe/ pater urget absens : 
' Quid mori cessas ? Potes hac ab orno 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 
Laedere coUum. 60 

Sive te rupes et acuta leto 
Saxa delectant, age te procellae 
Crede veloci, nisi erile mavis 
Carpere pensum 


Regius sanguis dominaeque tradi 65 

Barbarae paelex.' " Aderat querenti 
Perfidum ridens Venus et remisso 
Filius arcu. 

Mox ubi lusit satis, " abstineto " 
Dixit " irarum calidaeque rixae, 70 

Cum tibi invisus laceranda reddet 
Cornua taurus. 

Uxor invicti lovis esse nescis. 
Mitte singultus, bene ferre magnam 
Disce f ortunam ; tua sectus orbis 76 

Nomina ducet." 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Bring forth for Neptune's feast a jar of mellow Caecuban, and 

storm the stronghold of sobriety, 1-8 ; 

b) Then let us sing in turn of Neptune and the Nereids, Latona 

and Diana's shafts, Venus and Night, ^16. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 23 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam ? Prome reconditum, 
Lyde, strenua Caecubum 

Munitaeque adhibe vim sapientiae. 

Inclinare meridiem 5 

Sentis ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 

Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram. 


Kos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum et viridis Nereidum comas ; M 

Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam et celeris spicula Cynthiae ; 

Siimmo carmine, quae Cnidon 
Fulgentisque tenet Cycladas et Paphum 

lunctis visit oloribus ; 15 

Dicetur merita Nox quoque nenia. 




1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) A freshly opened jar awaits thee at my home, Maecenas ; come 
tear thyself away from cares of state ai)d taste of country 
joys, 1-28 ; 

6) The future we may not guess : but each day's duty rightly met 
brings tranquil peace ; what once we've had, no power can 
take away ; while Fortune bides, I bless her ; when she takes 
her flight, I trust the gods to bear me safe through every 
gale, 29-64. 

2. Time : 20 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
Non ante verso lene merum cado 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum et 
Pressa tuis balanus capillis 

lamdudum apud me est : eripe te morae, 6 

Ne semper udum Tibur et Aefulae 
Declive contempleris arvom et 
Telegoni iuga parricidae. 

XXIX.] LIBER m. 127 

Fastidiosam desere copiam et 
Molem propinquam nubibas arduis, 10 

Omitte mirari beatae 
Eumum et opes strepitumque Romae. 

Plerumque gratae divitibus vices 
Mundaeque parvo sub lare pauperum 
Cenae sine aulaeis et ostro 15 

Sollicitam explicuere frontem. 

lam clarus occultum Andromedae pater 
Ostendit ignem, iam Procyon furit 
Et Stella vesani Leonis 

Sole dies referente siccos ; 20 

lam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
Rivomque fessus quaerit et horridi 
Dumeta Silvani, caretque 
Ripa vagis tacituma ventis. 

Tu civitatem quis deceat status 85 

Curas et urbi sollicitus times, 
Quid Seres et regnata Gyro 
Bactra parent Tanaisque discors. 

Prudens futuri temporis exitum 
Galiginosa nocte premit deus, 80 

Ridetque si mortalis ultra 
Eas trepidat. Quod adest memento 

Componere aequos ; cetera fluminis 
Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 
Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 
In mare, nunc lapides adesos 


Stirpesque raptas et pecus et domos 
Volventis una non sine montiam 
Clamore vicinaeque silvae, 

Cum fera diluvies quietos 40 

Inritat amnis. lUe potens sui 
Laetusque deget, cut licet in diem 
Dixisse ' vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum pater occupato 

Vel sole puro ; non tamen irritum, 40 

Quodcumque retro est, efficiet, neque 
Diffinget infectumque reddet, 
Quod f ugiens semel hora vexit. 

Fortuna saevo laeta negotio et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinax 60 

Transrautat incertos honores, 
Nunc mi hi, nunc alii benigna. 

Laudo manentem ; si celeris quatit 
Pinnas, resign© quae dedit et mea 

Virtute me involvo probamque 65 

Pauperiem sine dote quaero. 

Non est meum, si mugiat Africis 
Mains procellis, ad miseras preces 
Decurrere et votis pacisci, 

Ke Cypriae Ty-riaeque merces 00 

Addant avaro divitias mari : 
Tum me biremis praesidio scaphae 
Tutum per Aegaeos tumultus 
Aura feret geminusque Pollux/ 


^ XXX. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) These lays, I ween, will be a loftier monument than brazen 

tablets or the pyramids' royal pile, indestructible by storm 

or time, 1-6 ; 
&) I shall not die, but, while great Rome endures, my fame shall 

be imperishable, 6-14 ; 
c) Accept, O Muse, the tribute richly earned, and crown my locks 

with Apollo's bays, 14-16. 

2. Time : 23 B.C. 

3. Metre : First Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Exegi monumentum aere perennius 

Regalique situ pyramidum altius, 

Quod nou imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere aut innumerabilis 

Annorum series et fuga temporum. 6 

Non omnis moriar multaque pars mei 

Vitabit Libitinam : usque ego postera 

Crescam laude recens. Dum Capitolium 

Scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex, 

Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus 10 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agi*estium 

Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens 

Princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos 

Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 

Quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica 15 

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. 



^ I. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Cease, O goddess, to lure me again into the snares of passion ! 


b) Seek the hearts of younger men I Paulus is meet to be thy 

standard-bearer. Flushed with triumph in thy cause, he 
shall build thee a glorious temple near the Alban Lake, 
where lads and maidens shall duly praise thy power with 
song and sacrifice, 8-28 ; 

c) Me, neither maid nor boy nor wine nor garland longer de- 

lights, barring, my Ligurinus, one final pang for thee, 29-40. 

2. Time: About 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 46. 

Intermissa, Venus, diu 

Rursus bella moves. Parce, precor, precor. 
Kon sum quails eram bonae 

Sub regno Cinarae. Desine, dulcium 

Mater saeva Cupidinum, S 

Circa lustra decem flectere mollibus 

lam durum imperils : abl, 

Quo blandae iuvenum te revocant preces. 


L] LIBER IV. 131 

Tempestivius in domum 

Paali, purpureis ales oloribus, 10 

Comissabere Maximi, 

Si torrere iecur quaeris idoneum. 

Namque et nobilis et decens 

Et pro sollicitis non tacitus reis 
Et centum puer artium 15 

Late signa feret militiae tuae; 

Et quandoque potentior 

Largi muneribus riserit aemuli, 
Albauos prope te lacas 

Ponet marmoream sub trabe citrea. 20 

Illic plurima naribus 

Duces tura lyraeque et Berecyntiae 
Delectabere tibiae 

Mixtis carminibus non sine fistula ; 

Illic bis pueri die 2B 

Numen cum teneris virginibus tuom 

Laudantes pede candido 

In morem Salium ter quatient humum. 

Me nee femina nee puer 

lam nee spes animi credula mutui 30 

Nee certare iuvat mero 

Nee vincire novis tempera floribus. 

Sed cur heu, Ligurine, cur 
Manat rara meas lacrima per genas ? 

Cur facunda parum decoro 35 

Inter verba cadit lingua silentio ? 


Nocturnis ego somniis 

lam captum teneo, iam volucrem sequor 
Te per gramina Martii 

Campi, te per aquas, dure, volubilis. 40 




1. Occasion of the Poem : In the year 16 b.c. the Sygambrians and 
other German tribes had crossed the Rhine and created consternation 
by a formidable invasion of Gaul. Augustus repaired to the scene of 
disturbance, and remained there for the next three years, until the 
subjugation of the invaders was complete. In anticipation of his re- 
turn, Julus Antonius (son of Mark Antony, and step-son of Octavia, 
the sister of Augustus) calls upon Horace to compose a triumphal 
ode. Horace declines the task in favor of Antonius, who was not 
merely a poet of merit, but also a special favorite of the Emperor. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Hazardous were the attempt to rival mighty Pindar in dithy- 

ramb, in ode, in hymn, or mournful elegy, 1-27 ; 

b) Far less ambitious must be the efforts of my humble Muse, 


c) Thine be the task, Antonius, to sing the triumphs of glorious 

Caesar, than whom the gods have given to earth no greater 
blessing, 33-44 ; 

d) To thy loftier song, some simple lay I then may add, and join 

thee with my humble sacrifice, 45-60. 

3. Time : 13 b.c. 

4. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari, 
lule, ceratis ope Daedalea 
Kititur pinnis vitreo daturus 
Komina ponto. 

IL] LIBER IV. 138 

Monte decorrens yelut amnis, imbres 5 

Quern super notas aJuere ripas, 
Fervet immensusque ruit prof undo 
Pindarus ore, 

Laurea donandus Apollinari, 
Seu per audacis nova dithyrambos ]€ 

Verba devolvit numerisque fertur 
Lege solutis, 

Seu deos regesve canit, deorum 
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere iusta 
Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae 15 

Flamma Chimaerae, 

Sive quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma caelestis pugilemve equomve 
Dicit et centum potiore signis 

Munere donat, 20 

Flebili sponsae iuvenemve raptum 
Plorat et viris animumque moresque 
Aureos educit in astra nigroque 
Invidet Oreo. 

Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum, 35 

Tendit, Antoni, quotiens in altos 
Kubium tractus. Ego apis Matinae 
More modoque 


Grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
Plurimum circa nemus uvidique 
Tiburis ripas operosa parvos 
Carmina fingo. 


Goncines maiore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, qaandoque trahet ferocis 
Per sacrum clivom merita decorus 86 

Fronde Sygambros ; 

Quo nihil mains meliusve terris 

Fata donavere bonique divi, 

Nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 

Tempora priscum. 40 

Goncines laetosque dies et urbis 
Publicum ludum super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu forumque 
Litibus orbum. 

Turn meae, siquid loquar audiendum, 46 

Vocis accedet bona pars, et * sol 
Pulcher, o laudande ! ' canam recepto 
Gaesare felix. 

Tuque dum procedis, * lo triumphe ! ' 
Non semel dicemus, ' io triumphe ! ' 60 

Givitas omnis dabimusque divis 
Tura benignis. 

Te decem tauri totidemque vaccae, 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 
Matre qui largis iuvenescit herbis 65 

In mea vota, 

Fronte curvatos imitatus ignis 
Tertium lunae referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit, niveus videri, 

Cetera fulvos. fjo 


i/ III. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The child of thy choice, Melpomene, is destined not for victory 
in boxing, in racing, or in war. Contemplation of stream 
and grove shall form his voice for song, 1-12 ; 

5) O mighty mistress of the golden lute, 'tis from thee alone that 
all my glory springs, 18-24. 

2. Time : Between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Asclepiadean. Introd. § 40. 

Quern tu, Melpomene, semel 
Nascentem placido lumine videris, 

Ilium non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem, non equos impiger 

Curru ducet Achaico 5 

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 
Ornatum foliis ducem, 

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 

Ostendet Capitolio; 

Sed quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluont 10 

Et spissae nemorum comae 

Fingent Aeolio carmine nobilem. 

Eomae principis urbium 

Dignatur suboles inter amabilis 
Vatum ponere me choros, 16 

Et iam dente minus mordeor invido. 

O testudinis aureae 

Dulcem quae strepitum, Fieri, temperas, 
O mutis quoque piscibus' 

Donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum, 20 


Totum miineris hoc tui est, 
Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 

Bomanae fidicen lyrae : 
Quod spiro et placeo, si placeo, tuom est. 



1. Occasion of the Poem : For some years the Vindelici and Raeti, 
two northern tribes, had ravaged the Roman frontiers by their fre- 
quent incursions. At length in 15 b.c. they were defeated by Drusus, 
the stepHBon of Augustus. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Like a young eagle swooping down upon the fold, or like a 

lion mangling a grazing roe, so did Drusus descend upon the 
Raetians and Vindelici, and show these long victorious 
hordes how resistless are the head and heart nurtured by 
Augustuses love and counsel, 1-28 ; 

b) Not birth alone suffices ; there must be wise breeding, too ; 

else disgrace ensues, 20-36 ; 

c) To the Claudian house, O Rome, thy debt is great. Think 

only of Metaurus^s fight, of slain Hasdrubal, and HannibaPs 
great tribute to the race that thrives best when with disaster 
crowned, 37-72 ; 

d) No failure can befall the Claudian arms, blessed as they are with 

the favor of Jove and the wise direction of our Emperor, 73-76. 

3. Time : 15 b.c. 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Qualem ministrum f ulminis alitem^ 
Cui rex deorum regnum in avis vagas 
Permisit expertus fidelem 
luppiter in Ganymede flavo, 

Olim iuventas et patrius vigor fi 

Nido laborum propulit inscium, 
Vernique iam nimbis remotis 
Insolitos docuere nisus 

IV.] LIBER IV. 137 

Venti paventem, mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem vividus impetus, 10 

Nunc in reluctantis dracones 
Egit amor dapis atque pugnae j 

Qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenta fulvae matris ab ubere 

lam lacte depulsum leonem 15 

Dente novo peritura vidit : 

Videre Raetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici ; (quibus 
Mos unde deductus per omne 
Tempus Amazonia securi 20 

Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli, 
Kec scire fas est omnia) sed diu 
Lateque victrices catervae 
Consiliis iuvenis revictae 

Sensere, quid mens, rite quid indoles 25 

Nutrita faustis sub penetralibus 
Posset, quid Augusti paternus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis ; 
Est in iuvencis, est in equis patrum 90 

Virtus, neque imbellem f eroces 
Progenerant aquilae columbam. 

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Bectique cultus pectora roborant ; 

Utcumque defecere mores, 85 

Indecorant bene na^ culpae. 


Quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibns, 
Testis Metaurum flumeu et Hasdrubal 
Devictus et pulcher f ugatis 
lUe dies Latio tenebris, 40 

Qui primus alma risit adorea. 
Dims per urbes Afer ut Italas 
Geu flamma per taedas vel Eurus 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 45 

Bomana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata Poenorum tumultu 
Fana deos habuere rectos. 

Dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal : 
' Cervi luporum praeda rapacium, 00 

Sectamur ultro, quos opimus 
Fallere et effugere est triumphus. 

Gens, quae cremate fortis ab Ilio 
lactata Tuscis aequoribus sacra 
NatQsque maturosque patres 05 

Pertulit Ausonias ad urbesi 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus 
Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per damna, per caedes ab ipso 

Ducit opes animumque ferro. 00 

Non hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem, 
Monstrumve submisere Colchi 
Mains Echioniaeve Thebae. 

v.] LIBER IV. 189 

Merses profundo, pulchrior evenit $ 86 

Luctere, multa proruit integrum 
Cum laude victorem geritque 
' Proelia coniugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini iam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit ID 

Spes omnis et fortuna nostri 
Nominis Hasdrubale interempto/ 

Nil Claudiae non perficient manus^ 
Quas et benigno numine luppiter 
Def endit et curae sagaces 99 

Expediunt per acuta bellL 



1. Occasion of the Poem : The ode seems to have been prompted 
by the longing of the people for the return of Augustus from his north- 
ern campaign (16-13 b.c); see Introd. to Ode II. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a^ Return to thy people, guardian of the race of Romulus, for 
whom we yearn as a mother for her son long absent across 
the sea, 1-16 ; 

by Under thy benign sway, fertility, peace, uprightness, chastity 
reign everywhere ; yea, we even entreat thy name in prayer, 
and beg the gods that long thou mayest live to bless Hesperia 

3. Time : 13 b.c. 

4. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

Divis orte bonis, optume Romulae 
Gustos gentis, abes iam nimium diu ; 
Maturum reditum pollicitus patrum 
Sancto concilio redi. 


Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae : h 

Instar veris enim voltus ubi tuos 
Adf ulsit populOy gratior it dies 
Et soles melius nitent. 

Ut mater iuvenem, quern Notus invido 
Flatu Carpathii trans maris aequora 10 

Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
Dulci distinet a domo, 

Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
Curve nee f aciem litore demovet : 
Sic desideriis icta Melibus IB 

Quaerit patria Caesarem. 


Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat, 
Nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas, 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae ; 

Culpari metuit fides, 90 

KuUis polluitur casta domus stupris, 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas, 
Laudantur simili prole puerperae, 
Culpam poena premit comes. 

Quis Parthum paveat, quis gelidum Scythen, 25 
Quis Germania quos horrida parturit 
Fetus, incolumi Caesare? quis ferae 
Bellum curet Hiberiae ? 

Condit quisque diem coUibus in suis, 
Et vitem viduas ducit ad arbores ; 30 

Hinc ad vina redit laetus et alteris 
Te mensis adhibet deum ; 

VL] LIBER IV. 141 

Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
Defuso paterisy et Laribus tuom 
Miscet numen, uti Graecia Castoris 3S 

Et magni memor Herculis. 

' Longas o utinain, dux bone, ferias 
Praestes Hesperiae ! ' dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 
Gum sol Oeeano subest. 40 



1. Occasion of the Poem : In the year 17 b.c. Augastus commis- 
sioned Horace to write the Carmen^ Saeculare, a hymn to be sung at 
the Saccular festival occurring that year. The present ode is an invo- 
cation to Apollo, begging help and inspiration for that important task. 

2. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) O mighty god, punisher of proud Niobe and Tityos, director 

of the hand that laid Achilles low, master of the lyre, lend 
thy inspiration to my humble song, 1-28 ; 

b) boys and maidens, keep the time of my Lesbian measure, as 

ye hymn the praises of Latona^s children. In after years 
the memory of this day may mean no little glory, 29-44. 

3. Time : 17 b.c. 

4. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Dive, quern proles Niobea magnae 
Vindicem linguae Tityosque raptor 
Sensit et Troiae prope victor altae 
Phthius Achilles, 

Ceteris maior, tibi miles impar, fi 

Filius quamvis Thetidis marinae 
Dardanas turris quateret tremenda 
Cuspide pugnax. 


lUe^ mordaci velut icta ferro 
Pinus aut' impulsa cupressus Euro, 10 

Procidit late posuitque coUum in 
Pulvere Teucro. 

nie non inclusus equo Minervae 
Sacra mentito male feriatos 
Troas et lactam Piiami choreis 15 

Falleret aulam ; 

Sed palam captis gravis, heii nefas, heu, 
Nescios fari pueros Achivis 
Ureret flammis, etiam latentem 
Matris in alvo, 20 

Ni tuis victus Venerisque gratae 
Vocibus divom pater aduuisset 
Eebus Aeneae potiore ductos 
Alite muros. 

Doctor argutae fidicen Thaliae, 25 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crinis, 
Dauniae defende decus Camenae, 
Levis Agyieu. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem 
Carminis nomenque dedit poetae. 90 

Virginum primae puerique claris 
Patribus orti, 

Deliae tutela deae, fugacis 
Lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem meique 85 

PoUicis ictum, 

Vn.] LIBER IV. 143 

Rite Latonae puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosperain frugum celeremque pronos 

Volvere mensis. 40 

Nupta iam dices * Ego dis amicum, 
Saeculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen docilis modorum 
Vatis Horati.' 

] VII. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The snows have sped, Nature again clothes herself in living 

green, and Nymphs and Graces lead again the dancing bands, 

&) The changing seasons bid us reflect how brief is our earthly 

life, 7-18 ; 
c) Lay not up treasure for some eager heir I Enjoy rather thy 

present stores t Death's fetters know no loosing, 19-28. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : First Archilochian. Introd. § 55. 

Diffugere nives, redeunt iam gramina campis 

Arboribusque comae ; 
Mutat terra vices et decrescentia ripas 

Flranina praetereunt ; 

Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet 5 

Ihicere nuda clioros. 
Immortalia ne speres, monet annus et almum 

Quae rapit hora diem. 

144 CABMINUM [vn. 

Frigora mitescimt zephyris, ver proterit aestas 
Interitura, simul lo 

Pomifer autumnus fruges efifuderit, et mox 
Bruma recurrit iners. 

Damna tain en celeres reparant caelestia lunae; 

Nos ubi decidimus, 
Quo plus Aeneas, quo Tullus dives et Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 

Quis scit an adiciant hodiernae erastina summae 

Tempora di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient heredis, amico 

Quae dederis animo. 20 

Cum semel occideris et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria, 
Kon, Torquflte, genus, non te faeundia, non te 

Eestituet pietas ; 

Infernis neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum 25 

Liberat Hippolytum, 
Nee Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

Vincula Pirithoo. 

VnL] LIBER IV. 145 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Gladly, Censorinus, would I give bowls and bronzes, tripods, 

and statues such as Scopas chiselled, had I but store of 

these, 1-8 ; 
&) But I have not, nor carest thou lor such ; a better gift I have, 

— my verse, 9-12 ; 
c) 'Tis the poet that lendeth glory to the great ; how else were 

Scipio, and Romulus, and Aeacus saved from oblivion? 


2. Time: Uncertain ; between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : First Asclepiadean. Introd. § 45. 

Donarem pateras grataque commoduSy 

Censorlne, meis aera sodalibus, 

Donarem tripodas, praeinia fortium 

Graiorum, neque tu pessuma munenim 

Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, 5 

Quas aut Parrhasius protulit aut Scopas, 

Hie saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 

Sollers nunc hominem ponere, nunc deum. 

Sed non haec mihi vis, non tibi talium 

Ees est aut animus deliciarum egens. 10 

Gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 

Donare et pretium dicere muneri. 

Non incisa notis marmora publicis. 

Per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 

Post mortem ducibus, non celeres fugae 16 

Reiectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, 

Non incendia Carthaginis impiae 

Eius, qui domita nomen ab Africa 

Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 

Laudes quam Calabrae Pierides neque, 20 

146 CARMINUM fix. 

Si chartae sileant quod bene f eceris, 

Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 

Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 

Obstaret mentis invida Romuli ? 

Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum 25 

Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 

Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 

Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori. 

Caelo Musa beat. Sic lovis interest 

Optatis epulis impiger Hercules, 30 

Clanim Tyndaridae sidus ab intimis 

Quassas eripiunt aequoribus rates^ 

Ornatus viridi tempora pampino 

Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 



1. Ontline of the Poem : 

a) Think not that my verse shall perish. Homer, *tis true, is first 

of bards ; yet the songs of other poets may hope to live as 
well, 1-12 ; 

b) Helen was not the first to yield to the persuasive words of a 

paramour, and many a brave hero lived before Agamemnon^s 
day. Why do we know them not ? They lacked the bard 
to chronicle their deeds, 13-80 ; 

c) Thee, O LoUius, I'll save from such a fate. Here be thy lofty 

soul, thy wisdom, thy integrity, fit subject of my song! 

2. Time : About 16 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Ne forte credas interitura quae 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum 
Non ante volgatas per artis 
Verba loquor socianda chordie : 

IX] LIBER IV. 147 

Kon, si priores Maeonius tenet 

Sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent 
Ceaeque et Alcaei minaces 

Stesichorique graves Cainenae ; 

Nee siquid olim lusit Anacreon 
Delevit aetas ; spirat adhuc amor 10 

Vivontque commissi calores 
Aeoliae fidibus puellae. 

Non sola comptos arsit adulteri 
Crinis et aurum vestibus illitum 

]\Iirata regalisque cultus 15 

Et comites Helene Lacaena, 

Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu ; non semel Ilios 
Vexata ; non pugnavit ingens 

Idomeneus Sthenelusve solus 20 

Dicenda Musis proelia ; non f erox 
Hector vel acer Deiphobus graves 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 

Coniugibus puerisque primus. 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 25 

Multi ; sed omnes inlacrimabiles 
Urgentur ignotique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacra 

Paulum sepultae distat inertiae 
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis 30 

Chartis inornatum silebo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 


Impune, Lolli, caxpere lividas • 

Obliviones. Est animus tibi 

Eerumque prudens et secundis 88 

Temporibus dubiisque rectus, 

Vindex avarae fraudis et abstinens 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae, 
Consulque non unius anni, 

Sed quotiens bonus atque fidus 40 

ludex honestum praetulit utili, 
Eeiecit alto dona nocentium 
Voltu, per obstantis catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem multa vocaveris 48 

Recte beatum ; rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti 

Duramque callet pauperiem pati 
Peiusque leto flagitium timet, 60 

Non ille pro carls amicis 
Aut patria timidus perire. 

LIBER IV. 149 



1. Oatline of the Poem : Thy flowing locks and rosy cheeks, 

Ligorinos, will soon have passed away. Then shalt thou 
regret thy present haughtiness. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fifth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 49. 

cnidelis adhuc et Veneris muneribus potens, 
Insperata tuae cum veniet pluma superbiae 
Et, quae nunc umeris involitant, deciderint comae^ 
Nunc et qui color est puniceae flore prior rosae 
Mutatus, Ligurine, in faciem verterit hispidam : fl 

Dices * Heu/ quotiens te speculo videris alterum, 
' Quae mens est hodie, cur eadem non puero f uit, 
Vel cur his animis incolumes non redeunt genae ? 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) With wine, and garlands, Phyllis, and a sacrifice, I^m making 

ready for a joyous feast, none other than the birthday of my 

dear Maecenas, 1-20 ; 
h) Forget all thoughts of Telephus I Another^s pleasing fetters 

hold him fast. Come learn the lay I meant for thee, and 

banish care with song ! 21-36. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 

Est mihi nonum superantis annum 
Plenus Albani cadus ; est in horto, 
Phylli, nectendis apium coronis ; 
Est hederae vis 


Multa, qua crinis religata f ulges ; 6 

Bidet argento domus ; ara castis 
Vincta verbenis avet immolato 
Spargier agno ; 

Cuncta festinat manus, hue et illuc 
Cursitant mixtae pueris puellae ; lO 

Sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 
Vertice fumum. 

Ut tamen noris quibus advoeeris 
Gaudiis, Idus tibi sunt agendae, 
Qui dies mensem Veneris marinae 15 

Findit Aprilem, 

lure soUemnis mihi sanctiorque 
Paene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Luce Maecenas mens adfiuentis 

Ordinat annos. 90 

Telephum, quern tu petis, occupavit 
Non tuae sortis iuvenem puella 
Dives et lasciva tenetque grata 
Compede vinctum. 

Terret ambustus Phaethon avaras 25 

Spes, et exemplum grave praebet ales 
Pegasus terrenum equitem gravatus 

Semper ut te digna sequare et ultra 
Quam licet sperare nefas putando 30 

Disparem vites. Age iam, meorum 
Finis amorum^ 


XII.] LIBER IV. 161 

(Non enim posthac alia calebo 
Eemina) condisce modos, amanda 
Voce quos reddas : mimientur atrae S5 

Carmine eurae. 

^ XII. 


1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Spring with its birds and breezes is again at hand, 1-12 ; 

&) The season bids us quench our thirst with wine ; but bring 
your contribution to the board, a box of perfume ; on no 
other terms shalt thou share the contents of my jar, 13-24 ; 

c) Forget the cares of trade meanwhile, and join me in this 
pastime, mindful of our fleeting life, 25-28. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Third Asclepiadean. Introd. § 47. 

lam veris comites, quae mare temperant, 
Impellunt animae lintea Thraciae ; 
lam nee prata rigent nee fiiivii strepunt 
Hiberna nive turgidi. 

Nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens, 5 

Infelix avis et Cecropiae domus 
Aeternum opprobrium, quod male barbaras 
Regum est ulta libidines. 

Dicunt in tenero gramine pinguium 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula 10 

Delectantque deum, eui pecus et nigri 
Colles Arcadiae placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora, Vergili ; 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, iuvenum nobilium cliens; 15 

Kardo vina merebere. 


Nardi parvos onyx eliciet cadum, 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis adcubat horreis, 
Spes donare novas largus amaraque 
Curarum eluere efficax. 20 

Ad quae si properas gaudia^ cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immunem meditor tingere poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Verum pone moras et studium lucri 26 

Nigrorumque memor, dum licet, ignium 
Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
Dulce est desipere in loco. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Lyce, my prayers are heard; in vain thou seekest by thy 

meretricious arts to recall the youth that^s gone forever, 
1-12 ; 

b) But Coan silks and jewels cannot restore the rosy cheek 

and graceful form that once inspired my heart with love, 
13-22 ; 

c) Now thou art but a target for the gibes of gay young blades, 


2. Time : Uncertain ; between 23 and 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Fourth Asclepiadean. Introd. § 48. 

Audivere, Lyce, di mea vota, di 
Audivere, Lyce : fis anus et tamen 
Vis formosa videri 

Ludisque et bibis impudens 

Xni.] LIBER IV. 163 

. Et cantu tremulo pota Cupidinem 8 

Lentum soUicitas. Ille virentis et 
Doctae psallere Chiae 
Pulchris excubat in genis. 

Importuuus enim transvolat aridas 
Quercus, et refugit te, quia luridi 10 

Dentes te, quia rugae 
Turpant et capitis nives. 

Nee Coae referunt iam tibi purpurae 
Nee eari lapides tempora, quae seniel 

Kotis condita fastis 15 

Inclusit volucris dies. 

Quo f ugit Venus, heu, quove color ? decens 
Quo motus ? Quid habes illius, illius, 
Quae spirabat amores. 

Quae me surpuerat mihi, 20 

Felix post Cinaram notaque et artium 
Gratarum facies ? Sed Cinarae brevis 
Annos fata dederunt, 
Servatura diu parem 

Cornicis vetulae temporibus Lycen, 25 

Possent ut iuvenes visere fervidi 
Multo non sine risu 
Dilapsam in cineres facen>. 




1. Occasion of the Poem : Despite the defeat administered to the 
Raeti and Vindelici by Drusus in 15 b.c. (see introduction to Ode IV.), 
the Vindelici, joined by some other tribes, undertook a fresh incursion 
soon after. Tiberius was despatched to join Drusus, and in 14 b.c. the 
two brothers accomplished the complete subjugation of the invaders. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Ko praises are adequate for thy achievements, O Augustus, 

whose mighty hand has again been felt by our northern 
foes, 1-9 ; 

b) For thine were the troops, thine the plan, thine the favoring 

gods, through whom Drusus and Tiberius gallantly crushed 
the foe, scattering them in confusion, as Auster scatters the 
spray, or as rolling Aufidus when he overflows the farms, 

c) 'Twas on the anniversary of the day when suppliant Alexandria 

opened her port to thee, 34-40 ; 

d) All nations own thy power, from East to West, from South to 

North, 41-62. 

3. Time : 14 b.c. 

4. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Quae cura patrum quaeve Quiritium 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevom 
Per titulos meinoresque fastus 

Aeternet, o, qua sol habitabilis 5 

Inlustrat oras, maxime principum, 
Quem legis expertes Latinae 
Vindelici didicere nuper, 

Quid Marte posses. Milite nam tuo 

Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 10 

Breunosque velocis et arces 

Alpibus impositas tremendis 

XIV.] LIBER IV. 165 

Deiecit acer plus vice simplici ; 
Maior Neronum mox grave proelium 
Commisit immanisque Raetos 15 

Auspiciis pepulit secundis, 

Spectandus in certamine Martio 
Devota morti pectora liberae 
Quantis fatigaret minis, 

Indomitus prope qualis undas 20 

Exercet Auster Pleiadum choro 
Scindente nubes, impiger hostium 
Vexare tunnas et f rementem 
Mittere equom medios per ignes. 

Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 25 

Qui regna Dauni praefluit Apuli, 
Cum saevit horrendamque cultis 
Diluviem minitatur agris, 

Ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 
Ferrata vasto diruit impetu 30 

Primosque et extremes metendo 
Stravit humum sine clade victor, 

Te copias, te consilium et tuos 
Praebente divos. Nam tibi quo die 
Portus Alexandrea supplex 36 

Et vacuam patefecit aulam, 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractia 

Imperiis decus adrogavit. 40 


Te Cankaber non ante domabilis 
Medusque et Indus, te prof ugus Scythes 
Miratur, o tutela praesens 
ItaJiae dominaeque Bomae. 

Te, f ontium qui celat origines, 45 

Nilusque et Hister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te beluosus qui remotis 
Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis, 

Te non paventis funera Galliae 
Duraeque tellus audit Hiberiae, 50 

Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
Gompositis venerantur armis. 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Phoebus forbids me again to sing of battles and conquered 
cities, 1-4; 

6) The Glory of Caesar's rule : Fertility has returned to bless our 
fields ; the standards of Crassus hs^e been restored ; shut is 
Janus's temple, and the old virtues that made Rome great 
have been revived again ; with Caesar as our guardian tran- 
quillity is sure, 4-24 ; 

c) And so, in the fashion of our sires, with wine, and flute, and 
song, let us celebrate the glorious men of old, and Troy, 
Anchises, and all the famous progeny of Venus, 25-32. 

2. Time: Probably 13 b.c. 

3. Metre : Alcaic. Introd. § 43. 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Victas et urbes increpuit lyra, 
Ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor 
Vela darem. Tua, Caesar, aetas 

XV.3 LIBER rvr. 167 

Fniges et agris rettulit uberes 6 

Et signa nostro restituit lovi 
Derepta Parthomm superbis 
Postibus et vacuom duellis 

lanum Quirini clausit et ordinem 
Eectum evaganti frena licentiae 10 

Iniecit emovitque culpas 
Et veteres revocavit artis, 

Per quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
Crevere vires famaque et imperi 

Por recta maiestas ad ortus 10 

Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 

Custode rerum Caesare non furor 
Civilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Non ira, quae procudit enses 

Et miseras inimicat urbes. 20 

Non qui profundum Danuvium bibunt 
Edicta rumpent lulia, non Getae, 
Non Seres infidive Persae, 
Non Tanain prope fiumen orti. 

Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris 25 

Inter iocosi munera Liberi 

Cum prole matronisque nostris, 
Rite deos prius adprecati, 

Virtute f unctos more patrum duces 
Lydis remixto carmine tibiis ao 

Troiamque et Anchisen et almae 
Progeniem Veneris canemus. 


1. Occasion of the Bymn : The Valerian ge^ia had from time im- 
memorial observed the custom of offering sacrifices to the gods of the 
lower world upon the Tarentum, a part of the Campus Martins adjacent 
to the River. In the year 249 b.c, in the midst of the First Panic 
War, this gentile ceremonial had been converted into a national one 
under the name of the Lttdi Tarentinu One hundred years later (149 
B.C.), while the Third Punic War was in progress, the games had been 
repeated. Whether or not there existed any disposition to renew their 
celebration in b.c. 49 is entirely uncertain, but if there was, the 
troublous events of that year naturally prevented the execution of the 
purpose. Augustus, however, wished to revive the ancient ceremony, 
and secured from the quindecimviri, the custodians of the Sibylline 
books, an opinion that, according to the Etruscan reckoning of 110 years 
to a saeculum, the celebration was due in the year 17 b.c. So far as 
can now be determined, this decision was entirely arbitrary and was 
made purely for the purpose of indorsing the desire of Augustus to 
institute a solemn religious festival which should lend lustre to the new 
political order inaugurated, by him. 

In the programme of the festival, Augustus introduced certain new 
elements. The celebrations during the First and Third Punic Wars had 
been characterized mainly by sacrifices for the propitiation of the gods 
of the nether world. This feature was entirely omitted by Augustus, 
who now gave central prominence to Apollo and Diana. This was 
quite in conformity with the importance attached to the worship of* 
Apollo by Augustus ; see note on Odes, I. 2, 32. It is significant, too, 
that the direction of the saccular celebration was intrusted to the 
quindecimviri, whose official meeting place was the temple of Apollo 
on the Palatine ; see Introd. to I. 31, 1. 

The main celebration began on the evening of May 31, 17 b.c, and 
continued for three days, — till the night of June 3. The Carmen 
Scieculare formed a part of the third day^s ceremonial, being sung in 
connection with a solemn sacrifice offered to Apollo upon the Palatine. 
The hymn was rendered by two specially chosen choruses, one of 
twenty-seven boys, the other of twenty-seven maidens. The members 






of these choruses were chosen from children whose parents were still 
living, and who had been joined in wedlock by confarreatio^ the most 
solemn form of Roman marriage. 

How the different stanzas of the hymn were distributed between the 
choruses can only be matter of conjecture. 

2. Outline of the Hymn : 

a) Give ear, Apollo and Diana, to our prayer on the day of our 

holy festival, 1-8 ; 
h) Grant thou, Apollo, that nothing more glorious than Rome 

may ever be, 9-12 ; 

c) Do thou, Diana, give aid to mothers in travail, and help to rear 

a progeny that in after time shall renew our sacred celebra- 
tion, 13-24 ; 

d) May the Parcae, too, join prosperous destinies to those already 

realized, 26-28 ; 

e) May our harvests and flocks be blest, 29-32 ; 

/) Hear, Apollo and Diana both, the boys and maidens that 

invoke your favor, 33-36 ; 
g) If Rome be your creation, grant glory and power to the Roman 

folk, 37-48 ; 
h) Grant, too, the supplications of our prince, before whom now 

the. whole world bows, and who has brought our pristine 

Roman virtues back again, 49-60 ; 
t') Yes, prophetic Apollo, and gracious Diana, prolong to an ever 

better era the Roman State, 61-72 ; 
j) That such is the purpose of Jove and all the gods, we have 

full faith, 73-76. 

3. Time: 17 b.c. 

4. Metre : Sapphic and Adonic. Introd. § 44. 


Phoebe silvarumque potens Diana, 
Lucidum caeli decus, o colendi 
Semper et culti, date quae precamur 
Tempore sacro, 

Quo Sibyllini monuere versus 5 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dis quibus septem placuere coUes 
Dicere carmen. 


Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Promis et celas aliusque et idem lo 

Kasceris, possis nihil urbe Eoma 
Visere maius ! 

Bite matures aperire partus 
Lenis, Ilithyia, tuere matres, 
Sive tu Luclna probas vocari 15 

Seu Genitalis. 

Diva, producas subolem patrumque 
Prosperes decreta super iugandis 
Feminis prolisque novae feraci 

Lege marita, 20 

Gertus undenos deciens per anuos 
Orbis ut cantus ref eratque ludos 
Ter die claro totiensque grata 
Nocte frequentis. 

Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcae, 26 

Quod semel dictum stabilisque rei*um 
Terminus servet, bona iam peractis 
lungite fata. 

Fertilis f rugum pecorisque tellus 
Spicea donet Cererem corona ; 30 

Kutriant fetus et aquae salubres 
Et lovis aurae. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, Apollo ; 
Siderum regina bicornis, audi, 86 

Luna^ puellas. 


Eroma si yestruin est opus Iliaeque 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turiDae, 
lussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospite cursu, 40 

Giii per ardentem sine f raude Troiam 
Castas Aeneas patriae superstes 
Liberum munivit iter, daturas 
Plura relictis : 

Di, probes mores docili iuventae, 45 

Di; senectuti placidae quietem, 
Eomulae genti date remque prolemque 
Et decus omne. 

Quaeque vos bobus veneratur albis 
Clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis, 50 

Impetret, bellante prior, iacentem 
Lenis in hostem. 

lam mari terraque manus potentis 
Medus Albanasque timet securis, 
lam Scythae responsa petunt superbi 55 

Nuper et Indi. 

lam Fides et Pax et Honor Pudorque 
Prisons et neclecta redire Virtus 
Audet, apparetque beata pleno 
Gopia comu. 60 

Augur et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phoebus acceptusque novem Camenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessoa 
Corporis artus, 


Si Palatinas videt aequos aras, 65 

Kemque Bomanam Latiumque felix 
Alterum in lustrum meliusque semper 
Proroget aevom, 

Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
Quindecim Diana preces virorum 70 

Curat et votis puerorum amicas 
Applicat auris. 

Haec lovem sentire deosque cunctos 
Spem bonam certamque domum reporto 
Doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae 75 

Dicere laudes. 




.:-. ■ I. 


1. Occasion of the Poem : Octavian and Antony had come to an 
open breach in the year 32 b.c. In the prosecution of the war which 
followed, Octavian in the spring of 31 b.c. crossed over to the coast of 
Epirus with his fleet and troops. But betore bis departure from Italy, 
he summoned to his headquarters at Brundisium the most influential 
members of the senatorial and equestrian orders, partly for consul- 
tation, partly to show by their presence the extent of his support. 
Among those whO^went was Maecenas. Horadc' evidently conceives 
his patron as setting out to share the dangers of the approaching cam- 
paign, and begs to be allowed to accompany him. This permission 
could not be granted. Maecenas returned to Rome and administered 
the civil affairs of Italy in Augustus's absence. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Thou goest, Maecenas, prepared to suffer every danger for the 

sake of Caesar ; but what of me, whose life apart from thee 
is naught? Rather let me bear thee company in every 
danger, 1-14 ; 

b) Of what avail my presence ? At least Hwill save me anxious 

fear to be with thee, 15-22 ; 

c) 'Tis purely for the love I bear, and pot from hope of further 

gifts ; more than enough is mine already^ 23-34. 

3. Time : 31 b.c. 

4. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 61. 

Ibis Liburuis inter alta navium, 

Amice, propugnacula, 
Paratus omne Caesaris periculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo. 


164 EPODON [I. 

Quid DOS, quibus te vita si superstite 6 

lucunda, si contra, gravis ? 
Utrumne iussi persequeinur otium 

Non dulce ni tecum simul, 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? lO 

Feremus, et te vel per Alpium iuga 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum 
Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Roges, tuom labore quid iuvem meo, 15 

Imbellis ac firmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Qui maior absentis habet : 
Ut adsidens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpentium adlapsus timet 20 

Magis relictis,. non ut adsit auxili 

Latura plus praesentibus. 
Libenter hoc et omne militabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratiae, 
Non ut iuvencis inligata pluribus 25 

Aratra nitantur mea, 
Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum 

Lucana mutet pascuis, 
Keque ut superni villa candens Tusculi 

Circaea tangat moenia. ao 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 

Ditavit: baud paravero, 
Quod aut avarus ut Chremes terra premam, 

Discinctus aut perdam nepos. 

n.] LIBER. 165 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) 'Happy the man who dwells in peace upon his fanni He 

trains his vines, beholds his grazing flocks and herds, gathers 
his honey, or plucks the fniit and purple clusters of the vine. 
Ofttimes beneath some ancient oak he lies and dreams, while 
birds and plashing fountains lull to sleep. When winter 
comes, no lack of sport ; he hunts the boar or hare, forget- 
ting 'mid such joys all troublous care. With wine and olives, 
now and then a kid or lamb, he feasts as richly as the best, 
and thrills with joy to contemplate his well-fed flocks, 
his oxen toiling home, his many slaves gathered about the 
hearth,' 1-66. 

b) Thus spoke the money-lender Alfius. With firm intent to lead 

a farmer's life he called his funds all in upon the Ides ; the 
Calends saw them loaned again, 67-70. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

3. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 51. 

* Beatus ille qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Paterna rura bobus exercet suis 

Solutus omni faenore, 
Neque excitatur classico miles truciy 5 

Neque horret iratum mare, 
Fonimque vitat et superba eivium 

Potentiorum limina. 
Ergo ant adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos, 10 

Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat errantis greges, 
Inutilisque falce ramos amputans 

Feliciores inserit, 
Aut pressa puris mella condit amphoris, 10 

Aut tondet iniirmas ovis ; 

166 EPODON [II. 

Vel cum decorum mitibus pomis caput 

Autumnus agris extulit^ 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira 

Certantem et uvam purpurae, 20 

Qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
Libet iacere modo sub antiqua ilice,. . 

Modo iu teuaci gramine. 
Labiintur altis interim ripis aquae, 25 

Queruntur in silvis aves, 
Fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

Somnos quod invitet levis. 
At cum tonantis annus hibernus lovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

Aut trudit acris hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantis plagas^ 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos, 
Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem 35 

lucunda captat praemia. 
Quis non malarum, quas amor curas habet, 

Haec inter obliviscitur ? 
Quodsi pudica mulier in partem iuvet 

Domum atque dulcis liberos, 40 

Sabina qualis aut perusta solibus 

Pernicis uxor Apuli, 
Sacrum vetustis extruat lignis focum 

Lassi sub adventum viri, 
Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus 45 

Distenta siccet ubera, 
Et horna dulci vina promens dolio 

Dapes inemptas adparet ; 
Non me Luorina iuverint conchylia 

Magisve rhombus aut scari, 50 

XIL] LIBER. 167 

Siqnos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hiems ad hoc vertat mare ; 
"Non Afra avis descendat in ventrem meunii 

Non attagen lonicus 
lucundior quam lecta de pinguissimis 55 

Oliva ramis arborum 
Aut herba lapathi prata amantis et gravi 

Malvae salubres corpori 
Vel agna festis caesa Terminalibus 

Vel haedus ereptus lupo. eo 

Has inter epulas ut iuvat pastas oves 

Videre properantis domum, 
Videre fessos vomerem iriversum boves 

Collo traheritis languido ^ 

Postosque vernas, ditis exam^n domus, 66 

Circum renidentis Lares.' 
Haec ubi locutus faenerator Alfius, 

lam iam f uturus rusticus, ■ 
Omnem redegit Idibiis pecuniam, 

Quaerit Kalendis ponere. 70 


1. Occasion of the Poem : Horace had eaten at Maecenas's table of 
some dish containing garlic. With delicate humor he chides his host 
for the unpleasant effects of the herb. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Let him whose impious hand has wrought a father's death be 
doomed to eat of garlic, — more deadly than the hemlock, 

2>) Was viper's blood a part of what I ate, or had Canidia's craft 
been shown? Verily 'twas with such an , herb Medea 

168 EPODON [m. 

anointed Jason for his task. Nor did a hotter fire e'er rage 
on blazing Hercules than I have felt within, 0-18 ; 
c) HI luck befall thee, if again such trick thou play me I 19-22. 

3. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

4. Metre : Iambic Strophe. In trod. § 61. 

Parentis olim siquis impia manu 

Senile guttur fregerit^ 
Edit cicutis allium nocentius. 

dura messorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni saevit in praecordiis ? 5 

Num viperinus his cruor 
Inooctus herbis me f ef ellit ? an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes ? 
Ut Argonautas praeter omnis candidum 

Medea mirata est ducem^ 10 

Ignota tauris inligaturum iuga 

Perunxit hoc lasonem ; 
Hoc delibutis ulta donis paelicem 

Serpente fugit alite. 
Nee tantus umquam siderum insedit vapor 15 

Siticulosae Apuliae, 
Nee munus umeris efficacis Herculis 

Inarsit aestuosius. 
At siquid umquam tale concupiyerisy 

locose Maecenas, precor, 20 

Manum puella savio opponat tuo^ 

Extrema et in sponda cubet. 

lYO LIBER. 169 



1. Occasion of the Poem : This epode seems to haye been eyoked 
by Horace's disgust at some slave who, having achieved first freedom 
and then wealth, now offensively flaunts his good luck in the public eye. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) I hate thee as the lamb the wolf, thou whose back is seared 
with stripes and thy ankles with the heavy chain, 1-4 ; 

6) Thy altered fortune cannot change thy birth, nor turn from 
thee the scorn of all, despite thy wealth and lands, 5-16 ; 

c) What boots it to lead our troops against the pirate and the 
slave, if such as this command our legions ? 17-20. 

3. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

4. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 51. 

Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit^ 

Tecum mihi discordia est, 
Hibericis peruste f unibus latus 

Et crura dura compede. 
. Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 5 

Fortuna non mutat geuus. 

Videsne, Sacram metiente te Viam 


Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indignatio ? 10 

* Sectus flagellis hie trium viralibus 

Praeconis ad f astidium 
Arat Falerni mille fundi iugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques x0 

Othone contempto sedet. 
Quid attinet tot era navium gravi 

Eostrata duci pondere 
£lontra latrones atque servilem manum^ 

Hoc, hoc tribuno miUtum ?' 20 

170 BPODON tV. 



1. Occasion of the Poem : Horace wishes to express his condemna- 
tion of the practices resorted to by contemporary votaries of the black 
art. The sorceress Canidia and her assistants are represented as mur- 
dering by a lingering death a young lad, whom they bury in the earth 
up to his chin. Their purpose is to secure his dried liver for use as a 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) The Bot : ' What means this rabble and these savage looks ? ' 


b) Heedless of his plaints, Canidia plies her craft. Cypresses and 

fig trees torn from the tombs, with blood of frog, and hoot- 
owPs feather, herbs, and bones snatched from the jaws of a 
hungry bitch, she burns in her witches* fire, 11-28 ; 
e) Veia meanwhile was digging up the earth for their awful 
purpose ; Folia, too, was there, whose incantations bring 
stars and moon from the sky, 20-46 ; 

d) Canidia : * Moon and Night, lend now your help, now turn 

your wrath and might against my foes. Now let Subura^s 
dogs bark and drive the aged Varus forth ! Why fail my 
Colchian charms to work ? No root or herb escaped me, and 
yet he sleeps unmoved. A stronger charm V\\ brew, and 
sooner shall the heaven sink below the sea, than thou 
escape my purpose,* 47-82 ; 

e) The Bot : '■ Thy charms are naught to alter right and wrong. 

With curses I- 11 pursue ye all. With curving claws I'll gash 
your cheeks. The crowd shall drive ye forth from street to 
street, ye filthy hags. Your bones the wolves and birds shall 
scatter, a sight my parents, though not I, shall live to see,' 

3. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

4. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 61. 

' At o deorum quicquid in caelo regit 

Terras et humanum genus^ 
Quid iste fert tumultus et quid omnium 

Yoltus in unum me truces ? 

v.] LIBER. 171 

Per liberos te, si vocata partubus 5 

Luclna veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane purpnrae decus precor, 

Per improbaturum haec lovem, 
Quid ut npverca me intueris ant uti 

Petita f erro belua ? ' 10 

Ut haec trementi questus ore constitit 

Insignibus raptis puer^ 
Impube corpus, quale posset impia 

Mollire Thracum pectora : 
Ganidia^ brevibus implicata viperis 15 

Crinis et incomptum caput, 
lubet sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

lubet cupressus funebris 
Et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine 

Plumamque nocturnae strigis 20 

Herbasque quas lolcos atque Hiberia 

Mittit venenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapta ieiunae canis 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 
At expedita Sagana, per totam domum 26 

Spargens Avemalis aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

Echinus aut currens aper. 
Abacta nulla Yeia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum 80 

Exhauriebat, ingemens laboribus. 

Quo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque mutatae dapis 

Inemori spectaculo, 
Cum promineret ore, quantum exstant aqua 35 

Suspensa mento corpora : 
Exsecta uti medulla et aridum iecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 

172 EPODON [V. 

Interminato cum semel fixae cibo 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Kon defuisse masculae libidinis 

Ariminensem Foliam 
Et otiosa credidit Keapolis 

Et omne vicinum oppidum, 
Quae sidera excantata voce Thessala 45 

Lunamque caelo deripit. 
Hie inresectum saeva dente livido 

Canidia rodens pollicem 
Quid dixit aut quid tacuit ? ' rebus meis 

Non infideles arbitrae, 60 

Nox et Diana, quae silentium regis, 

Arcana cum fiunt sacra, 
Kunc, nunc adeste, nunc in hostilis domos 

Iram atque numen vertite. 
Formidulosis cum latent silvis ferae 65 

Dulci sopore languidae, 
Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

Latrent Suburanae canes, 
Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Meae laborarint manus. 60 

Quid accidit ? Cur dira barbarae minus 

Venena Medeae valent, 
Quibus superbam fugit ulta paelicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Gum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam 65 

Incendio nuptam abstulit ? 
Atqui nee herba nee latens in asperis 

Eadix fefellit me locis. 
Indormit unctis omnium cubilibus 

Oblivione paelicum. 70 

A ! a ! solutus ambulat veneficae 

Scientioris carmine ! 

v.] LIBER. 173 

Non usitatis, Vare, potionibus, 

multa fleturum caput, 
Ad me recurres, nee vocata mens tua 75 

Marsis redibit vocibus. 
Mains parabo, mains infundam tibi 

Fastidienti pocnlnm, 
Prinsqne caelnm sidet inferius marl 

Tellnre porrecta super, 80 

Quam non amore sic meo flagres uti 

Bitumen atris ignibus/ 
Sub haec puer iam non, ut ante, mollibus 

Lenire verbis impias, 
Sed dubius unde rumperet silentium, 85 

Misit Thyesteas pieces : 
* Venena maga non fas nef asque, non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem. 
Diris agam vos ; dira detestatio 

Nulla expiatur victima. 90 

Quin, ubi perire iussus 'exspiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram Furor, 
Petamque voltus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Quae vis deorum est Manium, 
Et inquietis adsidens praecordiis 95 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatim hinc et hinc saxis petens 

Contundet obscenas anus ; 
Post insepulta membra different lupi 

£t Esquilinae alites, 100 

Neque hoc parentes, beu mihi superstites, 

Effugerit spectaculum.' 




1. Outline of tha Poem : Why dost thou worry helpless strangers 
only, thou coward cur ? Come, turn thy empty threats on me, who 
have no fear for thee ! Like the Molossian hound, Vl\ track thee out. 
Thy howl is but a cry for food. Beware I Or else thouUt smart as did 
Archilochus or Bupalus^s keen foe. When I'm attacked with savage 
tooth, am I to play the boy and plunge in tears ? 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

3. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 51. 

Quid immerentis hospites vexas, canis 

Ignavos adversum lupos ? 
Quin hue inanis, si poteS; vertis minas, 

Et me remorsurum petis ? 
Nam qualis aut Molossus aut fulvos LacO| 6 

Arnica vis pastoribus, 
Agam per altas aure sublata nives^ 

Quaecumque praecedet fera; 
Tu, cum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Proiectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata tollo cornua, 
Qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
An, siquis atro dente me petiverit, Ifi 

Inultus ut flebo puer ? 

Vn.] LIBER. 175 



1. Occasion of the Poem : From 43 to 39 b.c. there had been inces- 
sant civil strife. In the latter year the promise of per];nanent peace 
seemed to be secured by the treaty of Misenum, negotiated with Sextus 
Pompeios by Octavian and Antony. The poem apparently belongs soon 
after this, when fresh hostilities with Fompeius were threatening. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

o) Whither, whither, are ye madly rushing ? Why draw again 
the sword once sheathed ? Has not enough of Roman blood 
been shed on flood and field ? Not that the foe might grace 
our triumphs, but that the city should perish by its own 
hand. But even wolves and lions do not slay their kind, 
1-12 ; 

6) What is the cause ? Is it blind fury, or some cruel spell, or 
some ancient sin ? This last, I ween ; the curse of Romu- 
lus is ours, 18-20. 

3. Time : Probably 38 b.c. 

4. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 51. 

Quo, quo scelesti ruitis ? Aut cur dexteris 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 
Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguinis ? 
Non ut superbas invidae Carthaginis 6 

Bomanus arces ureret, 
Intactus aut Britannus ut deseenderet 

Sacra catenatas Via, 
Sed ut secundum vota Parthorum sua 

Urbs haec periret dextera. 10 

Neque hie lupis mos nee fuit leonibus, 

Kumquam nisi in dispar feris. 
Furorne caecus an rapit vis acrior 

An culpa ? Eesponsuin date 1 

176 EPODON [VllL 

Tacent^ et ora pallor albus inficit, lo 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 
Sic est : acerba fata Bomanos agunt 

Scelusque fraternae necis, 
Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Bemi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 20 


The brutal coarseness of this epode leads to omission of an outline 
of its contents. 

Eogare longo putidam te saeculo, 

Vires quid enervet meas, 
Gum sit tibi dens ater et rugis vetus 

Frontem senectus exaret, 
Hietque turpis infer aridas natis 6 

Podex veiut crudae bovis ! 
Sed incitat me pectus et mammae putres. 

Equina quales ubera, 
Venterque mollis et femur tumentibus 

Exile suris additum. 10 

Esto beata, funus atque imagines 

Ducant triumphales tuom. 
Kec sit marita, quae rotundioribus 

Onusta bacis ambulet. 
Quid quod libelli Stoici inter sericos 16 

lacere pulvillos amant ? 
Inlitterati num magis nervi rigent, 


Minusve languet fascinum ? 
Quod ut superbo provoces ab iuguiue, 
Ore adlaborandum est tibi. 20 

IX.] LIBEB. 177 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) When, O Maecenas, shall I celebrate with thee in feast and 
song great Caesar^s victory, as but a short time since when 
Neptune^s favored son, Pompeius, fled, driven from the seas ? 

6) At a woman's beck our Roman troops have served, have bowed 
to eunuchs, and have courted Easteru ease. What wonder 
the Galatians turned away, and ships lay still in port? 
11-20 ; 

c) 'Tis hard to wait to celebrate our triumph, for greater victor 

ne'er came back to Rome, no not from Carthage even, 21-26 ; 

d) In mourning garb, our foe is fleeing fast o'er unknown seas. 

Therefore bring beakers of the largest size and Chian, Les- 
bian, Caecuban. With Bacchus's gifts we'll banish all our 
care, 27-38. 

2. Time : Autumn, 31 b.c. 

3. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 51. 

Quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes 

Victore laetus Caesare 
Tecum sub alta — sic lovi gratum — domo, 

Beate Maeceuas^ bibain 
Sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra, 6 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut nuper, actus cum freto Neptunius 

Dux fugit ustis navibus, 
Minatus urbi vincla, quae detraxerat 

Servis amicus perfidis. 10 

Romanus eheu — posteri negabitis — 

Emancipatus feminae 
Fert vallum et arma miles et spadonibus 

Servire rugosis potest, 


178 EPODON [X. 

Interque signa turpe militaria 15 

Sol adspicit conopium. 
Ad hoc frementis verterunt bis mille equos 

Galli, canentes Caesarein, 
Hostiliuinque navium portu latent 

Puppes sinistrorsuin citae. 20 

lo Triumphe, tu moraris aureos 

Currus et intactas boves ? 
lo Triumphe, nee lugurthino parem 

Bello reportasti ducem 
Neque Africanum, cui super Carthaginem 25 

Virtus sepulcrum eondidit. 
Terra marique vietus hostis punico 

Lugubre mutavit sagum. 
Ant ille centum nobilem Cretam urbibus, 

Ventis iturus non suis, 30 

Exercitatas aut petit Syrtis Noto, 

Aut fertur incerto mari. 
Capaciores adfer hue, puer, scyphos 

Et Chia vina aut Lesbia, 
Vel quod fluentem nauseam coerceat 35 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Guram metumque Caesaris rerum iuvat 

Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 


1. Occasion of the Poem : Mevios and Bavins were two poetasters, 
who apparently had earned the contempt of all decent men. Cf . Virgil, 
EcL iii. 00 f. : 

Qui Bavlum non odit, amet tua carmina, Mevi, 
Atque idem iongat volpes et mulgeat hircos. 

X] MBEB. 179 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

. a) May Auster wrench his ship with savage wayes I May Eurus 
scatter oars and cordage I May Aquilo arise in might, nor any 
kindly star be seen I May he be borne on seas as wild as 
those that bore the band of conquering Greeks I 1-14 ; 
b) What toil and anguish await thee and thy crew ! What moans 
and useless prayers I If only thou become a prey to gulls, 
the Storms shall have a sacrifice from me, 15-24. 

3. Time : Uncertain ; not after 20 b.c. 

4. Metre : Iambic Strophe. Introd. § 51. 

Mala soluta navis exit alite^ 

Ferens olentem Mevium. 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus> 

Auster, memento, fluctibus. 
Niger rudentis Eurus inverse mari 5 

Fractosque remos differat ; 
Insurgat Aquilo, quantus altis montibus 

Frangit trementis ilices. 
Nee sidus atra nocte amicum appareat, 

Qua tristis Orion cadit ; 10 

Quietiore nee feratur aequore 

Quam Graia victorum manus, 
Ciun Pallas usto vertit iram ab Ilio 

In impiam Aiacis ratem. 
quantus instat navitis sudor tuis 15 

Tibique pallor luteus 
Et ilia non virilis heiulatio 

Pieces et aversum ad lovem, 
lonius udo cum remugiens sinus 

Noto carinam ruperit. Jf 

Opima quodsi praeda curvo litore 

Porrecta mergos iuveris, 
Libidinosus immolabitur caper 

Et agna Tempestatibus. 




1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Love seizes me again and takes away all thought of verse, 1-4 ; 

h) 'Tis full three years since passion swayed me thus. Inachia 
was the last. Alas, the talk I was through all the town 1 
When I brought my griefs to thee, vowing no more to strive 
against unworthy rivals, thou badst me homeward go. I 
went, — not homeward, but to portals that refused admit- 
tance, 5-22 ; 

c) My love Lyciscua holds me now, from whom no friendly word 
or stern rebuke shall shake me free, — nothing but some fresh 
flame for lad or maid, 23-28. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

3. Metre : Third Archilochian. Introd. § 67. 

Petti, nihil me sicut antea iuvat 

Scribere versiculos amore percussum gravi, 
Amore, qui me praeter omnis expetit 

Mollibus in pueris aut in puellis urere. 
Hie tertius December, ex quo destiti 6 

Inachia fnrere, silvis honorem decutit. 
Heu me, per urbem, nam pudet tanti mali, 

Fabula quanta fui ! Conviviorum et paenitet. 
In qilis amantem languor et silentium 

Arguit et latere petitus imo spiritus. lo 

' Contrane lucrum nil valere candidum 

Pauperis ingenium ! ' querebar adplorans tibi, 
Simul calentis inverecundus deus 

Fervidiore mero arcana promorat loco. 
' Quodsi meis inaestuet praecordiis 15 

Libera bilis, ut haec ingrata ventis dividat 
Fomenta, volnus nil malum levantia, 

Desinet imparibus certare summotus pudor.^ 
XJbi haec severus te palam laudaveram, 

lussus abire domum f erebar incerto pede 20 

XII.] LIBER. . 181 

Ad non amicos heu mihi postis et heu 

Limina dura, quibus lumbos et infregi latus. 
Nunc gloriantis quamlibet mulierculam 

Vincere moUitia amor Lycisci me tenet ; 
Unde expedire non amicorum queant 2S 

Libera consilia nee contumeliae graves, 
Sed alius ardor aut puellae candidae 

Aut teretis pueri, longam renodantis comam. 


The coarseness of this epode leads to omission of any outline of its 

Quid tibi vis, mulier nigris dignissima barris ? 

Munera cur mihi quidve tabellas 
Mittis, nee firmo iuveni neque naris obesae ? 

Namque sagacius unus odoror, 
Polypus an gravis hirsutis cubet hircus in alis, 6 

Quam canis acer, ubi lateat sus. 
Qui sudor vietis et quam mains undique membris 

Crescit odor, cum pene soluto 
Indomitam properat rabiem sedare, neque illi 

lam manet umida creta colorque 10 

Stercore fucatus crocodili, iamque subando 

Tenta cubilia tectaque rumpit. 
Vel mea cum saevis agitat f astidia verbis : 

' Inachia langues minus ac me ; 
Inachiam ter nocte potes, mihi semper ad unum 16 

Mollis opus. Pereat male, quae te 
Lesbia quaerenti taurum monstravit inertem. 

Cum mihi Cous adesset Amyntas, 
Cuius in indomito constantior inguine nervos, 

Quam nova coUibus arbor inhaeret. 20 

182 . EPODON [XHL 

Muricibus Tyriis iteratae vellera lanae 

Cui properabantur ? Tibi nempe, 
Ne f oret aequalis inter conviva, magis quern 

Diligeret mulier sua quam te. 
O ego non felix, quam tu fugis, ut pavet acris 35 

Agna lupos capreaeque leones I ' 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) Without, the snow is falling, and the woods are roaring with 

the gale, 1-3 ; 

b) But let us, friends, enjoy our opportunity, and banish care 

from clouded brow 1 Bring out the oldest vintage I The god 
will soon make all things right. Therefore, with perfume 
sweet and music, let us free our hearts from trouble 1 3-10 ; 
e) So sang the Centaur Chiron to his foster-child, Achilles : * O 
child of Thetis, goddess-born, Scamander^s streams await 
thee, whence no power shall bring thee home again ; there, 
with wine and song, sweet consolations, find relief for eyery 
ill 1 ' 11-18. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

3. Metre : Second Archilochian. Introd. § 66. 

Horrida tempestas caelum contraxit^ et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt lovem ; nunc mare, nunc siluae 
Threicio Aquilone sonant. Rapiamus, amici, 

Occasionem de die, dumque virent genua 
Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 6 

Tu vina TorquSto move consule pressa meo. 
Cetera mitte loqui : deus haec fortasse benigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemenio 
Perfundi nardo iuvat et fide Cyllenea 

Levare diris pectora sollicitudinibus, lo 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumno : 

* Invicte, mortalis dea nate puer Thetide, 

XIV.] LIBER. 183 

Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 
Findunt Scamandri flumina lubricus et Simois, 

Unde tibi reditum certo subtemine Parcae 16 

Bupere, nee mater domum caerula te revehet. 

Ulic omne malum vino cantuque levato, 
Def ormis aegrimoniae dulcibus alloquiis.' 



1. Outline of the Poem : 

a) You weary me with asking why soft indolence has brought 

forgetfuiness upon me, 1-6 ; 

b) 'Tis the god, the god, that keeps me from my task ; so burned 

Anacreon's heart, they say, for Samian Bathyllus, 6-12 ; 

c) Thou thyself escapest not the flame ; if she be fair, rejoice, 


2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.o. 

3. Metre: Fii-stPythiambic. Introd. § 63. 

Mollis inertia cur tantam diffuderit imis 

Oblivionem sensibus, 
Pocula Lethaeos ut si ducentia somnos 

Arente fauce traxerim, 
Candide Maecenas, occidis saepe rogando : 6 

Deus, deus nam me vetat 
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, iambos 

Ad umbilicum adducere. 
Non aliter Samio dicunt arsisse Bathyllo 

Anacreonta Teium, 10 

Qui persaepe cava testudine flevit amorem 

Non elaboratum ad pedem. 
Ureris ipse miser : quodsi non pulchrior ignis 

Accendit obsessam Ilion, 
Qaude sorte tua ; me libertina, nee uno is 

Contenta, Phryne macerat. 

184 BPOBON [XV. 



1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) *Twas 'neath the smiling moon that thou didst plight thy troth, 

clinging to me as tightly as the iyy to the oak, and promising 
that while the flock should fear the wolf, while Orion stirs 
the wintry sea, our love should know no change, 1-10 ; 

b) And yet, Neaera, as Horace has in him a spark of manhood, 

he will not suffer thee to grant thy favors to a rival, but 
straight will seek him out another mate, 11-16 ; 

c) And thou, who hast supplanted me, rich though thou be in 

flocks and lands and gold, and in the lore of sages, thou shalt 
not hold the love thou now hast won. Then shall I laugh 
at thee, 17-24. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

3. Metre : First Pythiambic Introd. § &3. 

Nox erat et caelo fulgebat Luna sereno 

Inter minora sidera. 
Cum tu, magnorum numen laesura deorum. 

In verba iurabas mea, 
Artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex 5 

Lentis adhaerens bracchiis, 
Dum pecori lupus et nautis inf estus Oribn 

Turbaret hibernum mare, 
Intonsosque a^itaret Apollinis aura capillos^ 

Fore hunc amorem mutuom. 10 

O dolitura mea multum virtute Neaera I 

Nam siquid in Flacco viri est, 
Non f eret adsiduas potiori te dare noctes^ 

Et quaeret iratus parem ; 
Nee semel offensi cedet constantia formae, lA 

Si certus intrarit dolor. 
Et tu, quicumque es f elicior atque meo nunc 

Superbus incedis malo^ 

XVL] LIBER. 185 

Sis pecore et multa dives tellure licebit 
Tibique Pactolus fluat, 20 

Nee te Pythagorae f allant arcana renati, 
Formaque vincas Nirea, 

Eheu, translates alio maerebis amores. 
Ast ego vicissim risero. 


1. Occasion of the Poem : The civil strife following the assassina- 
tion of Julius Caesar had not ceased with the Battle of Philippi (42 
B.C.). Lucius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony) and his wife Fulvia 
had, in 41 b.c, incited the Perusian War, and there threatened a 
renewal of the dissensions that had rent the state for nearly a decade. 

2. Outline of the Poem : 

a) A second generation wastes away in the throes of civil war, 
and the city that no hostile foe could crush is perishing by 
forces from within. Our site shall be again a waste, and 
Quirinus's ashes shall be scattered to the winds by savage 
conquerors, 1-14 ; 

6) Our only hope of safety is to flee, pledging each other never 
to return till Nature's laws be changed, 15-34 ; 

e) Let craven hearts remain ! Let all the nobler part set sail 
and seek the Happy Isles, where com and wine, where fig 
and olive, grow untended ; from hollow oaks the honey flows ; 
the goats unbidden seek the milking-pail ; the air breeds no 
distempers, and the king of gods dispenses showers and' 
warmth with even hand, 35-62 ; 

d) From gold to bronze, from bronze to iron, the ages change ; yet 
for the righteous an escape is ready, if ye but heed my words 
of prophecy, 63-66. 

3. Time : 41 b.c. 

4. Metre : Second Pythiambic. Introd. § 54. 

Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetas, 

Suis et ipsa Eoma viribus ruit. 
Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus. 


Aemula nee virtus Capuae nee Spartaeus aeer 6 

Novisque rebus infidelis AUobtox, 
Nee f era caeriilea domuit Germania pube 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal : 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas, 

Ferisque rursus oceupabitur solum. lo 

Barbarus heu eineres insistet vietor et urbem 

Eques sonante verberabit ungula, 
Quaeque carent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini, 

Nef as videre ! dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quod expediat, communiter aut melior pars 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus ? 
Nulla sit hae potior sententia, Phocaeorum 

Velut profugit exseerata eivitas 
Agros atque lares patrios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis, 20 

Ire, pedes quocumque ferent, quocumque per undas 

Notus vocabit aut protervos Af ricus/ 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? Secunda 

Eatem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed iuremus in haee : simul imis saxa renarint 25 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nef as ; 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea, quando 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina, 
In mare seu celsus procurrerit Appenninus, 

Novaque monstra iunxerit libidine 30 

Minis amor, iuvet ut tigris subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur et eolumba miluo, 
Credula nee ravos timeant armenta leones, 

Ametque salsa levis hircus aequora. 
Haee et quae poterunt reditus abscindere dulcis 35 

Eamus omnis exseerata eivitas, 
Aut pars indocili melior grege ; mollis et exspes 

Inominata perprimat cubilia. 

XVL] LIBER. 187 

Vos, quibus est virtus, muliebrem tollite luctum, 

Etrusca praeter et volate litora. 40 

Kos manet Oceanus circumvagus; arva, beata 

Petamus arva divites et insulas, 
Beddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis 

Et imputata floret usque vinea, 
Germinat et numquam fallentis termes olivae^ 45 

Suamque pulla flcus ornat-arborem, 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepaiite lympha desilit pede. f^-^— ^^^^^^V^ 
lUic iniussae veniunt ad mulct ra capellae, 

Eefertque tenta grex amicus ubera, 60 

Nee vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, 

Neque intumescit alta viperis humus ; 
Pluraque felices mirabimur, ut neque largis 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nee siccis urantur semina glaebis, 65 

Utrumque rege temperante caelitum. 
Non hue Argoo contendit remige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 
Non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua nautae, 

Laboriosa nee cohors Ulixei. flO 

Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nuUius astri 

Gregem aestuosa torret impotentia. 
luppiter ilia piae secrevit litora genti, 

Ut inquinavit aere tempus aureum ; 
Aere, dehinc f erro duravit saecula, quorum 

Piis secunda vate me datur fuga. 

188 EPODON [xvn. 



1. Oatline of the Poem : 

a) HoBACE : ^ I bow at last to thy superior powers, Canidia, and 
beg thee, as thy suppliant, to cease thy spells, and quickly 
turn thy magic wheel the backward way, 1-7 ; 

6) 'Achilles withheld not mercy from his foes, nor was Circe deaf 
to prayers, 8-18 ; 

c) ' Enough and more of torture have I undergone ; my youth is 

fled; my hair is white; thy power I own, burning with 
hotter flame than Aetna^s ; name but the penalty thou dost 
Impose ; V\\ pay it ; 1*11 sound thy praises on mendacious 
lute ; I'll call thee pure and noble, born of glorious sire,' 

d) Canidia : ' My ears are deaf to all entreaty. I suffer thee un- 

punished to divulge my rites ! To spread my name abroad 
throughout the town ! Thy punishment is but begun ; like 
Pelops, Tantalus, Prometheus, Sisyphus, thou shalt long for 
rest that may not be ; thou' It long to hurl thyself from lofty 
towers, to stab, to hang thyself ; yet all in vain ; with all my 
craft, shall I lament the failure of my arts on thee ? ' 63-81. 

2. Time : Uncertain ; not after 29 b.c. 

3. Metre : Iambic Trimeter. Introd. § 60. 

' lam iam efficaci do manus scientiae, 

Supplex et oro regna per Proserpinae, 

Per et Dianae non movenda numina, 

Per atque libros carminum valentium 

Befixa caelo devocare sidera, 5 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris 

Citumque retro solve, solve turbinem I 

Movit nepotem Teleplius Nereium, 

In quem superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum et in quem tela acuta torserat. 10 

Unxere matres Iliae addictum feris 

Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectorem, 

Postquam relictis moenibus rex procidit 

XVU.] LIBER. . 189 

Heu pervicacis ad pedes Achillei. 

Saetosa duris exuere pellibus U 

Laboriosi remiges Ulixei 

Volente Circa membra, tunc mens et sonus 

Eelapsus atque notus in voltus honor. 

Dedi satis superque poenarum tibi, 

Amata nautis multum et institoribus. ao 

Fugit iuventas et verecundus color 

Eeliquit ; ossa pelle amicta lurida, 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus, 

Nullum ab labore me reclinat otium ; 

Urget diem nox et dies noctem, neque est 25 

Levare tenta spiritu praecordia. 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina 

Caputque Marsa dissilire nenia. 

Quid amplius vis ? O mare et terra, ardeo, 30 

Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules 

Nessi cruore, nee Sicana fervida 

Virens in Aetna flamma ; tu, donee cinis 

Iniuriosis aridus ventis ferar, 

Cales venenis officina Colchicis. 35 

Quae finis aut quod me manet stipendium ? 

Effare ; iussas cum fide poenas luam, 

Paratus expiare, seu poposceris 

Centum iuvencos, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonari : tu pudica, tu proba 40 

Perambulabis astra sidus aureum. 

Infamis Helenae Castor offensus vicem 

Fraterque magni Castoris, victi prece, 

Adem^ta vati reddidere lumina : 

Et tu — potes nam — solve me dementia, 48 

nee paternis obsoleta sordibus 

Nee in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 


Novendiale8 dissipare pulveres. 

Tibi hospitale pectus et purae manus 

Tuosque venter Pactumeius, et tuo BO 

Cruore rubros obstetrix pannos lavit, 

Utcumque fortis exsilis puerpera/ 

* Quid obseratis auribus f undis pieces ? 

Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 

Neptunus alto tundit hibernus salo. 05 

Inultus ut tu riseris Cotytia 

Volgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis, 

Et Esquilini pontifex venefici 

Impune ut urbem nomine impleris meo ? 

Quid proderit ditasse Paelignas anus 60 

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 

Sed tardiora fata te votis manent ; 

Ingrata misero vita ducenda est in hoc, 

Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. 

Optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, 66 

Egens benignae Tantalus semper dapis, 

Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti, 

Optat supremo collocare Sisyphus 

In monte saxum ; sed vetant leges lovis. 

Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 70 

Modo ense pectus Korico recludere, 

Erustraque vincla gutturi nectes tuo, 

Eastidiosa tristis aegrimonia. 

Vectabor umeris tunc ego inimicis eques, 

Meaeque terra cedet insolentiae. 76 

An quae movere cereas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti curiosus, et polo 

Deripere lunam vocibus possim meis, 

Possim crematos excitare mortuos 

Desiderique temperare pocula, 

Plorem artis in te nil agentis exitum ? ' 




1. Maeoenas : Horace's friend and patron ; see Introd. § 4. 
atavis . . . regibua : royal ancestors ; for this use of a noun in 
apposition with adjective force, cf. Virg. Aen, i. 273, regina sacerdos, 
'a royal priestess^; i. 21, populum late regern^ 'a people widely domi- 
nant.' Maecenas traced his lineage back to the old Etruscan kings. 

2. O : observe the hiatus between and et ; such hiatus is regular 
after the interjections o and a. praeaidium, decua : praesidium 
is used with reference to the material and moral support extended by 
Maecenas to the poet ; decus, with reference to the honor which this 
support conferred. 

3. aunt qnoa iuvat: sunt qui, sunt quos are ordinarily fol- 
lowed in prose by the subjunctive ; yet Horace repeatedly uses the 
indicative ; similarly, we have est qui spemit, line 19 below. currl- 
onlo : racing chanot ; the first instance of the employment of curri- 
culum in this sense. Some refer the word to a nominative curriculus. 
polverem Olympicum : i.e. in the Olympic games. The Olympic 
festival was still regularly celebrated in Horace's day ; it continued to 
be maintained without interruption until the close of the fourth 
century a.d. 

4. collegiaae : an instance of the use, common in the poets, of the 
perfect infinitive for the present ; in this passage the use of the perfect 
may have been determined by metrical considerations (cf, collegisse 
with colUgere), meta evitata : grammatically, meta is the subject, 
but the logical subject is the idea of '• avoiding the turning-point ' con- 
tained in meta evitata ; cf. the familiar post urbem conditam, post 
reges exactos. The races in the Greek hippodrome, as in the Roman 


192 BOOK I. ODE 1. [Pagb2. 

circus, were regularly run around a long low stone structure (called in 
Latin spina, * thorn'). At each end of the spina, stood a detached 
semi-circular pier surmounted by three columns. This was the meta, 
to turn which neatly, without slackening speed (c/. fervidis rolls) or 
making too wide a sweep, required the greatest skill on the part of 
the driver. 

5. palma : to be taken literally ; in Horace's day it had long been 
customary at the Greek and Roman chariot races to present the victor 
with a palm branch. Roman sculpture abounds in illustrations of this 
custom. nobilis: here in causative sense, of that which makes 

6. terramm dominos : as lords of the earth ; dominos is in predi- 
cate relation to quos, to be supplied as the direct object of evehit. A 
similar allusion to the pride of victory in the chariot race occurs iv. 2. 
17, quos Elea {^Olympica) domum reducit palma caelestis. 

7. hunc : dependent upon iuvat to be supplied in thought from 
line 4. mobUlum, tarba : both words contain a somewhat cynical 
reference to the uncertainty of the popular temper. Cicero, pro Mu- 
rena, 17. 36, speaks in a similar strain of the popular assemblies, com- 
paring them to a sea of conflicting currents. 

8. tergeminls honoribtui: to triple honors; but honoribva is 
. really ablative of means, i.e. exalt by conferring these honors; the 

triple honors are the quaestorship, the praetorship, and the consul- 
ship. The first two were a necessary preliminary to the third. 
tollere: the use of the infinitive with certare is chiefly poetical. 

9. ilium : dependent (like hunc in line 7) upon iuvat to be sup- 
plied in thought. proprio : note the emphasis which rests upon 
this word. 

10. qtiicqtiid : i.e. the entire harvest. Libycis : Africa was at 
this time one of the main sources of the Roman grain supply. Horace 
repeatedly alludes to the fertility of this district, e,g, iii. 16. 31, /er- 
tilis Africae ; Sat, ii. 3. 87, frumenti quantum metit Africa. 

11. findere: note the force of this word ; the clods are so hard 
that they have to be * split,' as it were ; yet In spite of this the man 
cannot be lured from his little plot of barren ground ; the inflnitive 
with gaudere is poetical. 

12. Attalids condicionlbtiB : the terms of an Attains, i.e. such 
terms as an Attains might offer. Attains had been the name of 
several kings of Pergamus in Asia Minor. Their wealth, like that of 
Croesus, was proverbial. 

Pagb 2.] BOOK I. ODE 1. 193 

13. demoveas : lit. turn away ; but the word is here used in the 
pregnant sense of Hum from his farming and induce to/ etc.; one 
may render by lure. ut secet: to plough; the clause is de- 
pendent upon demoveas, which here takes the construction of a verb 
of persuading. Cypxia: Cyprus was famous as a centre of ship- 
building. Note the poet^s skill in adding this concrete touch to the 
picture ; the device is repeated in verses 14 and 16 {Myrtoum, Icariis), 
and is, of course, common in all poetry. 

14. Myrtoum : the Myrtoan Sea lay between the Peloponnesus 
and the Cyclades. It was proverbially stormy. pavidus nauta: 
as a trembling sailor^ in predicate relation to the subject of 

15. Icariis fluctibua : the Icarian Sea was another stormy body 
of water ; it lay off the southwest coast of Asia Minor. Legend con- 
nected it with the fall of the luckless Icarus ; fluctibus is dative ; the 
construction is a Grecism ; see Introd. § 36, c, and cf. i. 3. 13, decer- 
tantem Aquilonibus. 

16. otium et oppidi nira stii : i.e. the quiet of his native town 
and the peaceful fields around it. 

18. pauperiem : simply * narrow circumstances,' not *• poverty ' as 
we understand the word. pati : dependent upon indocilis, a poeti- 
cal construction. See Introd. § 41, c. 

19. est qui spemit: for the indicative after est qui^ see note 
on iuvat in line 4 above. Masaici : understand vini. The Massic 
wine, grown on the Mons Massicus in northern Campania, was one of 
the famous Italian brands. 

20. Bolido de die: the solidus dies was the business day, ex- 
tending from the early morning to the end of the ninth hour, i.e. 
about 3 P.M. demere: the infinitive with spernere is a poetic 

21. membra: direct object of stratus, which is here used as a 
middle. B. 175. 2. d ; A. and G. 240. c. n. ; G. 338. n. 2. arbuto: 
the arbHtus, or wild strawberry tree, was highly prized for its shade. 
In the autumn it was conspicuous for its bright red berries. 

22. aquae . . . sacrae : the scholiast Porphyrio comments as 
follows on these words : omnes autem fontes sacri habentur, et ideo 
* caput sacrae aquae ^ ait. lene caput : i.e. the gently murmuring 
spring. Strictly, of course, it is the spring which is sacred, and the 
issuing stream which gently murmurs ; but the interchange of epithets 
needs no justification. 

194 BOOK I. ODE 1. [Page 2. 

23. lltuo : for litui sonitu ; lUuo is probably ablative ; B. L, L,^ 
§ 337. The lituus was a curved instrument ; the tuba was straight. 
The former was used in the cavalry, the latter in the infantry. 

24. matribuB : dative of agency, a construction occurring with some 
frequency, even in prose, in connection with the perfect passive participle. 

25. detestata : here used passively ; other instances of perfect 
passive participles of deponent verbs so used are i. 32. 5, modulate^ 
* tuned' ; Epod, 16. 8, ahominatus^ * detested.' love: here equiv- 
alent to caelo. Jupiter was originally the god of the sky ; hence his 
functions as thunderer and wielder of the lightning. The root lov- 
(Indo-European djev-) originally meant *sky,' * light.' Latin dies^ 
*day,' is the same word;, c/. Diespiter (archaic and poetical) = 
lupiter. B. L, L. 180. 4. 

27. catulis : hounds ; dative, like matrihus above in line 24. 

28. MarsuB : poetical for Marsicus. The Marsi Inhabited a 
mountainous district of central Italy, about fifty miles to the east of 
Rome. aper: the wild boar was highly prized by the Roman 
epicures, and in consequence was much hunted. 

29. me : in emphatic position, introducing the climax of the ode, 
Horace's own aspiration. doctanun frontium : this is practically 
equivalent to * the poet's brow ' ; doctu8 was applied to any one who 
had achieved distinction in philosophy, art, or letters. hederae : 
poetic plural ; the ivy was sacred to Bacchus, one of the patron divini- 
ties of poets. 

30. die miscent: the idea is the same as that found above in 
line 5, palnia evehit ad deos ; for the case of dis^ see note on line 23, 
lituo. gelidum nemus, etc. : i.e. the cool grove with its bands of 
nymphs and satyrs. 

31. leves : light-footed , lightly tripping. 

32. secemunt populo : i.e. distinguish from the people, raise me 
above the common herd. tibias : not the poetic plural ; two tibiae 
were regularly played together ; they were fastened to a single mouth- 
piece, one tibia being held in each hand. 

33. Euterpe : the muse of music, including lyric poetry, which 
was originally composed for singing to a musical accompaniment. In 
works of art, Euterpe is represented with flutes in her hands. co- 
hibet : withhold. Polyhjrinnia : another muse ol poetry, often 
defined as * the muse of the sublime hymn.' 

1 BennetVs Latin Language. 

PaobS.] book I. ODE 2. 195 

34. Lesbotiin barbiton : i. e. the lyre of the Lesbian poets, Sappho 
and Alcaeus (600 b.c). These were fiorace^s chief models in the 
composition of his lyric poems. He imitated not merely their poetic 
form, but also yery largely their themes and their poetic phraseology. 
Introd. § ISr. tendere: tune, lit. stretch (i.e. the strings); the 
infinitive with refugere is pfoetical. 

35. l3rxicia vatibus inaerla : i.e. acknowledge my claim to rank 
as a lyric poet. The first meaning of vates apparently was * seer,* 
* soothsayer,' 'prophet.' Virgil and Horace, however, apply it to 
poets as a loftier and more honorable designation than poeta. Some 
think that vates originally meant 'poet,' 'bard,' and that Virgil and 
Horace simply revived the early usage ; but this view is not well sup- 
ported. Note the poetical employment of the present tense with the 
force of a future. The subject of inserts is emphatic ; we should have 
expected tu to be expressed. 

36. aublimi ferlam aidera vertlce : i,e. my pride and joy will be 


1. terris : the dative is best explained as equivalent to in terras, 
nivis: snow is not unusual in central Italy in the winter months, 
though it rarely lies long. 

2. Pater: i.e. Jupiter. rubente: referring to the lightning. 

3. aacraa arces : probably the two summits of the Capitoline, on 
which stood temples, one sacred to Juno, the other to Jupiter, Juno, 
and Minerva in common. 

4. termit, terruit : such repetition of the same word without an 
'intervening conjunction is a favorite device of Horace. 

5. gentis : i.e. all the races of the earth. The storm had doubtless 
been local, but Horace conceives it as widely prevalent. grave ne 
rediret: the clause depends upon the idea of fearing involved in 
terruit, 'made to fear,' ' inspired with terror.' Note that in poetry 
words which ordinarily stand first in their clause are frequently 
'postponed' (placed after); so here ne; cf. line 7, omne cum; line 9, 
piscium et, 

6. Pyrrhae : wife of Deucalion. According to the myth, all man- 
kind, except Deucalion and Pyrrha, had been destroyed by a flood. 
They renewed the human race by casting stones behind them; the 
stones hurled by Deucalion became men ; those hurled by Pyrrha be- 
came women. nova monatra : explained by the following clausea 

196 BOOK I. ODE 2. [Pages. 

7. Proteua : the prophetic * old man of the sea * ; he tended the 
seals of Poseidon (Neptune). pecua : i.e. the herd of seals. 

8. visere : the use of the infinitive to denote purpose is poetical. 

10. Columbia : the columba did not ordinarily nest in trees ; but 
Horace was hardly a scientific observer. 

11. auperlecto : i.e. spread over the surface of the earth. The 
emphasis of the clause rests upon this word. Note also the interlocked 
order of the words, superiecto pavidae aequore dammae, a favorite 
arrangement in Horace. 

13. flavom : Horace seems to have followed the earlier spelling in 
-vo8^ -vom ; -quos, -quom ; -uos, -t«om, etc. The spellings -t?t*a, -vum ; 
"Cus, -cum ; -uu8^ -uum^ had become well established in ordinary usage 
before his day, but poets naturally cling tenaciously to the old style. 
Cf. B. L. L. § 57. 1. As applied to the Tiber, flavom is a poetical 
designation for its turbid stream. 

14. litore Etruaco: litua is here used for ripa. The Etruscan 
bank is the right bank of the Tiber. Just at the city the river makes 
a sharp turn, so that the water, hurled on by the current (and perhaps 
by the wind), seemed to come directly from the bank opposite the city. 

15. deiectum: the supine. monumenta regis : the* memorial 
of the king ^ is the Regia, or official residence of the pontifex max!- 
mus, situated at the southeastern end of the Roman Forum. Some 
remains of its foundations have been brought to light in recent years. 
The building was called monumenta regis^ because it was popularly 
thought to date from the time of King Numa, whose great interest in 
the religious ceremonials of his time is well attested in the traditions 
that cluster about his name. Since the Roman Forum was on low 
land, the Tiber not infrequently rose high enough to flood the ground ' 
on which the Regia stood. Such inundations occur periodically to-day. 

16. templaque Veatae : probably we have not here an instance 
of the poetic plural. There were two temples of Vesta, one called 
aedes Vestae, the other aedicula Vestae. They were situated adjacent 
to the Regia. 

17. niae : Ilia is another name for Rhea Silvia, the mother of 
Romulus and Remus ; according to the common legend, she was 
thrown by Amulius's order into the Tiber, and the river god came to 
be looked upon as her spouse. Hence the flood is represented by the 
poet as intended to avenge the wrongs of Ilia. For another view, see 
below on querenti. iactat: shows; the di^m-clause^is explicative of 
the preceding ire deiectum, i.e. the Tiber advances to hurl down the 

Page 4.] BOOK I. ODE 2. 197 

temples of the city in his quest of yengeance. nimitun : to be joined 
with ultorem; the god is too eager an avenger. querent! : i,e, of 
her own wrongs. Others refer it to complaints at the assassination of 
Caesar (her descendant, according to the familiar tradition) ; in that < , 
case, the Tiber must be thought of as aiming to avenge the crime of 
Caesar's murder. 

18. Biniatra : te, the bank on which the greater part of the city of 
Rome was built. 

19. ripa : i. e. over the bank ; ablative of place. oz-orlua amnis : 
the Aeolic lyric poets, whom Horace imitates, very frequently broke a 
word in this way at the end of the line. Horace rarely follows them 
in this ; only two or three other instances occur in the Odes. Cf. i. 
25. 11, inter-lunia. 

. 21. audiet : the subject is inventus. civla acuisse femim : 
ue, against each other, in civil war. 

22. Peraae : a common designation in Horace for the Parthians, 
a warlike nation dwelling southeast of the Caspian. The poets of the 
Augustan age allude to them indifferently as Parthi, Medi (see line 
61 below), or Persae, The Romans had first come into definite colli- 
sion with this people in 63 b.c. , the year of Crassus's disastrous defeat 
at Carrhae. Though subsequently twice defeated in battle (39 and 38 
B.C.), the Parthians had not been crushed, and recently had gained 
some signal successes over the Roman arms. melius perirent : 
had better perished^ i.e. it would have been better had the Parthians 
perished by the swords which had been drawn in civil strife ; the sub- 
junctive is used to express the conclusion of a past conditional sentence 
of the contrary-to-fact type, the imperfect being irregularly used for 
the pluperfect. 

23. audiet : repetition of the verb without conjunction, as terruit 
above in line 6. pugnaa : i.e. civil conflicts. vltio : to be taken 
with rara, which here has the force of 'thinned out,' 'decimated.' 
parentum : both parentum and parentium occur as the genitive plural 
of parens. 

24. iuventua : i.e. our descendants, posterity. 

25. Having touched upon the existing distress, and having briefly in- 
dicated its cause, the poet now proceeds to suggest the remedy : Some 
one of the gods must vouchsafe help. divom : accusative singular. 

26. rebus : in behalf of the fortunes ; dative of interest, a construc- 
tion used of persons, or things personified, and only slightly less strong 
than pro with the ablative. prece : this word is rarely used in the 

198 BOOK I. ODE 2. [Page 4, 

singular. qua : for the post-position, see above oh line 5. fati- 
gent : i.e. importane. 

27. virginesaanctae: i.e. the Vestal Virgins. min\iB=parum. 

28. carmina : lUanies ; their prayers were coached in some tradi- 
tional liturgical verse-form. 

29. partis : role^ duty ; in this sense the word is confined to the 

31. candentis: i.e. fair white; cf. the Homeric <f>alSifjLos &fws; 
participles and adjectives in -ns regularly form the accusative plural 
in 'is in Horace. umeroa : object of amictus, which is here used 
as a middle ; see note on i. 1. 21. 

32. augur Apollo : according to Suetonius (Aug. 04), Augustus 
was declared by his mother to be the son of Apollo ; and the god is 
said to have assisted him visibly at the battle of Actium ; hence the 
special appropriateness of the present invocation. Even before the 
date of this ode, Augustus had done much to increase and extend 
the worship of Apollo ; in 28 b.c. he had erected to him the magnifi- 
cent temple on the Palatine referred to in i. 31. Apollo receives the 
epithet augur as the god of prophecy. 

33. aive tu = vel tu si. • ZSrycina rldena : blithe JErycina, i.e. 
Venus, who received this designation from the temple dedicated to her 
on Mt. Eryx in Sicily ; she is naturally invoked here as the ancestress 
(genetrix) of the Roman people, and especially of the Julian gens. 

34. quam circum : anastrophe ; not uncommon with dissyllabic 

36. auctor : our founder, i.e. Mars, the father of Romulus. 

37. heu : to be joined closely in thought with nimis longo, 
aatlate : vocative by attraction to auctor, though logically in agree- 
ment with the subject of respicis. ludo : i.e. the sport or game of 

38. clamor : the battle-cry. levea : polished. 

39. acer voltua : i.e. the fierce glance of triumph. Marai : the 
Marsians were among the flower of the Roman infantry ; cf. ii. 20. 18 ; 
iii. 6. 9. There is added point in this reference to the Marsian sol- 
diery, since their name obviously designates them as connected with 
the god. 

41. mutata figura: i.e. changing thy form of god. iuvenem 
Imitazla : poetic for ^ assumest the form of a youth * ; the poet wishes 
to suggest that Mercury may even now be present on earth in the 
person of Octavian. This conception of Octavian as a god embodied 

Page 5.] BOOK I. ODE 2. 199 

in human form was probably not original with Horace. It had doubt- 
less existed lor some time in the popular mind, as may be gathered 
from the utterances of contemporary poets. Horace may perhaps 
have been the first to suggest Mercury as the specific divinity incar- 
nated in the emperor, though traces of the same belief are f oimd else- 
where also. Mercury was doubtless thus chosen as being the patron 
deity of trade and commerce, i.e. the pursuits of peace such as Augus- 
tus was endeavoring to promote. The word iuvenis designates any 
one of military age (17-46), and hence is appropriate to Octavian, who 
at this time was thirty-five years old. 

42. alea filiaa : in apposition with the subject of imitaris. Mer- 
cury is familiarly represented with wings upon bis ankles and his cap 

43. Maiae : the mother of Mercury. patiens vooarl : patior 
with the simple infinitive is poetical ; c/. Virg. Aen. viii. 577, patior 
quemvis durare laborem. When so used, patior often seems to have 
the force of 'will gladly,' * am eager'; c/. iii. 9. 15, pro quo bis patiar 
mori, ' for whom I will gladly die.' 

44. Caesarls ultor : the punishment of the murderers of Caesar 
was an avowed object in the formation of the Second Triumvirate, and 
after the victory at Philippi, Octavian erected at Rome a temple to 
Mars Ultor, of which some remains are still standing. 

45. in caelum redeas : Mercury, not Augustus, is to be thought 

46. laetuB intersis : i.e. be glad to abide. 

47. vitiis : dative with iniquom, which is here used in the sense of 
* hostile ' ; c/. i. 10. 16, iniqua Troiae castra. For the spelling, 
-quomj see on line 13, flavom. 

48. ocior: the adjective has adverbial force, — too speedily. 
aura : with special reference to Mercury as a winged god. 

49. magnoB triumphoa: in August of 29 b.c, Octavian had 
celebrated triumphs lasting for three days over the Fannonians, Dal- 
matians, and Egyptians. 

50. amea dici : the infinitive with amo, a construction frequent 
in Horace, is confined to poetry. pater atque princepa : pater is 
to be understood merely as a conventional term of respect ; the formal 
designation of pater patriae was not conferred upon Augustus until 
2 B.C., long after the date of this ode ; princeps is probably for prin- 
ces senatits, a name given under the Republic to the ranking 
senator, the recognized leader of the senatorial body. The title had 

200 BOOK I. ODE 3. [PAGE& 

been conferred upon Augustus in 28 b.c, shortly before the time of 
this ode. The title Augustus dates from January, 27 b.c. 

51. Medoa: see note on Persae, line 22 above. equitare : i.e. 
on their hostile incursions. 

52. Caesar : the poet here passes by way of a climax from the 
conception of Mercury as a god embodied in human form, and ad- 
dresses the Emperor by his customary title. 

ODE m. 

1. Sic . . . sic, etc. : we should naturally expect these words to 
be followed by an ut-c\a.uae (ut reddas serves), instead of which, by 
a simple anacoluthon, the poet employs jussive subjunctives (^reddas, 
serves), explanatory of sic, — * may the goddess guide thee thus : 
bring Virgil unharmed to Attic shores, and save the half of my life.* 
diva potenB Cjrpri : the goddess who rules over Cyprus. Venus, as 
sprung from the sea, was regarded as a patron goddess of sailors, and 
was widely worshipped in the island of Cyprus, where she had many 

2. fratrea Helenae : Castor and Pollux, famous as the guardian 
divinities of seamen. lucida aidera : the reference is probably to 
the electrical phenomenon known as St. Elmo^s fire. When seen 
double on the yards of a vessel, these fires were thought by the an- 
cients to represent the presence of Castor and Pollux, and were 
regarded as a favorable sign. Cf. Macaulay, Battle of Lake BegUlus, 
765 ff . : — 

*• Safe comes the ship to harbor 

Through billows and through gales, 
If once the great Twin Brethren 
Sit shining on her sails.* 

3. ventomm pater : Aeolus. 

4. aliia : here for ceteris, as in Sat. i. 4. 2. I&pyg& : Greek ac- 
cusative ; lapyx was the northwest wind, which would be favorable 
for vessels sailing from Italy (Brundisium) to Greece. 

6. debes Vergilium : art responsible- for Virgil, lit. oxoest Virgil 
(8C. to me and his other friends). 

7. reddas : lit. deliver him, i.e. bring him ; credere (* entrust') and 
reddere (* pay back*) are current mercantile terms, and reddas is doubt- 
less here used with a touch of its technical meaning. 

Paob6.] book I. ODE 3. 201 

8. animae dimidiiim meae : the cordial relations existing between 
Horace and Virgil are abundantly attested in contemporary literature ; 
see Introd. §5, and c/., e.g.^ Sat. i. 6. 54, optimus Vergilius; i. 6. 40, 
Varius Vergiliusque, animae quales neque candidiores terra tulU 
neque quls me sit devinctior alter. 

10. fragilem truci : contrasted ideas are thus regularly put side 
by side when it is desired to mark the antithesis. 

12. nee : the conjunction connects commisit and timuit. 

13. decertantem : the de is intensive, ^ struggling to a decisive 
issue * ; so frequently in Horace in similar compounds, e.g. deproelior, 
dehello. Aqullonibua : dative with a verb of contending^ a Grecism ; 
c/. i. 1. 16, luctantem Icariia fluctihu8 Africum. The plural is used to 
indicate the successive blasts of the wind. 

14. triatiB HyadSs : the Hyades are spoken of as tristis, ^ gloomy,* 
because rainy weather prevailed at the seasons when they rose and set. 

16. maior: sc. eat toUere aeu ponere: with tollere under- 
stand seu^ and for the absence of the first seu^ cf. i. 6. 19, vacui sive 
quid urimur. Notus raises the waves of the Adriatic by blowing; he 
quiets them (ponere) by subsiding. On the spelling volt, which was 
probably already archaic in Horace^s day, see B. L. L. § 67. 1. a. 

17. quern mortis gradum : what form of death* s approach, lit. 
what approach of death, 

19. vidit : i.e. had the courage to gaze. 

20. Acroceraunia : lit. ^ thunder heights,* a rocky promontory in 
Epirus running out into the Ionian Sea. They are called infamis, *• of 
evil name,' because they were the scene of frequent shipwrecks. 

21. abscldit f from absdndo or abacido f The metre shows. 

22. prudens: with set purpose, intentionally. Oceano dis- 
Bociabili : by *■ the estranging sea * ; dissociabilis is here used with 
active force. Adjectives in -bilis are found in this use occasionally at 
all periods ; cf. ii. 14. 6, inlacrimabilem ; Plautus, Mil. Glo. 1144, date 
operam adiutabilem; Ovid, Met. xiii. 867, penetrabile fulmen; Cic. 
Tu8c. Disp. i. 17. 40, 42, spirabilis ; de Nat. Deo. iii. 12. 29, patibilis. 

24. non tangenda: i.e. which the god intended should not be 
touched ; hence the epithet impiae. 

25. omnia: man's conquest of one element (water) has already 
been detailed ; the poet now goes on to speak of others, viz. fire 
(Prometheus), air (Daedalus), earth (Hercules). perpeti : the in- 
finitive dependent upon an adjective, as in 1. 1. 18, indocilis pau- 
periem pati. 

202 BOOK I. ODE 8. [Page 6. 

26. per yetitiim nelaa: i.e. men rush into wickedness even in 
the face of express prohibition. 

27. lapeti : a Titan, son of Uranus and Gaea, and father of Pro- 
metheus, genua : for fllius, as frequently in the poets ; c/. ii. 18. 
37, Tantali gentis, i.e. Pelops. 

28. Ignem . . . intuUt : according to the familiar tradition, Pro- 
metheus stole fire from the gods, secreted it in a hollow reed, and so 
communicated it to mortals. Iraude mala : Prometheus^s treachery 
is spoken of as mala, because of the dire results which it had entailed. 

29. poat Ignem aubductmn: i.e. after the theft of fire; for the 
idiom, cf. i. 1. 4, meta evUata. According to the myth, Prometheus^s 
theft of fire was the immediate occasion of the results described in 
lines 30-33. As a punishment for Prometheus^s impiety, Jupiter sent 
Pandora, from whose box escaped the various ills that afterward 
afflicted humanity. aethexia domo : i.e. its home in the aether, 
the highest heayen above the common air. 

30. maciea : the word properly indicates the condition which re- 
sults from wasting disease ; logically it is rather the result of nova 
febrium cohora, with which it is grammatically coordinated. 

32. aemotique prlua tarda neceaaitaa leti: i.e. hitherto Death 
had been far off and slow in coming ; pri%t8 is to be combined in 
thought with both tarda and semoti. 

33. corrlpiiit gradum : quickened its pace. 

34. vacuom : for the spelling, see note on i. 2. 13, flavom. a6r& : 
the Greek accusative, as in lapyga, line 4. 

35. non datia : by litotes for negatis. 

36. perruplt Acheronta : the -It probably represents, not an 
arbitrary lengthening, but a reminiscence of the earlier quantity of the 
perfect ending ; perfects in -it occur repeatedly in Plautus and 
Terence. The incident referred to in perrupit Acheronta is the 
twelfth (according to other accounts the eleventh) of Hercules's 
twelve labors ; in this he succeeded in bringing Cerberus to the upper 
world. Acheron is here used to denote the lower world in general, 
not the river merely. Hercnleus labor : i.e. the toiling Hercules ; 
the figure is common in poetry ; cf. iii. 21. 11, Catonis virtus, i.e. the 
virtuous Cato. 

37. nil ardui eat : lit. there is nothing of steep, i.e. nothing is too 

38. neque patimur = and prevent ; litotes. 

40. ponere : in the sense of deponere, as frequently in the poets, 
and occasionally also in prose. 

Page?.] BOOK I. ODE 4. 208 


1. Solvltur : is breaking up. vice yeris : vice properly means 
the alternation of one thing with another. It is difficult to bring out 
this force in English ; we may translate, the coming of spring ; yet in 
Latin the genitive is appositional, spring itself being the substitute 
{vice) for winter. Favoni : the west wind or zephyr was a regular 
accompaniment of spring. 

2. trahunt: sc. in mare, Biccaa carinas : i.e. boats that have 
been under shelter or out of water for the winter. With the ancients, 
navigation was suspended for the winter months. machlnae : the 
reference is to some contrivance for launching the boats — tackle and 
rollers, very likely. 

3. neque iam : and no longer. 

5. CythSrSa : so called from Cythera, an island off the southern 
coast of Laconia, which was colonized at an early time by the Phoe- 
nicians. These seafaring men introduced the worship of Venus, 
whence doubtless arose the legend that Venus was sprung from the 
sea. To the Romans, Venus was preSminently the presiding deity of 
spring ; as the goddess of love, she naturally came to typify the repro- 
ductive forces and processes of nature and to be regarded as originating 
and fostering (c/. alma Venus) the new life of the year. Note that, 
though the e of Cythera is long, the corresponding e of Cytherea is 
short ; so also in Greek, K^Sripa but Kvd4p€ioi. Imminente luna : 
while the moon stands overhead, 

6. iiinctae: i.e. linked (^hand in hand) with; the ablative is one 
of association ; see Introd. § 88. a. Nymphia, Ghratiae : often men- 
tioned as attendants and companions of the goddess ; cf. 1. 30. de- 
centes: comely. 

7. altemo pede: i.e. in the dance. gravis: mighty. Cy- 
clopom : the Cyclopes were the servants of Vulcan, employed by him 
in forging the thunderbolts of Jupiter ; cf. the fine passage in Virgil, 
Aen. viii. 424 ff. 

8. Volcanus: for the spelling, see B. App. § 57. 1. a. ardens: 
this epithet naturally befits the god of fire ; strictly it applies to the fire 
itself, but is easily transferred to the god. visit : Vulcan naturally 
revisits his workshop in the spring, for at that season come the 
thunder-storms in which Jupiter wields the bolts forged by the 

9. nunc decet : ^Ifls fitting now. nitidum : i.e. glistening with 

204 BOOK I. ODE 4. [Pagb 7 

perfumed oils, with which the ancients commonly anointed the 
hair. Impedire : poetic for cingere or vincire, mjrto : sacred 
to Venus. 

10. flore : used collectively. solutae : i.e, from the bondage of 
winter's frosts. 

11. et = etiam. Fauno : the god of shepherds and farmers. 
The root is /at*-, the same as seen in faveo ; hence originally ' the pro- 
pitious one.' lucla : in Horace, lucu8 is used only of sacred groves ; 
otherwise nemus is employed. 

12. agna, haedo : the ablatives depend upon some passive form of 
immolo (jdbi immolari) to be supplied, — whether he demand that sacri- 
fice he made by a lamb, etc, A similar use of the ablative is found in 
iii. 24. 66 f., ludere doctior, sen Graeco iubeas (sc. ludere) trocho. 

13. pallida pulaat pede pauperum : notice the effective allitera- 
tion, a rhetorical device sparingly employed by Horace. pallida 
Mors : the epithet seems borrowed from Death's victims. aequo : 
impartial. pulaat pede : with the Romans it was apparently 
common to employ the foot in knocking at the door. 

14. regnm : the wealthy, a frequent meaning of rex in Horace ; cf . ii. 
14. 11, 8ive reges sive inopes coloni, turria : i.e, palaces. beate 
Sesti : blest Sestius ; beatu8, as the participle of the almost obsolete 
verb beo, originally meant * blest,' * endowed with wealth,' *rich'; 
secondarily it acquired the sense of * happy ' ; yet the early meaning 
of * rich,' * wealthy,' is found with some frequency both in prose and 
poetry. Note that a certain adversative force inheres in beate, * despite 
thy riches, Sestius.' The Sestius referred to was probably Lucius 
Sestius Quirinus, son of the P. Sestius defended by Cicero in an extant 
speech. Sestius had been an adherent of Brutus, but after Philippi 
had won the favor of Augustus, who in 23 b.c. appointed him consul 
suffectus, i.e. to fill the consulship for the balance Of an unexpired 

15. vitae summa brevis : iife^s brief span. apem incohare : 
cf. Seneca, Epist. 101, quanta dementia est spes longas incohare. 

16. iam : soon. noz : * Death's dark night.' iabulaeqne 
Manea : the ghostly shades ; fabulae means that the Manes are unsub- 
stantial ; though placed before Manes, the word is logically in apposi- 
tion with it. For the appositive with adjective force, cf. i. 1. 1, atavis 

17. ezilis: cheerless; lit. meagre, poor, i.e. supplied with no com- 
fort or pleasures. Plutonia: the adjective with the force of a 

Pagb8.] book I. ODE 5. 205 

genitive, as frequently. quo simul mearis : as soon as tlwu goest 
thither ; simul for simul ac^ as not uncommonly. 

18. regna vini : i.e. the office of presiding at the festive board. 
The Romans at their convivial gatherings commonly chose one of 
their number to act as master of ceremonies (magister bibendi). The 
choice was determined by throwing the dice. The tali, ' knuckle bones, ^ 
were dice with four flat sides and two rounded ones ; only the flat sides 
had spots. Bortiere : i»e. secure by lot by a throw of the dice. 

19. calet : are enamoured. 


1. multa in rosa *. on a bed of roses ; cf, Seneca, JEpist, 36. 9, in 
rosa iacere. 

2. urget: not * courts,' ' woos,' but embraces. 

3. Pyrrha : Greek Ilv/J^d, lit. * the auburn-haired ' ; cf. flavam in 
the following line. sub : under the arch of; just as pro, lit. ' in front 
of,' at times means * in the front part of* {e.g. pro curia, * in the front 
part of the senate-house '), so sub, lit. *• under,* not infrequently means 
' in the lower part of ' ; cf, Epodes, 9. 3, sub alta domo. 

4. flavam : blond hair was rare, and so admired by the Romans. 

5. aimplez munditliB : in simple elegance. fidem : under- 
stand mutatam from mutatos in the following verse. 

6. aspera nigris aequora ventis : the order of the words is that 
known as the interlocked* {synchysis), a very common device with 
the poets. Another instance is found below in line 13 f., tabula sacer 
votiva paries. 

7. nigrla : the epithet is transferred from the storm-clouds to the 
winds which they seem to send forth. 

8. emirabitur : found only here ; it is an intensified mirabitur. 
insolena : in surprise ; for insuetus, i.e. unused to such experience. 

9. aurea: in predicate relation to te, thinking thee golden,* i.e. 

10. vacnam : i.e. of passion for another ; supply in sense te fore. 

12. mlseri : sc. sunt. 

13. me : emphatic, as shown by the position. aacer paries : 
the wall of some temple on which he has hung a votive offering. 

14. indicat . . . vestimenta: i.e. *• I have escaped, though barely, 
from love's shipwreck * ; tabula votiva, as the metre shows, is ablative ; 
it is to be joined in thought with indicat. 

206 BOOK I. ODE 6. [Page a 

15. sospendlBBe, etc.: those who escaped from shipwreck often 
suspended to Neptune a votive offering, sometimes also the garments 
they had worn. 

16. maris : dependent upon potentt'; c/. i. 3. 1, divapotens Cypri. 
deo : used figuratively ; i.e. the god of love's tempestuous sea. 


1. ScrlbSris : i.e. written about, celebrated. The use of the future 
here is somewhat peculiar ; Horace means that Agrippa will find in 
Varius the fitting poet to sing his achievements. Vario : by Varius ; 
dative of agent with seriberis; cf, Prudentius, Per. iii. 136, scriberis 
ecce mihi. This construction, though rare with the uncompounded 
tenses of the passive voice, is well attested both for prose and poetry. 
Other instances in Horace are Sat. i. 6. 116, cena ministratur pueris 
tribus; Epist. i. 19. 3, carmina quae scribuntur aquae potoribus. 
Varius, an intimate and highly prized friend of Horace and Virgil, 
was distinguished as an epic and tragic poet. To the epic field belonged 
his Panegyric of Augustus, to the tragic his Thyestes, which is highly 
praised by Quintilian. It was Varius who, in company with Plotius, 
issued the Aeneid after Virgil's death. None of Varius's own works 
have come down to us. fortla, victor : in predicate relation to the 
subject of seriberis. 

2. Maeonii : Homeric, i.e. epic ; Maeonia was another name for 
Lydia, one of the reputed homes of Homer. aliti : bard, lit. ^ bird ' ; 
the conception of a poet as a soaring bird is particularly common in 
antiquity ; cf. ii. 20, where Horace represents himself as transformed 
into a swan. 

3. quam cumque : for quamcumque (tmesis), as sometimes also in 
prose ; as antecedent of the relative we may understand in thought 
propter earn rem. ierox: bold, warlike, not ^^erce.^ navibus: 
Agrippa's naval successes had been achieved at Naulochus (defeat of 
Sextus Pompeius, 36 b.c.) and at Actium. 

4. gesaerit : future perfect. 

5. noB : for ego. Agrippa : Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa 
(63-12 B.C.) was the intimate friend and adviser of Augustus. His 
brilliant military successes in many critical emergencies, along with 
his skilful statesmanship, greatly endeared him to the Emperor, who 
later (21 b.c.) gave him his daughter Julia in marriage. dicere* 
tell of, sing of. 

Pagb 10.] BOOK I. ODE 6. 207 

6. Pelidae : Achilles. Pelidae stomachum : the tmraih of 
Peleu8*8 son, the theme of the Iliad ; stomachua designated properly, 
not the digestive organs, but rather the region about the heart, which 
was naturally regarded as the seat of the emotions. cedere nescii : 
unyielding, inexorable ; the infinitive is governed by the adjective, as 
in i. 1. 18, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

7. curaua per mare XTllxei : the theme of the Odyssey, dupli- 
bis : crafty, Homer^s standing epithet for Ulysses. UlizSI : poetic 
genitive : c/. i. 15. 34, Achillel, These forms go back to lost nomina- 
tives in -eu8 (f/. Greek *0^v<r<r€M, *AxtXX«Jj) treated as though -e-tt«. 

8. aaevam Felopis domum : i.e. the tragic events connected with 
Thyestes, Atreus, Agamemnon, Orestes, and others of this fated house. 
Varitis had treated these in his tragedy of Thyestes, to which Horace 
here gracefully alludes. 

9. conaxnur: i.e. I do not even attempt these subjects, much less 
actually succeed in them ; for the pluralis modeHiae, cf. ii. 18. 22, vidi- 
mus, tenuea grandia : i.e. I, a humble poet, do not attempt these 
lofty themes. The antithesis is emphasized by the juxtaposition of the 
adjectives ; cf. i. 16. 2, perfidtts hoapitam ; ii. 4. 6, captivae dominum. 
dum : the dum-c\BMse, in addition to its temporal character, has a 
slight causal force. 

10. imbelUsque lyrae : i. e. the lyre devoted to the harmless themes 
of peace, such as love, wine, etc.; lyrae is governed hy potens; cf. 
i. 3. 1, diva potens Cypri; i. 6. \b,potenti maris deo. 

11. Caeaaris : Octavian. 

13-16. This stanza seems somewhat out of relation to the rest of 
the ode ; hence some critics have regarded it as an interpolation ; if 
genuine, it may mean : ^ I could no more do justice to Agrippa^s 
achievements than I could rival Homer.* 

13. tunica : here equivalent to lorica, * coat of mail.^ 

14. BcripBerit : potential subjunctive, — who would worthily 
describe f 

15. nigxiim : begrimed. Merionen : a brave Cretan hero who 
assisted the Greeks in the siege of Troy. 

16. Tydlden: Tydeus^s son, Diomedes. superis parem: 
Diomedes, the doughtiest of the Grecian heroes after Achilles, had on 
one occasion, by Athena's help, wounded Mars and Venus in battle. 

18. aectis : and so harmless ; their resentment is simulated. 
In iuvenes: with acrium. 

19. vacui : i.e, free from an attachment, vacui aive udmm:: 

208 BOOK I. ODE 7. [Pagb 10. 

for sive vacui (sumus) sive urimur; cf. i. 8. 16, tollere seu ponere 
volt freta, quid urimur : am inspired with any passion ; quid is 
accusative of the * result produced' ('internal object') ; this con- 
struction occurs at times, as here, with the passive voice ; with urimur^ 
understand in thought amove. 

20. non praeter Bolitom leves : Le. with my customary light- 
heartedness; leoes agrees with the subject of cantamus, 


1. Laudabunt : almost equivalent here to * may praise ' ; cf. the 
same use in Virgil, Aen. vi. 847, eoccudent alii spirantia mollius aera 
. . . tu regere imperio populos Bomane memento^ where tu forms a 
similar contrast with alii to that furnished here by me in line 10. 
alii : contrasted with me in line 10 ; ^ others may praise their favorite 
cities ; as for me, Tibur is the fairest spot.' claram : famous, for Its 
climate, its pleasant location, and its schools of eloquence ; Catullus 
speaks of it as nobilis. MytUSnen : on the island of Lesbos, famed 
for its patronage of art and literature ; it was the home of Alcaeus. 

2. Ephesum : in Horace's day, the flourishing metropolis of the 
Roman province of Asia, noted also for its temple of Diana, which 
ranked as one of the seven wonders of the world. * bimarisve : the 
citadel of Corinth commanded a view of the Corinthian Gulf to the 
West, of the Saronic Gulf to the East. 

3. moenia : there was nothing noteworthy in the walls them- 
selves. Corinthi moenia is simply a phrase for the city as a whole. 
Baccho : Bacchus, according to the common tradition, was bom at 
Thebes, of Semele, daughter of Cadmus. ApoUine: i.e. for the 
shrine of Apollo. 

4. Tempe : the wild and beautiful valley of the Peneus in northern 

5. sunt qiiibUB est : the indicative (instead of the subjunctive) 
with sunt qui occurs repeatedly in Horace ; cf. i. 1. 3, sunt quos iuvat; 
i. 1. 19, est qui nee spernit. quibus unum opus est: whose sole 
task it is. Palladia urbem : Athens. 

6. carmine perpetuo : lit. a continuous, and so a long, poem. 

7. undique decerptam olivam: a difficult passage, of doubtful 
meaning. Apparently, by an olive (garland) gathered from all sides, 
the poet means a garland of poems on topics drawn from every comer 
of the mythical and legendary history of Athens. By a bold touch, 

Page 11.] BOOK I. ODE 7. 20& 

this garland of poetry is spoken of as placed upon the brow of the 
successful poet ; oliva is thup virtually used to cover two ideas : (a) 
the actual olive twig typical of successful poetic achievement ; (5) the 
topics of poetic treatment. praeponere: as shown by ancient 
works of art, the garland placed upon the head often projected in front 
of the forehead ; cf. Seneca, Medea, 70, praecingere roseo tempora 
vinculo. olivam : the olive was sacred to Athene, the patron 
goddess of Athens. 

8. plurimus: many a one; unexampled in this sense, but sup- 
ported by the occasional use of muUus in this meaning, e.g. Lucan, 
Pharsalia, iii. 707, multus sua volnera puppi afflxU. lunonla: a 
prominent deity in Argive worship. Remains of her temple, the 
Heraeum, have recently been brought to light on the site of the ancient 
city of Argos. 

9. aptum eqiiia Argos : aptum equis is an evident translation of 
the standing Homeric epithet of Argos, iirird^oTov, lit. * horse-feeding * ; 
the level plains about the city afforded excellent pasturage. ditea 
Mycenaa : the wealth of Mycenae was well-nigh proverbial. Recent 
archaeological investigation bears abundant evidence to its ancient 
splendor. Homer speaks of it as iroXiJxpvfl'oi (* all-golden *). 

10. me : Horace himself had a villa at Tibur. patiens : hardy ; 
Sparta was no longer famed in Horace^s day for the valor of its 
citizens ; the poet is speaking of its ancient reputation. 

11. Larisae : a city of Thessaly situated on the PenSus. per- 
cnaait : i.e. with admiration. 

12. Albuneae reaonantlB : Albunea is here the nymph conceived 
to inhabit the fountain of the same name, which gushed up in a grotto 
(cf. domus) at Tibur ; resonantis is poetically transferred from domus 
to Albuneae; the reference is to the noisy roar of the neighboring 
waterfall (praeceps Anio). 

13. Tlbumi: one of the three mythical founders of Tibur. 
laoua: i.e. a sacred grove, as in i. 4. 11, and regularly in Horace. 
uda: watered. 

14. rlvls : these are artificial watercourses, constructed for purposes 
of irrigation. 

15. albua deterget Notua : as its context and position show, 
albus (used predicatively) is emphatic ; the poet means : * Just as 
Notus is often a clearing (albus) wind and banishes ' ; note the use 
of albus as applied to the wind, instead of to the weather which the wind 
accompanies ; it is precisely analogous to the use of nigris in i. 6. 7, 

210 BOOK I. ODE 7. [I*AOB 11 

nigris ventis. Of. also iii. 27. 19, albtts lapyx; iii. 7. 1, caikdidua 

17. Bapiens: wisely, 

18. tristitiam, labores : the special causes of Plancos^s affliction 
are unknown. 

19. molli mero : mellow loine. Fiance : Lucius Munatius 
Plancus (bom about 8o b.c. ) had been consul in 42 b.c. He was a man 
of weak character, and in the tempestuous times following the assassi- 
nation of Caesar vacillated between parties, transferring his allegiance 
repeatedly from one cause to another. Ultimately he became a sup- 
porter of Octavian and was the originator of the proposition to confer 
upon the Emperor the title of Augustus (27 b.c). Horace^s relations 
with Plancus are unknown. 

20. tenent, tenebit : as the tenses show, Plancus is not now at 
Tibur, but presumably in the field. 

21. Tiburls tni: these words form the connecting link between 
the first and second parts of the ode ; the clearness of the transition 
is somewhat clouded by the length of the comparison introduced by 
albus ut obscuro, Plancus is said to have been born at Tibur, and 
may also have owned a villa there. Teucer : son of Telamon and 
half-brother of Ajax. Teucer is used as an example to enforce the 
poet^s exhortation to Plancus ; hence the emphatic position of the 
word at the beginning of its clause. The substance of the illustra- 
tion was probably familiar to all educated Romans, from Pacuvius's 
tragedy of Teucer, S€damina: Greek accusative of Salamis, 

22. fugeret : when Ajax and Teucer set out for the Trojan War, 
their father, Telamon, had enjoined upon them that each should guard 
the other and neither should return alone. Ajax, driven mad by 
Athena, had wrought havoc among the cattle in the Grecian camp, and 
out of shame for his conduct had taken his own life. Telamon, how- 
ever, was inexorable, and upon Teucer^s return banished him from 
home. uda : lit. moists but here, as occasionally elsewhere, in the 
sense oi flushed. Lyaeo : by a common metonymy for vino, 

23. popolea : the poplar was sacred to the wandering Hercules 
(c/. Virgil, Buc, 7. 61, populus Alcidae gratissima) and hence appro- 
priate to Teucer*s present fortunes. < 

24. adfatuB : the perfect participle is here used as a present, 
denoting contemporaneous action. B. 336, 6 \ A, and G. 290, b \ G. 
282. N. ; H. 660. n. 

Page 12.] BOOK I. ODE 8. 211 

25. quo . . . cumque: tmesis, as i. 6. 3. melior : i.e. kinder. 
parente = patre (meo), 

26. ibimuB : almost with the hortatory force of let us go. 

27. nil deaperandum : never despair ! Teucro duce et 
auspice Teucro : note the chiasmus ; auspice Teucro means, under 
Teucer*s auspices. With the whole expression c/., for example, such 
phrases as Augusti ductu et auspiciis. 

28. certuB : unerring, an evident translation of the Greek ny/uepri^f . 

29. ambiguam Salamina: a second Salamis, i.e. one whose 
name, if mentioned alone, would cause uncertainty as to which of 
the two was meant. tellure nova: the new land in which the 
second Salamis was founded proved to be Cyprus. 

30. O fortes peioraque passi: cf. the similar exhortation of 
Aeneas to his comrades in Aen. i. 199, passi graviora, dabit deus his 
quoque finem. 

32. iterabimus aequor : lit. repeat (i.e. resume our voyage over) 
the deep; he had just returned with his followers from Troy. 


1. Lydia : with Horace, a typical name for a coquette. 

2. Sybarin: the name is fictitious, but seems to be chosen with 
reference to the sybaritic life now pursued by the youth. 

4. campum : the Campus Martins, which was used for athletic 
exercise and sports. patiens: with adversative force, — though 
capable of enduring. 

6. Gkdiica ora : i.e. mouth of his Gallic steed ; excellent horses 
came from cisalpine Gaul. lupatis frenis : wolf-bit bridle ; 

such bridles were furnished with a peculiar kind of jagged bit. 

8. timet Tiberim tangere : the Tiber was much frequented for 
«fwimming ; timere with the infinitive is essentially a poetic construc- 
tion in Horace^s day. flavom, olivom : for the spelling, see note 
on i. 2. 13, where also the force of Jlavos is explained. olivom : 
used in anointing the body before wrestling. 

9. sanguine viperino : mentioned in Epodes, 3. 6, as a deadly 

10. neque iam livida gestat, etc. : and now no longer go about 
with arms aglow from martial exercise ; livida denotes the dark blue 
color of the veins swollen by exercise ; livida gestat bracchia is litep 
ally : carry his arms aglow, i.e. move about with arms aglow. 

212 BOOK I. ODE 9. [VxQE 12. 

11. disco . . . nobilis expedite : distinguished for hurling^ 
often the discus, often the javelin, beyond the farther mark (reached 
by others). The discus was a disk of stone or metal similar to the 
modern quoit. 

13. quid : why f marinae : sea-horn, Thetis was a Nereid. 

14. filium Thetidis : Achilles. That be might escape the certain 
destruction which it was foretold he should meet did he join the Tro- 
jan expedition, his mother had concealed him at the court of Lycome- 
des on the island of Scyros. dictint : sc, latuisse, sub : of 
time, just before. The interval was really ten years, but Troy*s doom 
is poetically conceived as near at hand. 

15. virilie coltue : manly garb ; Achilles had disguised himself 
at Scyros by donning maiden^s attire. 

16. Lyciae catervas : Lycian troops ; the Lycians were allies of 
the Trojans, who are really meant. 


1. nt : how, introducing the subjunctives of indirect question, stet, 
sustineant, constiterint, stet : t.e. stands out distinctly against the 
sky ; picturesque for sit, 

2. Soracte : a mountain about 28 miles north of Rome, rising con- 
spicuously from the plain to a height of 2000 feet. Its modem name 
is S. Oreste, nee iam : and no longer. 

3. laborantes : lit. toiling, straining ; we naturally use no figure, 
but say bending. 

4. constiterint : are congealed; here Horace is giving us either an 
exaggeration, or (what is more probable) simply an artificial repro- 
duction of the ode of Alcaeus of which this poem is an imitation ; cf, 
the Alcaic fragment, trexdyaffip d* i/Sdruv ^l, Kiessling assures us 
that the Tiber does not freeze over once in a century. 

5. super = high upon ; cf. the use of sub in i. 5. 3, with the note. 

6. reponens : re- in composition, ampng various other meanings, 
often conveys the idea of doing something in response to an obliga- 
tion ; thus reddere, * give as is due ' ; so here reponens, * piling, as you 
ought'; so below, line 20, repetantur, * let (the campus and squares) 
besought, as they ought to be."* benignius: i.e. more generously 
than usual, — right generously. 

7. deprome : bring down, i.e. from the wine-room ; wine was 
often kept in store-rooms located in the second story of the dwell* 

Page 14.] BOOK I. ODE 9. 213 

ing; c/. iii. 21. 1 f., . . . pia testa . . . descende (ac. horreo), 
quadrimnm Sabina merom dlota: interlocked order (synchysis), 
as in i. 6. 6, and frequently in poetry. quadrimum : four years 
oldt lit. of four winters ; quadrlmus is from *quadri-him-us^ in which 
him- is the same root as seen in hiem-s^ Greek x^^f^'^^ ; other com- 
I>oands are bimus, trlmus. Sabina : poetic transference of the 
epithet, from the wine to the jar ; strictly, it is the wine which is 

8. Thaliarche : a fictitious name, yet a suggestive one ; it means 
* master of festivities.* 

9. cetera: i,e, all else but the moment's pleasure. qui 
Btravere : the clause is illative, — for as soon as they have quieted, 
simnl : for simul ac, as i. 4. 17, and not infrequently. 

10. aequore : to be taken with deproeliantis, 

11. • deproeliantia : battling, i,e. with each other ; the de is inten- 
sive, as in i. 3. 18, decertantem Aquilonibus, a passage which is other- 
wise similar to that before us ; deproelior is found only here. 
cupreasi : a tall, slender tree, in shape something like the Lombardy 
poplar, and hence particularly exposed to the action of the wind. 

13. fuge quaerere : a poetical periphrasis for noli quaerere ; such 
periphrases, while frequent in all poetry, ancient and modern, are par- 
ticularly common in Horace. 

14. quern . . . cumque : tmesis as in i. 6. 3 ; i. 7. 26. dierum : 
dependent upon quemcumque, lucro appone : set down as gain, 
lit. to gain ; a mercantile figure. 

15. uec speme : nee occurs repeatedly in Horace's lyric poems, 
where we should normally expect neve {neu), i,e. in prohibitions, and 
in jussive and optative subjunctives, e.g, iii. 7. 30, neque in vias 
despice ; Epodes, 10. 9, nee sidus amicum adpareat. 

16. paer : in youth. neque tu : sc, speme ; in disjunctive sen- 
tences, the tu is not seldom reserved for the second member, as here ; 
cf. JSpist. i. 2. 63, huncfrenis, hunc tu compesce catenis. 

17. donee : while ; in this sense the word is not found before the 
Augustan period. vlrenti: understand in thought tibi, — 'and 
while you are in the bloom of youth.' 

18. nunc : i.e. in youth. campus : i.e. the Campus Martius, the 
place of sports and martial exercise, as indicated in Ode 8. 

19. lenea auBuni : sc. amantium. sub noctem : at nightfall ; 
as night is drawing on ; the use of sub is the same as that in i. 8. 14, 
sub funera. 

214 BOOK 1. ODE 10. [Page 14. 

20. compofldta hora: at the trysting hour. repetantnr: for 

the force of the re-, see note on line 6, reponens. 

21. et: also, too, latentis proditor intumo puellae riaos 
ab angulo : the arrangement is carefully studied ; the three modi- 
fiers are placed together, succeeding eacli other in the same order as 
the three nouns which they qualify, which are likewise placed to- 
gether ; translate, now too the merry laugh from some secret comer 
which betrays the hiding girl. 

22. rlsuB, pignuB : these words also are the subject of repetantur^ 
but the construction is somewhat zeugmatic, i.e. with risus and 
pignus some other idea than that of repetere is to be supplied ; owing 
to the remoteness of repetantnr, this construction, though grammati- 
cally somewhat loose, is not harsh. 

23. pigniis : forfeit ; a bracelet or a ring, as shown by the following 
lacertis, digito. lacertis, digito : best taken as datives of separa- 
tion. B. 188. 2. d ; A. & G. 229 ; G. 347. 6 ; H. 386. 2. 

24. male pertinaci: scarcely, or not really, resisting; the girrs 
unwillingness is only simulated ; for another picture of the same sort, 
cf. i. 6. 17-18, sectis unguihns acrium; for this force of male, cf. Virg. 
Aen. ii. 23, statio male fida carinis. 


The ode seems to have been a free imitation of a similar hymn to 
Mercury (Hermes) composed by Alcaeus, some fragments of which 

1. Mercurl : to the Roman mind Mercury was primarily the patron 
god of trade {cf. merx, merc-ator). To this conception were later 
added many attributes of the kindred Greek divinity Hermes, who was 
primarily the messenger of the gods. It is this later composite con- 
ception which lies at the basis of the present ode. factinde : applied 
to Mercury as the messenger or herald of the gods ; cf. the Greek 
epithet \67tof. In Acts xiv. 12, we are told that ' they called Paul 
Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker.^ nepos : he was the 
son of Jupiter and Maia, Atlases daughter. 

2. feroB coitus : Horace, in Sat. i. 3. 100, speaks of primitive man 
as d mutum et tuipe pecus. The first defect (jnutum) would naturally 
be remedied by the gift of language ; the second {turpe) by the institu- 
tion of graceful athletic exercises, such as those of the palaestra, 
recentum ; i.e. just created, primitive \ the genitive in -um, for -turn, 
is poetic. 

Page 16.J BOOK 1. ODE 10. 215 

3. vooe: i.e. with speech, the gift of language. As the god of in- 
tercourse, commerce (c/. com-merc-ium with Merc-unus)^ and com- 
munication in general, Mercury was naturally credited with bestowing 
the power of communication by means of language. catns: this 
word (obsolete in Horace^s day) contains the notion of wise insight, 
— here insight into the needs of mortals ; Horace employs it again 
m iii. 12. 10. decorae: causative, — grace giving. 

4. more: the institution, palaestrae: Mercury^s function as 
the presiding deity of athletics was recognized in the Greek epithet 

6. curvae lyrae: Mercury is said to have invented the lyre by 
stretching strings across the shell of a tortoise which he had found ; 
curvae, of course, refers to the shape of the shell. 

8. condere: to hide; the infinitive dependent upon an adjective, 
as in i. 1. 18, indodlis pati, and frequently in poetry. forto : a 
special instance of this propensity is mentioned in the next stanza. 

9. bovee : emphatic by position. ollm : once upon a time ; the 
jword limits the sentence as a whole. reddidiuee : practically 
equivalent to a subordinate clause in indirect discourse dependent 
upon the idea of saying involved m minaci voce ; we may conceive 
Apollo as saying in direct discourse, nisi . . . reddideris, ego te, etc. 
In indirect discourse after a secondary tense {terret is historical 
present), the future perfect indicative of the direct form naturally 
l[>ecomes the pluperfect subjunctive, reddidisses. 

10. per dolum : instead of the adverb dolose, amotaa : lit. 
abstracted, diverted; semi- jocose for ^stolen.' puemm; Mercury 
is said to have played this prank on the very day of his birth. 

11. vlduoB : with the force of a perfect passive participle {privatus, 
spoliatus), as often in the poets; though viduos is grammatically in 
agreement with the subject of risit, yet logically the idea is : * laughed 
to find himself bereft.* On the orthography of viduos, see note on 
1. 3. 34, vacuom ; Introd. § 34. 

12. risit : aoristic, — burst into laughter. 

13. quia et : quin is intensive, as in the frequent quin etiam ; et 
here = etianif *also.' Atrldaa : Menelaus and Agamemnon. 

14. Uio relicto : Priam passed out of the city on his way to 
Achilles, in ordor to ransom Hector^s body. See II. 24. 334 f . dives : 
appositively ; laden with gifts ; alluding probably to the rich presents 
which Priam brought as a ransom. 

15. Thesaaloaque ignis: i.e. the watch-fires of the Thessalian 

216 BOOK I. ODE 11. [PagbIS. 

Myrmidons of Achilles. Troiae : dative, dependent upon iniqua ; 
cf. i. 2. 47, no8tri8 vitlis iniquom. 

16. fefellit : escaped the notice of, 

17. reponlB: i.e. put in the place where they belong, 'duly con- 
duct ' ; for this force of re-, see note on i. 9. 6, reponens. The concep- 
tion of Mercury as the guide of souls to the lower world was covered 
by the Greek epithet \ffvxoirofnr6s, 

18. sedibuB laetis : i.e. the Elysian Fields ; the case is ablative. 
virga : said to have been presented to him by Apollo in return for the 
lyre which Mercury had contrived. levem : ghostly, unsubstatUial ; 
the idea is the same as in fabulae, i. 4. 16. 

19. turbam : of the shades. 

20. Imis : for the usual inferis. 


1. ne quaoflderia : the perfect subjunctive in prohibitions is prac- 
tically confined to the poets and colloquial speech. scire nefasr 
i.e. it is impossible to know ; cf. i. 24. 20. The phrase is used paren- 
thetically ; understand est. 

2. Ilnem : sc. vitae. Iiouconod : the name is fictitious. Per- 
haps Horace intended it to suggest the meaning : '• of clear insight * {i.e. 
into the future), from Greek \evK6s and vovs. nee: on nee {neque) 
for neve {neu) with imperative, optative, and jussive expressions, see 
note on i. 9. 15, nee speme. Observe, too, that nee here is not dis- 
junctive, but rather explanatory of the preceding ne quciesieris, i.e. 
*do not seek by trying the calculations,^ etc. Similarly ii. 11. 3, 
remittas quaerere nee trepides. Babylonioa nmneroa : Bahylonios 
is synonymous with Chaldaeos. The Chaldeans were typical repre- 
sentatives of the art of astrology ; numeros refers to their calculations 
by means of tables and numbers. Beginning with Horace^s day, the 
influence of these impostors continued for centuries at Rome. Legisla- 
tion, though often directed against them, proved futile. 

3. ut : exclamatory, — how much better, etc. ; ut for quanto with a 
comparative, as here, is apparently a Grecism ; cf. Plautus, True. 806, 
utfacilius. quicquid erit: i.e. whatever fate shall come. 

4. plures : i.e. more than the present. tribuit: has destined. 
luppiter : the disposition of events is represented as governed now by 
the Fates, now by Jupiter. nltimam : in predicate relationship to 
earn understood, the antecedent of quae. 

Pagb 16. J BOOK I. ODE 12. 217 

5. oppositiB debilitat, etc. : the winter is represented as wearing 
out the sea hy (= against) the cliffs (pumicibtts)^ which serve as a 
barrier {oppositis) to the waves ; a rather cumbrous figure. 

6. Bapias: i.e. don't be f ooiish I I^ave the idle speculations of 
astrology. vina liquea: for removing the sediment; a common 
domestic operation, and so here used for performing one's customary 
household duties. spatio brevi : causal ablative, — since the apace 
{of our life) is short, 

' 7. spem longam resecefl: cf the similar thought in 1. 4. 15, vitae 
summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam, fugerit: will be 
gone; the future perfect is here used, as frequently, to denote the 
immediate consummation of the future act. invida : i,e, time {aetas) 
which begrudges us enjoyment of life's pleasures. 

8. carpe diem : i.e. reap its fruit, its pleasures ; possibly with th« 
added notion of swiftness. Horace here must not be regarded as re& 
ommending the life of a voluptuary ; he never suggests that as an 
ideal. He is rather urging a wise enjoyment of life's blessings while 
they are present. quam miDimam : ca little as possible, i.e, not 
at all. poBtero : neuter, — to the future, 

OPE Xll. 

1. Qtiem viram ant heroa, etc, : the opening lines of the ode are 
an imitation of the beginnmg of Pindar's second Olympian ode, rha 
$€6p, riv* fipioa, riva 5' iLvbpa KeXadifffOfuv ; acri : shrill, clear-toned, 

2. celebrare : the infinitive is poetically used to denote purpose, as 
in i. 2. 8, visere montes; cf. especially Epp, i. 3. 7, quis sibi res gestcis 
Augusti scribere sumit f Clio : the muse Df history, and so appro- 
priate for the purpose mentioned by the poet. 

3. iocoaa : playful ; a permanent characteristic of the echo, as 
though endeavoring to deceive and mislead mortals. 

4. imago .* echo ; the full phrase is imago vocis ; yet even prose 
writers use the simple imago in this sense. 

5. HeliconiB : Mt. Helicon m Boeotia. Like Pindus and Haemus, 
it was a celebrated haunt of the Muses. oris : borders, slopes. 

6. super Pindo : i.e. on the summit of ; cf. the use of super in i. 
9. 5, super foco. Mt. Pindus was between Thessaly and Epirus. 
gelido Haemo : Mt. Haemus was in Thrace. It is called * cool ' 
because of its elevation. 

7. undo : its antecedent is Haemo. temere : i.e. in confusion. 

218 BOOK I. ODE 12. [Page 16. 

The word is the locative of an obsolete nominative temus (like genus^ 
-eris) meaning * darkness'; hence originally *in the dark/ * blindly/ 
* in confusion. ' The final 6, often marked long in dictionaries, is really 
short. inBectitae : «c. sunt. 

8. Orphea : Orpheus lived in Thrace. silvae : even the trees 
are said to have yielded to the spell of Orpheas's lyre. 

9. arte matema : i.e. the skill with which his mother (Calliope, 
the Muse) had endowed him. 

11. blandum : limiting Orphea. et : even. aoritas : listenr 
ing^ attentive. fidibos : with ducere. 

12. ducere : the infinitive depends upon the adjective (blandum) \ 
cf. i. 1. 18, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

13. aolitia : i.e. familiar, oft-repeated ; for solUus in this passive 
sense, cf. i. 6. 20, praeter solitum. parentia : viz. Jupiter. For 
the thought, cf. Virg. Buc. 3. 60, ab love principium Muaae, lovis 
omnia plena. 

16. horla : seasons, a poetic sense of the word. 

17. tinde = a quo. The antecedent is parentis. 

18. nee quicqnam simile aut aecuiidain : cf. Martial, xii. 8. 2, 
terrarum dea Roma, cui par est nihil et nihil secundum. aecuxidiim, 
proadmos: this use of secundus (*nezt and near') and proocimus 
(*next, but at a distance') occurs elsewhere, e.g. Cic. Brutus, 47. 
173 ; cf. also Virgil's |)roa;imtt« huic, longo sedproximus intervallo. 

19. illi : brachylogy for illius honoribus. Cf . i. 1. 23, lUuo tubae 
permixtus sonitus. 

21. proeliia audaz : Fallas's prowess in battle is frequently men- 
tioned ; cf. Virg. Aen. xi. 483, armipotens, praeses belli. 

22. Liber : Bacchus. inimica vlrgo beluia : the reference is 
to the huntress Diana. 

24. Phoebe : preeminent for his skill in archery. On the im- 
portance attached by Augustus to the worship of Apollo and the reasons 
for this, see note on i. 2. 32. 

25. Alciden : Hercules. He was the grandson of Alceus. pa- 
eroB Ledae : Castor and Pollux ; puer for ftlius, as in i. 32. 10, and 
often in poetry. 

26. hunc: Castor. equia: with superare. ilium: Pollux. 
anperare : used absolutely ; the infinitive dependent upon an adjec- 
tive, as above, in line 12. pngnia : with the fists, in boxing ; from 

27. aimol : for simul ac, as often. 

Page 17.] BOOK I. ODE 12. 219 

28. Btella : constellation (Gemini) ; Castor and Pollux were the 
especial patrons of mariners. See i. 3. 2 and note. 

29. saads : i.e. the cliffs of the coast. 

34. Pompili: Numa Pompiiius, whose reign, according to tradi- 
tion, was characterized by the cessation of war and the establishment 
of elaborate religions ceremonials. BuperboB: apparently here 
used in the complimentary sense of *■ glorious,' with an allusion to the 
magnificent public buildings which Tarquinius erected, as well as to 
the generally successful course of his reign. 

35. Tarquini : the second Tarquin is meant. fasces : the 
bimdles containing axes, carried by the lictors as the symbols of the 
authority of the kings, and later of the consuls. Catonis: Cato 
Uticensis, who ended his life by suicide at Utica in 46 b.c., after 
Caesar's victory, was the champion par excellence of the Republican 
cause. Hence the *present allusion, particularly in an ode whose 
climax is the praise of Augustus, has not only excited surprise, but 
has even led some critics (e.g. Bentley) to suggest an alteration of the 
text. But Cato had not been a personal opponent of Octavian, and 
the interval since his death (some twenty years) had doubtless served 
to obliterate recollections of the old party strife. Cato's character and 
motives, moreover, had been recognized by all as of singular purity 
and disinterestedness. Another similar allusion to Cato occurs in ii. 
1. 23, et cuncta ten*arum subacta praeter atrocem animum Catonis; 
cf. also Yirgirs tribute in Aen, viii. 670, secretosque pios his dantem 
iura Catonem. Similar encomiums occur in other contemporary 

36. nobile = clarum, as often. 

37. Regulum : said to have been put to death with cruel tortures 
after his return to Carthage from Rome, where he had dissuaded the 
Senate from making an exchange of prisoners with the Carthaginians ; 
r/. ill. 5. The story, however, is probably apocryphal. Scauros : 
i.e. men like Scaurus ; the reference is to M. Aemilius Scaurus (163- 
89 B.C.), who served with distinction in the Cimbrian War, and was 
twice consul. Valerius Maximus, v. 8. 4, calls him himen ac decus 
patriae. animae : genitive with prodigum, which here follows the 
analogy of adjectives of fulness. 

38. Paulum : L. Aemilius Paulus ; he fell at Cannae, 216 b.c. 
Poeno : i.e. Hannibal ; the ablative absolute here denotes time. 

39. gratus : gladly ; i.e. the theme is a welcome one to me. in- 
signi camena : in ennobling verse ; camena, lit. * muse,' by a familiar 

220 BOOK I. ODE 12. [Pagb 17. 

figure is used for carmine; with imignis in the causative sense of 

* making distinguished,' c/. i. 1. 6, palma nobilis. 

40. Fabridum: a hero in the war with Pynhus (281-276 b.c), 
and famous for the integrity and simplicity of his character. He has 
been called ' the Roman Aristides' ; cf. Cic. de Off. Hi. 22. 87, Fabricio, 
qui talis in hac urbe qucUis Aristides Athenis fuit, 

41. intomtlB Curium capUlie : M*. Curius Dentatus was a con- 
temporary of Eabricius, and like him served in the war against 
Pyxrhus. His simplicity of life is emphasized in the words intonsis 
capillis. The first barbers at Rome are said to have come from Sicily 
in 300 B.c.y but it was nearly, a century before the custom of carefully 
trimming the beard and hair became general. 

42. ntilem : in predicate relation to Curium. beUo : dative of 
purpose. Camillum: M. Furius Camillus, the hero of the Gallic 
invasion (390 b.c). 

43. paupertaB: poverty, not in the sense of destitution, but 
simply of narrow means, like pauperies in i. 1. 18. arto lare : 
narrow {i.e. humble) abode; lar, originally the god of the hearth or 
household, is here used figuratively for the dwelling. With arto lare, 
cf. Epp. i. 7. 68, lare curto ; Lucan, Pharsalia, v. 627, vitae tuta 
facultas pauperis angustique lares. Horace is particularly fond of 
dwelling upon the simplicity of the early days, and contrasting it with 
the demoralizing luxury of his own age. 

45. croBcit occulte : grows imperceptibly ; the Mss. read occuUo, 
which editors retain, construing it with aevo. But this is extraordinary 
Latin. The text of Lucretius, i. 314, occulte decrescit vomer in arms, 
suggests that Horace here wrote occulte, which later became corrupted 
to occulto. 

46. Marcelli : the whole family is alluded to by implication, 
though only one representative of the house had ever achieved a 
reputation commensurate with that of the other worthies here men- 
tioned. He was M. Claudius Marcellus, the conqueror of Syracuse. 
Between 222 and 208 b.c. he was five times elected consul. His aggres- 
sive tactics in the Second Punic War secured him the name of the 

* Sword of Rome,' in distinction from Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator, 
who was known as the *• Shield of Rome.' This allusion to the fame 
of the Marcelli, besides giving recognition to a famous house, is doubt- 
less intended also as a compliment to the young Marcellus (son of 
Octavia and nephew of Augustus), whose marriageto Julia, Augustus's 
daughter, probably occurred about the time this ode was written. Such 

Pagb 18.] BOOK I. ODE 12. 221 

a compliment would naturally appeal to the Emperor also, who had 
selected Marcellus as his successor. The young man^s promise of future 
distinction was suddenly cut short by death in 23 b.c. ; c/. the five 
lines commemorating this event in Virg. Aen, vi. 863 f., quis, pater, 
Ule, virum qui sic comitatur euntem f etc, omiiiB : viz, all the other 
Roman worthies previously mentioned. 

47. luUum fldduB : the reference is to the comet which appeared 
in broad daylight after the death of Julius Caesar and continued to 
shine for a week. It was popularly believed to contain the soul of 
the murdered hero. This allusion to the Julian house, following im- 
mediately the reference to that of the Marcelli, seems to point to an 
approaching or already consummated union of the two houses by 
marriage. Ignis mlnoroB = Stellas. 

49. pater atqne costOB : Jupiter. 

51. data : sc. est, tu Bectindo Caeaare regnea : the perspec- 
tive of the thought is somewhat obscured ; Horace's prayer is really : 
* May Caesar be next to thee in majesty I * 

53. ParthoB : see note on i. 2. 22, Persae. Latio ImminentiB : 
a poetical exaggeration. 

54. ItiBto triumpho: a well-earned triumph; to be taken with 

55. subiectOB : bordering on; the notion of * under' disappears in 
certain uses of this compound. orae : used, much as above in line 
6, in the general sense of * region,* * district,' but with the added 
notion of distance. 

56. Ser&8: Greek accusative from nominative Seres. Seres was 
loosely applied to the peoples living on the east of the Roman frontier 
in Asia, in the vicinity of the modem Bokhara. Indoa : famed for 
their riches and treasures. The Romans had not yet come in contact 
with either Seres or Indi, but it was a natural ambition to desire to 
include these peoples in the Roman dominion. 

57. te, tu (58), tu (59) : the anaphora, coupled with the emphatic 
position of the pronouns at the beginning of the verse, is intended to 
close the ode with a due recognition of the supremacy of the god. 
aequoB : for the spelling, see note on i. 2. 47. 

58. gravi cumi : Jove's thunder. Olympum = caelum. 

59. parum caatiB = incestis, i.e. polluted by the vile orgies of the 

60. ludB: the dative for in with the accusative as in i. 2. 1, 

222 BOOR I. ODE 13. [Faob 10. 


1. Telephi, Telephi : the repetition of Telephi at the close of two 
successive veises aptly indicates how Telephus^s praises are constantly 
On Lydia*s lips. 

2. cervicem : the singular is poetical ; in prose we regularly have 
cervices, cerea : here white ; so also Ovid, ex Ponto, i. 10. 28, 
membraque sunt cera pallidiora nova. In its natural state the wax was 
yellowish in color, but refining produced a white variety. 

4. difficili bile : with angry pension ; difflcilis^ like English * angry,' 
is transferred from the person to the emotion. lecur : often con- 
ceived as the seat of anger and other emotions. 

6. manent : the plural verb with subjects connected by nee . . . 
nee is rare; yet Cicero says {de Fin, iii. 21. 70), etenim nee iustitia 
nee amieitia esse omnino poterunt, nisi ipsae per se expetantur, 
amor: of tears. 

7. Inrtiin : i,e, despite all efforts at concealment. 

8. qoam : to be taken with penitus, 

9. uror: i.e, with jealousy at your continued love for Telephus, 
despite his cruelty. 

10. Immodicae : strictly, the epithet belongs in thought with 
mero, i.e. violence resulting from excessive indulgence in wine. 

11. puer : Telephus. 

12. memorem : lasting ; another instance of the causative use of 
the adjective, as in i. 1. 6, palma nobilis. 

13. satis : i.e. as much as you ought. audias : heed, 

14. speres : potential subjunctive — you would noi hope, approach- 
ing almost the force of a prohibition. perpetuom: sc. futurum 
esse ; the epithet is transferred from some such word as fides to the 
lover himself ; for the spelling of perpetuom, see note on i. 3. 34, 

15. oscnla : here, lips, as in Virg. Aen, i. 256, oscula libavit 
natae. This meaning is rare. 

16. quinta parte : the quintessence ; the Pythagoreans recognized 
five elements or essences {essentiae), of which the fifth (the quinta 
essentia) was the aether. This aether being very pure and delicate, 
its name of quinta essentia came to be synonymous with * purity,* 
* delicacy.* Our English * quintessence * in this sense goes back, 
through the mediaeval philosophers, to the ancient Pythagorean 

Page 21.] BOOK I. ODE 14. 228 

17. ter et ampliiis : for the usual terque quaterqua, 

19. dlvolstiB amor: the sundering of love; cf. the familiar post 
urbem conditam, querimoniiB : lit. eomplaints^ te. arising from 
mutual bickerings. 

20. Btiprema die : euphemistic for morte. 


1. navia : the conception of the state as a ship is frequent in all 
literatures. referent : are about to carry back, in mare : into 
the sea of war. novi fluctua : Le, new civil disturbances. 


2. quid agia : a common form of reproof ; cf. Cic. in Cat. i. 10, M^ 
Tulli, quid agis ! fortiter occupa portom : i.e. bestir yourself to 
reach a haven of security ; occupare means * get possession,* not, 
like English occupy, ^to maintain possession.* The word usually 
connotes the idea of anticipation ; so here : * reach the haven, before 
the waves take thee to sea again.* 

3. nt : how. 

4. latuB : 8C. sit ; the omission of the forms of esse in indirect 
questions is extremely rare at all periods. 

5. m&luB : the mast. Note the interlocked arrangement {synchysis) 
in malus celeri saucius Africo. aauciUB = sauciatus. 

6. fmiiboa : carried lengthwise along the hull from stem to stern, 
to strengthen the vessel. 

7. durare : endure, withstand; in this sense the word is first found 
in the Augustan poets ; later it appears in the post-Augustan prose 
writers. carinae : a somewhat bold instance of the poetic plural ; 
cf, puppibus, below, in line 14 ; Virg. Buc. 6. 75, rates (of the ship of 
Ulysses); Aen, ii. 202, arae, *tlie altar.' 

8. imperioflduB: i.e. too violent. 

10. di : statues of gods were often set up in the stems of vessels. 
quoB vocea : relative clause of purpose, — to call upon, Iterum : 
with pressa. 

11. Pontica pinua : superior material for the construction of 
ships came from the forests of Pontus ; pinus and filia (in line 12) are 
both appositives of the subject of iactes. 

12. nobilia : with silvae. 

13. inutile : with both genus and nomen, 

14. nil iidit : puts no trust ; nil is accusative of * result produced.* 
B. 176. 2. a. pictia puppibua : vessels were often painted in 

224 BOOK I. ODE 15. [Page 21. 

bright colors; in this context, pictis has almost the force of 
» gaudy.' 

15. nifli debes ludibrium : t.e. unless thou wishest to furnish 

16. cave : beware ! used absolutely. 

17. Bollicitum taedium: an object of vexing disappointment; 
sollicitum is causal, being transferred from the person to the thing ; 
cf, i. 1. 5, palma nobilis. The reference is probably to the period 
after Fhilippi, when Horace was still nursing his disappointment at 
the failure of the republican movement headed by Brutus and Cassius. 
quae : sc. fuisti with taedium ; es with cura ; the verb is rarely omitted 
in subordinate clauses. 

18. nunc : i.e. since Horace's reconciliation to Augustus's adminis- 
tration, deidderium : an object of fond affection. non levia : 
litotes for gravissima. 

19. nitentiB : explained as referring to the glistening marble quar- 
ried at Faros and elsewhere ; cf iii. 28. 14, fulgentis Cycladas, with 

20. aeqnora : the waters of the Aegean were difficult of naviga- 
tion ; the expression, however, is purely figurative, — * beware of the 
rocks and shoals of civil strife I ' Cycladaa : governed by inter in 
interftisa ; the earliest instance of the construction with this word. 


1. Paator : viz. Paris. Before the birth of Paris, his mother, 
Hecuba, saw in a dream a vision of a firebrand which threatened to 
destroy Troy. Interpreting the vision to apply to the expected child, 
she exposed him at his birth upon Mt Ida. Paris grew up among the 
shepherds, and was tending sheep upon Mt. Ida when appealed to by 
the three goddesses (Juno, Venus, Minerva) to award the golden apple ' 
to the fairest. traheret : the word suggests haste and eagerness. 

2. Idaeia : i.e. made of wood from Mt. Ida. perfidtiB hospl- 
tam : the antithesis between these two ideas is heightened by their 
juxtaposition, as so frequently in all Latin writers ; cf i. 6. 9, tenues 

3. ingrato : i.e. to the winds, whose nature was to keep in motion ; 
the antithesis between the natural character of the winds (jceleris) and 
the unwelcome (ingrato) calm is well brought out by the juxtaposi> 
tion of the epithets ; cf» note on line 2. obmlt : the subject, Ne^ 

Page 22.] BOOK I. ODE 15. 225 

reus, by an unusual hyperbaton, is drawn into the dependent clause 
(ut caneret). otio.: vrith a calm. 

4. fera : dire, relentless. 

5. NereuB : the marine deity, son of Pontus and Tellus, and father 
of the Nereids. His prophetic powers are mentioned by Hesiod and 
others ; cf. Hesiod, Theog. 235, yiptap vrffupr'^. mala avl : under 
evil auspices ; the ablative is strictly one of attendant circumstance 
(B. 221); lit. wUh evil bird. 

6. miilto milite : with many a warrior; the person is treated as 
the means, as opposed to the agent, of the action. 

7. coniurata : alludii^g, probably, to the formal oath taken by the 
Greek chieftains at Aulis. rumpere : zeugma ; rumpere applies 
strictly only to nuptias ; with regnum we should expect some such 
verb as frangere ; the infinitive without subject accusative after coniu- 
rata is a Grecism. 

9. quantuB, quantuB : the anaphora lends emphasis. adeat : 
is looming near (Bryce). 

10. Dardanae genti: against the race of Dardanus; dative of 
interest ; Dardanae is for Dardaniae ; cf. Carmen Saeculare, 47, 
Bomula (for Bomulea) gens. 

11. aeglda: breastplate (not * shield,' as given in Harpers' Dic- 
tionary) ; cf. Ovid, Met. vi. 78, clipeum, hastam, galeam ; defenditur 
aegide pectus. 

12. cumui : the poetic plural. rabiem : note the striking com- 
bination of this abstract noun with the previous concrete ones (galeam, 
aegida, currus) ; we feel the need of different verbs in our English 
rendering. Bryce suggests * whets her rage.' 

13. Veneris praesidio : Venus's support was rendered in return 
for Paris's award of the golden apple. feroz : emboldened. 

14. pectes caesariem : an expression, like the following cithara 
. . . divides, for effeminate self-indulgence ; caesaries is essentially a 
poetic word, usually denoting beautiful hair. feminiB: with grata. 

15. carmina divides : i.e. mark off into rhythmical groups, and 
so, sing. 

16. tbalamo: ablative of means, with strong accessory notion of 
place, — by hiding in your chamber. Homer describes Paris when 
vanquished by Menelaus as brought by Venus to his bedchamber. 

17. Bpicula : frequent in poetry for sagittas. Cnosii : Cnosus 
was the ancient capital of Crete, and the Cretan reeds furnished 
superior arrows. 

226 BOOK I. ODE 15. [Page 22. 

18. vltabiB : conative, — thou shalt endeavor to escape, sequi : 
dependent upon celerem; cf, i. 1. 18, indocilis pavperiem petti, 

19. Aiacem : not Ajax son of Telamon, but Ajax son of Oileus ; 
cf, Horn. II, xiv. 520, Atas 'OtX^ot rax^fs vlds, tamen : i.e. in spite 
of thy endeavor to escape (vitabis), Paris was finally slain by an 
arrow of Philoctetes. seruB : i.e. too late for the good of thy 
countrymen ; had it been earlier thou hadst spared the lives of many 
heroes. adulteros crines : for the transfer of the epithet, cf, i. 
5. 7. 

21 f. non, non; te, te : observe the passionate energy thrown into 
the passage by the double anaphora ; note, too, that, as an interroga- 
tive, non is more energetic than nonne. La^rtiaden : i.e. Ulysses. 
Pylimn Nestora : famed as the oldest of the Greek warriors, and one 
of the first in counsel ; Homer calls him the guardian of the Greeks ; 
his home was ' sandy Pylos ' in Elis or Messenia. respiciB : regard, 
heed ; as in i. 2. 36. 

24. Teucer : brother of Ajax and son of Telamon ; see note on 
i. 7. 21. StheneluB: the charioteer of Diomedes. Bciens = 

25. Blve : in thought join -ve with auriga, si with optts est. For this 
use of sive, cf. i. 2. 33. 

26. non piger : litotes for impiger, Merionen : a Cretan war- 
rior and follower of Idomeneus. 

27. nosces : i.e. thou shalt come to know his prowess. reperire : 
dependent upon/un'^ which here takes the infinitive after the analogy 
of cupio; cf. Ovid, Met. i. 200, saevit exstinguere (nomen), atroz : 
in his rage. 

28. Tydides: i.e. Diomedes, bravest of the Greeks, next to 
Achilles. melior: i.e. even braver; Tydeus himself was of dis- 
tinguished prowess. Bryce renders, * brave father's braver son.' 

29. cervoB uti: as verb, understand fugit from fugies; for the 
position, see note on i. 2. 5, grave ne. For the spelling, see note on 
i. 2. 13, Jlavom. 

30. lupum: object of fugit to be supplied. 

31. Bublimi anhelitu : 'panting with head high in air^ (Smith) ; 
lit. with raised panting. The bold phrase is probably an imitation of 
a Greek idiom. Strictly, too, it can apply only to some four-footed 
animal, not to a human being. Horace evidently is thinking of a 
panting deer fleeing with raised head, and transfers to Paris what 
in strictness applies to the deer only. 

Page 23.] BOOK I. ODE 16. 227 

32. non hoc : litotes again, — no such thing as this, i.e, something 
far different, viz. courage in the tight. tuae : i.e, Helen. 

33. iracunda classis Achillei : note the hypallage of the adjec- 
tive ; Horace means, the fleet of the wrathful Achilles, i.e. the wrathful 
Achilles and his followers. Achilles^s Myrmidons naturally sided with 
their leader, when Achilles in his wrath temporarily withdrew from 
participation in the war against the Trojans. For the form of the 
genitive Achillei, see note on i. 6. 7. diem : almost = the doom ; 
cf. Homer^s aXaifiov ^fuip. proferet : lit. shall put off, but with very 
much the same shade of meaning as laudabunt (^may praise*) An 
i. 7. 1 ; i.e. * though the wrath of Achilles postpone the day of doom, 
yet,' etc. Ilio : dative of reference. 

34. Phrygum : for Troianorum, as frequently in the poets. 

35. post, etc. : this clause stands in adversative relation to the pre- 
ceding, — Achilles'* s warriors may postpone, etc., hut the ftre shall 
finally hum, etc. certas : i.e. the number is fixed by the Fates and 
is unalterable. hiemes = annos. Possibly the word is chosen 
because Troy's fall was traditionally put in the spring. 


1. O matre pulchra, etc.: daughter fairer than thy mother 
fair ; no clew to her identity exists. 

2. quern . . . cumque : tmesis of quicumque, as i. 6. 3, and 
frequently. criminoBlB: abusive; lit. full of charges (crimina). 
modum =flnem, as in ii. 6. 7. 

3. pones : future indicative with the force of the imperative (or 
possibly the English 'may put' ; cf. i. 7. 1, laudahunt). iambis : 
among the Greeks, iambic poetiy (according to the traditional account) 
was first cultivated by Archilochus, who employed it as the vehicle of 
invective and personal abuse. Hence in Latin the word iamhi is often 
equivalent to ' invective.' This meaning occurs frequently in Horace, 
who entitled his epodes iamhi from their frequent polemic character. 
fhkmma, marl: sc. modum ponere. 

5. DlndymSne : lit. the (goddess) of Dindymus, i.e. Cybele ; Dindy- 
mus was a mountain in Galatia, near Pessinus, sacred to Cybele. 
adytis : at, or in, his shrine. 

6. incola PythiuB : the god whose home is Pytho (Delphi), lit. 
the Pythian dweller; cf. Catullus, 64. 228, {Athena) sancti incola Itoni 
(Itonus in Thessaly). 

228 BOOK I. ODE 16. [Page 23. 

7. Liber : sc. quatU Bacchas 8ua8 (* his Bacchanals *). aeque : 
the sentence is not completed by any word that could serve as a 
correlatiye with aeque (cUque, ac, et)^ but the substantial force of 
aeque is taken up by sic (line 8), to which ut corresponds. 

8. gemlnant aera : aera means * the brazen cymbals/ — hence lit. 
double their brazen cymbals, poetical for clash their pairs of cymbals; 
it is the cymbals that are really double ; c/. Lucretius, ii. 635, cum 
pueri armati in numerum pulsarent aeribus aera, Corybantes : 
priests of Cybele, whose religious ceremonial consisted in wild music 
and dancing. This often wrought them up to such a pitch of frenzy 
that they beat their breasts with their hands and gashed their bodies 
with knives. Since the introduction of the worship of Cybele (about 
200 B.G.)t it had been possible to witness these orgies at Rome itself. 

9. trlates ut irae : as verb, we must supply in thought some word 
meaning *■ rouse,^ ' agitate * ; this is easily understood from the context. 
The plural irae is used because separate instances are thought of. 
NorlciM: None steel (from Noreia in Styria) was famous for its 

U. aaevoa : for the spelling, see on i. 2. 13, flavom, 

12. tumultu: we are not to think of any single phenomenon 
(thunder, lightning, hail, snow, rain, etc), but of all. 

13-16. This stanza apparently gives the poet's excuse, — anger is 
implanted in the race ; none can escape it. 

13. fertnr : the story is found only here. prlncipi limo ; the 
primeval clay, i.e. the clay from which primeval man was formed. 

14. coactUB addere: when compelled to add. Apparently the 
clay did not suffice for the formation of man, and Prometheus was 
obliged to draw upon other sources. undique : i.e, from every 

15. et: also, 

16. vim : fui*y, stomacbo : as the seat of the emotions ; see 
on i. 6. 6. 

17. irae : emphatic by position and by the context, — ^twas wrath 
that laid Thyestes low, Tbyesten : the feud between Atreus and 
Thyestes led the former to kill Thyestes's sons and serve their flesh at 
a banquet to their father. 

18. urbibus : e.g, Thebes. ultimae causae: the ultimate (i.e, 
original) causes ; causae is predicate nominative with stetere. 

19. stetere : here hardly stronger than fuere. cur perirent : 
an extension of the dependent deliberative as employed in substantive 

Pagb25.] book I. ODE 17. 229 

clauses ; originally this type of subjunctiye was used only where the 
main clause contained a negative (e.g. nulla causa est cur negemus), 
or an interrogatiye clause implying a negative (e.g, quid est causae cur 
negemtu:), but by an extension of usage, the construction sometimes 
occurs where the main clause is affirmative, as here. 

20. imprimeret . . . aratsnm : ploughing the ground of a razed 
city seems to have been common in antiquity. muxis : i.e. frag- 
ments of the ruined walls. 

21. hostile : here = hostium^ and so logically to be joined vnth 
exercitus. This line lacks the usual caesura. Introd. § 43. 

23. temptavlt: assailed. 

24. celeres: impetuous. 

25. miflit : drove. mitibiM : ablative of association with mutare ; 
see B. App. § 337 ; Introd. § 38. a. 

26. mutare : quaere with the infinitive is found only in the 
Augustan poets and later prose vnriters. tristia : my savage (verses). 

28. opprobriis: i.e. those contained in the iambi. animum: 
sc. tuum. 


1. Veloz : with adverbial force ; swiftly. Lucretilem : a moun- 
tain in the Sabine territory near Horace's villa, now called Monte 

2. mutat : mutare is much wider in meaning than any single Eng- 
lish word that can be used to translate it ; it may mean * to give in 
exchange,' or ^to take (receive) in exchange' ; here it has the second 
meaning, lit. chooses Lucretilis in exchange for Lycaeus ; but it is more 
natural in English to invert the relations and render, changes Lycaeus 
for Lucretilis. The ablative is one of association. B. L. L. § 337 ; 
Introd. § 38. a. Lycaeo : a mountain some forty-five hundred feet 
in height, situated in southwestern Arcadia ; it was a favorite haunt 
of Pan (= Faunus). Faunua: see on i. 4. 11. 

3. aestatem : i.e. the summer's heat. capeUis meis : from my 
goats ; dative of separation, a variety of the dative of reference ; cf. 
Vlrg. Buc. 7. 47, solstitium pecori defendite. 

4. usque : always^ i.e. when he is here. 

5. arbutOB : see on i. 1. 21. 

6. latentiB : i.e. scattered here and there among the other treea 
devlae : here simply roaming ^ straying. 

7. olentiB uzores marlti : a sportive circumlocution for capellae. 

230 BOOK I. ODE 17. [Page 26. 

8. viridiB : apparently used as eqaivalent to * poisonous ' ; so virena 
in Claudian, in Bufln, i. 290, viren8 hydra. metuont : on the form, 
see Introd. § 34. 

9. Maitialls lupos : the aggressive character of this animal natu- 
rally associated it with the god of war ; cf, Virg. Aen. ix. 566, Martius 
lupiM. baedillae: kids; a diminutive from haedus; cf, porcilia 
from porcuB. The word is not usually given in our lexicons, but is 
attested by old glosses, which give aipl<f>iov (i.e. iplfpiov) = haedilia. 

10. utcumque : whenever, Tjrndari : the name is fictitious, as 
though intended to designate a second Helen (daughter of Tyndareus). 
fistula: mth the Pan-pipe; Faunus (i.e. Pan) lends the blessing 
of his presence whenever he hears the music of his own pipe ; since 
Pan primtts calamos cera coniungere plures inatituit (Virg. Buc. 
ii. 32): 

11. Usticae : some unknown eminence in the neighborhood of 
Horace's Sabine villa. cubantiB : apparently in the sense of 

13. di me tuentur, etc. : i.e. this protection vouchsafed by Faunus 
is in return for my devotion to the gods. 

14. cordi: (for) a delight; dative of purpose. hie, hlc (17), 
hie (21) : observe the emphasis of the anaphora. 

15. ad plenum : to the full, 

16. hononun : of the products of the farm ; the word depends upon 
copia. comu : ablative of separation with manabit ; the horn of 
plenty is an old conception. 

17. Canicolae : i.e. of the summer. 

18. Tela : i.e. like that of Anacreon, who was a native of Teos, 
and whose muse was devoted to the praises of love and wine. 

19. laborantia: i.e. enamoured; cf i. 27. 10. in uno: i.e. 

20. Penelopen: the faithful wife of Ulysses. vitream: sea- 
green (cf iv. 2. 3, vitreo ponto) ; Circe is so called because she was a 
marine divinity, being the daughter of Perse, the Oceanid. Similarly, 
iii. 18. 10, viridis Nereidum comas; Epodes, 13. 16, (Thetis) caerula. 
Circen: the enchantress who changed Ulysses's companions into 
swine. She became enamoured of Ulysses, delaying him at her 
palace on the island for more than a year, and bearing him two 
sons, Telegonus and Agrius. 

21. innocentlB : harmless ; further explained by the nee- clausea 
Leabii : sc, vini. 


Page 26.] BOOK I. ODE 18. 231 

22. Bub umbra : for the meaning of sub, cf. i. 5. 8, sub antro, 

23. confundet : shall join ; poetic for miscere or committere, yet 
with the added nqtion of noise and confusion. Tby5iieuB : Bacchus 
is so called as the sou of Thyone, another name for Semele. Ulti- 
mately the word goes back to d^^ta, ^ to rage.^ 

24. protervom : for the spelling, see on i. 2. 13, flavom. 

25. Buspecta: an object of suspicion, and so of jealousy. 
Cyrmn: prolepsis (anticipation), i.e. the subject of the subordinate 
clause is first introduced as the object of the main verb. Cyrus is a 
common name of slaves and freedmen. male disparl : just as bene 
is used to intensify good qualities, so male may be used to intensify 
bad ones; dispari (agreeing with tibi, understood) means Mil-mated.' 

28. crlnibUB : (probably dative) ; c/. Sat. i. 10. 49, haerentem 
capiti multa cum laude coronam. immeritam veBtem: the 
epithet, as often, is transferred from the person to a thing connected 
with the person. 


1. Vare : probably Quintilius Varus, an intimate friend of Horace 
and Virgil. His death, which occurred 24 e.g., is celebrated in 
the twenty-fourth ode of this book. sacra: viz, to Bacchus. 
BSveriB: the perfect subjunctive in prohibitions is practically con- 
fined to poetry and colloquial prose. Cf. i. 11. 1, tu ne quaesieris, 
arborem : the vine was accounted * a tree. ' 

2. circa mite Bolum TiburiB : loosely put for in miti solo circa 
TibuT, The mellow soil would naturally be suited to the vine. 
TiburiB : see i. 7. Varus evidently had a villa in the neighborhood. 
moenia Catili: Catllus, elsewhere called Catillus, was one of the 
founders of Tibur ; hence, the moenia Catili are those of Tibur itself. 

3. BicciB : those who abstain from wine are often designated as 
sicci, just as ma4idus, uvidus, etc, are used of those who indulge in 
it; cf. iv. 6. 89, where siccus and uvidus both occur. nam: post- 
poned, like enim ; see note on i. 2. 5. dura : in predicate relation 
to omnia, has ordained that all shall be hard ; lit. has set forth all 
things hard. deuB: not Bacchus, but the supreme power gener- 
ally conceived. 

4. alitor : viz. than by indulgence in wine. 

5. crepat : talks of (loud and earnestly). 

6. quiB non, etc. : from crepat, some such verb as laudat is to be 
supplied. Bacche pater : Bacchus was essentially a Greek god, 

232 BOOK I. ODE 18. [Page 26. 

and by the Greeks was conceived of as a youth. The epithet pater 
comes from the Roman conception of Liber, with whom Bacchus 
early became identified. 

7. ac : with adversative force, and yet modici munera Liberi : 
a bold expression for modum in muneribus Liberi; logically, it is 
moderation which is transgressed. 

8. Centaurea rixa : the fight of the Centaurs and Lapithae at the 
marriage-feast of Firithous. The Centaurs, invited to the wedding by 
Pirithous, became excited by wine, and undertook to carry off the 
bride, Hippodamla. monet . . . monet (9): the importance of 
the warning is finely emphasized by the anaphora. LapithiB: 
described in the myths as a Thessalian people; Pirithous was their 

9. debellata: for the intensive force of de- in compounds, c/. i. 3. 
13, decertantem. Sithoniis: a Thracian tribe noted for their 
excessive indulgence in wine, and the violence which accompanied 
their carousals. non levia : litotes for iratus; the god is angry in 
consequence of their license. Eohiiu: Bacchus; the name came 
from the cries of his worshippers, e^c, €M. Note the variety of 
names for the god, purposely introduced by the poet. 

10. ejiguo fine: i.e. scarcely. libidinum: with avidi, i.e. 
eager to satisfy their paflsions ; libido here = * indulgence of desire,' 
c/. iv. 12. 8. 

11. non ego : non is to be closely joined in thought with ego, — 
I HI not be the one to, etc candide : as being youthful and fair. 
Bassareu : another designation for Bacchus ; the word is Greek 
(Ba^aapeOs, from ficunrdpa^ * fox-skin mantle*), and was applied to 
Bacchus as the god whose votaries wore the fox-skin in their worship. 

12. qnatlam : apparently in the sense, rouse, excite (cf, i. 16. 6, 
mentem quatit) ; i,e, * I will not profane thy divinity, as excessive in- 
dulgence in wine might tempt me to.* variia obalta frondiboa: 
mystic emblems covered with leaves of various kinds (such as the 
vine and ivy, which were sacred to Bacchus), and carried by the wor- 
shippers in caskets, as described in Catullus, 64. 269 f. Whoever of 
the iininitiated gazed upon the mystic, emblems was said to become 

13. sub divom : to the light of day ; cf, ii. 3. 23, sub dim), aaeya : 
the cymbals are called ^wild,* because their clashing throws the 
worshipper into a frenzy. tene : check ; for the compound contine. 
Berecjrntio : from Berecyntus, a mountain of Phrygia noted for the 

Pagb27.] book I. ODE 19, 283 

celebration of the wild rites of Cybele (see note on i. 16. 6, Cory- 
bavUes), Hence the ' Berecyntian horn ' is primarily the horn used in 
the Corybantian worship of Cybele ; but similar horns were employed 
in the Bacchic orgies. In fact, there was the greatest similarity 
between the two cults. 

15. pluB nimio : lit. more by a great deal, i.e, too much, or too 
high, by far. This use of nimium ( = very much) is colloquial and 
poetical. Gloria : here in the bad sense of boastfulness. 

16. arcani Fides prodiga : a faith lavish of secrets, i,e, a faith 
which betrays its trust (perftdia). Such recreancy would be a natural 
result of the intemperate use of Bacchus's gift. 'For prodigus with the 
genitive, cf. i. 12. 38, animaeque magnae prodigum Paulum. per- 
lucidior vitro : true fidelity does not permit its secret to be known, 
but an arcani Fides prodiga permits a view into its inmost recesses. 
The regular caesura which would come after per- is neglected in this 


1. aaeva : in that her power is irresistible. Cupidinum : this 
conception of several Cupids is frequent in both Greek and Koman 

2. iubet : Horace regularly employs the singular verb when the 
compound subject consists of two nouns in the singular. Semelae 
puer : Bacchus. He is often mentioned as Venus's attendant. 

4. amoribus : dative. 

5. GlycSrae : this name, found repeatedly in the Odes, lit. means 
'the sweet.' 

6. Pario marmore: the marble of Faros (one of the Cyclades) 
was famed for its whiteness. 

7. protervitaa : forwardness, 

8. lubricus: seductive, aspici: the infinitive depends upon 
the adjective ; cf. iv. 2. 59, (vitulus) niveus videri. 

9. tota : with all her power. mens . . . deseruit : logically 
deseruit is the subordinate idea, — leaving Cyprus, she rushes on me. 

10. Cyprum : one of Venus 's favorite haunts. 

11. veraiB animoBum eqids = bold in retreat ; when fleeing, the 
Parthian horsemen often discharged their arrows with great effect 
upon their pursuers, whence the proverbial 'Parthian flight,' 'Par- 
thian shot'; cf. ii. 13.17. 

12. dioere : sc. me. quae nihil attinent : sc. ad amores meos. 

284 BOOK I. ODE 20. [Page 27. 

13. vivom = virentem ; for the spelling, see on i. 2. 13. caefr 
pitem : turf for an improvised altar, as often. 

14. verbenas : the name is general for all herbs or sprays of 
foliage used in connection with sacrifices. In a sacrifice to Venus one 
naturally thinks of the myrtle (sacred to her) as used for this purpose. 
pueri : t'.e. the attendant slaves. 

15. bimi meri : in sacrifices unmixed wine was always offered ; it 
was also usually relatively* new ; so here himi (last year's vintage), 
and in i. 31. 2, novom. 

16. veniet lenior : sc. Venus; i,e, the goddess will be less cruel 
at her coming. 


1. modiclB : plain, common, as in Epist, i. 6. 2. Sabinum : sc. 
vinum ; it belonged to the poorer grades of wine. 

2. canthariB : tankards, drinking-pots, Horace purposely 
chooses the homely name of a homely vesseL Notice the accu- 
mulation of features in the opening sentence of the ode, all designed 
to emphasize the simplicity of the hospitality offered; — the vintage 
is vile Sabinum, and it will be served, not in the delicate polished gob- 
lets used for the finer wines, but in tankards (cantharis), and even 
these are plain (modicis). ego ipse = I with my own hand, 

3. conditmn : put up, stored. levi : sealed, i.e. with wax or 
gypsum ; from lino. datua . . . plauBua : after his recovery from 
dangerous illness in the year 30 b.c, Maecenas was greeted with 
tumultuous applause by the populace upon his appearance in the the- 
atre ; the event is again alluded to in ii. 17. 25. With datus under- 
stand est. in theatro : the Theatre of Pompey, situated in the 
Campus Martins. The theatre was far too distant from the Vatican 
and the west bank of the Tiber to produce the echo mentioned in 
the second stanza. That is purely the fanciful exaggeration of the 

5. care Maecenas eques : dear Maecenas, knight; ef. ii. 20. 7, 
diJecte Maecenas ; Epod. i. 2, amice Maecenas, Care goes only with 
Maecenas. Horace adds eques, in apposition with Maecenas, as a 
complimentary title ; cf. iii. 16. 20, Maecenas, equitum decus. Maece- 
nas deliberately held aloof from political ambition, and remained by 
preference a simple eques to the last. patemi fiLuminiB : viz. the 
Tiber. It is called Maecenas's native river, because Maecenas was 
bom in Etruria and descended from Etruscan kings (cf. i. 1. 1, Maece- 

Page 29.] BOOK I. ODE 21. 235 

nas atavia edite regibu8), and because the Tiber was par excellence 
the Etruscan river ; cf. Sat. ii. 2. 32, amnis Tusci ; Virg. Aen. ii. 781, 
Lydius ( = * Etruscan ') Thybria. 

6. iocoBa imago : the sportive echo^ as in i. 12. 8 ; see note on 
that passage. 

7. Vftticftni : this name was applied to a part of the Janiculum on 
the west side of the Tiber. Later poets, e.g. Martial and Juvenal, treat 
the antepenult as long. 

9. Caecubmn: sc. vinum. The Caecuban, like the three other 
wines mentioned in this stanza, was one of the choicer Italian wines. 
It was grown in Caecubum, a marshy district in southern Latium. 
prelo Caleno : the Calenian wine was grown at Gales (modern 
Calvi) in southern Campania. domitam = pressamt the use of 
which would have involved a certain repetition, prelum being for 
pres-lom (root prea-, as in pressus). 

10. blbas: you may drink, i.e. at your own home ; jussive sub- 
junctive with permissive force. mea : in strong contrast with tu, 
and so placed at the beginning of its clause. Falemae vltes = Fa- 
lema vina, a superior variety which grew in the ager Falernus, a dis- 
trict lying in Campania at the foot of the Massic Mount. 

11. temperant = ^avor; strictly, vinum temper are means to ^miz 
the wine in due proportions.' This was ordinarily done by the ad- 
mixture of water ; hence temperare more commonly means * to reduce 
the strength ' of the wine. The expression temperant vitea neque pa- 
cula cx>llea is strikingly bold in several ways : (1) We should expect 
vinum (not pocula) as the object of temperant (one mixes the wine, 
not the vessel containing it) ; (2) we should expect some word 
designating a person as the subject of temperant ; (3) vitea and collea 
are boldly used for vina, so that we get the picture of wine mixing the 
goblets. Hence some have questioned the genuineness of the text at 
this point. Others, in fact, reject the entire ode. Formianl coUes 
= Formiana vina, which grew near Formiae, in southern Latium, near 
the borders of Campania. 


1. Dlanam : note that the t', usually short, is here measured long ; 
so also ii. 12. 20. diclte : aing of, praiae, as often. 

2. IntonBum: i.e. with long and flowing locks ; Apollo was con- 
ceived of as perpetually young, and is regularly so represented in works 
of art. Cjrnthimn : so called from Mt. Cynthos in Delos, on which 

286 BOOK I. ODE 22. [Pagb 29. 

Apollo and Diana were said to have been bom. Latonam : Greek 
Airr(6, mother of Apollo and Diana. 

4. penituB = dearly. lovl : dative of agent. 

5. vofl : viz, virgines. laetam : sc, deam (Dianam), fluvila 
et coma : for Diana as goddess of streams and forests, c/. Catullus 
34. 0, where she is spoken of as montium domina silvarumque viren- 
tium saltuumque recondUorum amniumque sonantum. For coma = 
foliiSj cf. iy. 7. 2 ; Catullus, 4. 11, comata silva. 

6. Algldo : Mt. Algidus, in Latium, some twenty miles distant 
from Rome, near Tusculum and the Alban Mount; it was an an- 
cient seat of Diana's worship. 

7. nigria : referring to the sombre effect of the pines and firs ; 
cf. the German Schwarzwald ('Black Forest'), which was originally 
so called from its dark eyergreen trees. Erymanthi : a mountain 
of Arcadia. 

8. vixidis Cragl : Cragus was a mountain of Lycia, the home 
of Latona ; the genitiye depends rather upon silvia (to be supplied 
in thought) than upon nigris silvis. 

9. V08 : the boys, as shown by mares, Tempe : the wild val- 
ley of the Pen6us, between Thessaly and Macedonia, and a famous 
seat of Apollo's worship. totidem : te, as many as Diana. 

12. iratema lyra : the lyre invented by Mercury, as explained 
in i. 10. 6, note, and given by him to Apollo. Mercury and Apollo 
are regarded as fratres, since both were sons of Jupiter. 

13. belluin laorixnoBum : c/. Homer's r6\efMv 8aKpv6trra, By 
bellum Horace means civil war. 

14. ^Btein= pestilentia, ajs often in poetry. prlndpe : on the 
force of this designation, see note on i. 2. 60 ; and on Apollo as the 
special patron deity of Augustus, see on i. 2. 32. 

15. Peraas =Partho8 ; see note on i. 2. 22. 

16. veatra : this refers to both choruses, the boys and maidens. 


1. Integer vltae sceleriaque puma : the man pure in life and 
free from guilt. Horace uses the genitive freely with adjectives in 
constructions not tolerated in classical prose. Introd. § 37. a. Note 
also the bold substantive use of the two adjectives. 

2. Mauxia iaculla : the javelin was a favorite weapon of the 

Page 31.] BOOK I. ODE 22. 237 

4. FuBce : Aristius Fuscus, the poet and grammarian, an intimate 
and valued friend of Horace. He is elsewhere alluded to by Horace 
(Sat. i. 9. 61) as a jovial wit, — one to whom a poem like the present 
might especially appeal. 

5. SyrtiB : this word properly designates the shifting quicksands 
off the northern coast of Africa, but here it is applied to the sandy 
wastes of the adjacent shore. 

7. fabuloBUB Hydaspes: the storied Hydaspes; with reference 
to the numerous marvellous tales (accounts of giant snakes, gold- 
gathering ants, etc,) connected with the district through which this 
river ran. The Hydaspes was a tributary of the Indus. 

9. me : this word is emphatic, made so to heighten the humor of 
the mock philosophy which the poet is endeavoring to enforce. 
Bilva in Sabina : i.e. in the woods near Horace's Sabine farm, which 
Maecenas had presented to him in the year 33 b.c. Introd. § 4. 

10. Iialagen : the name (from Greek XaXa7i}, * prattle') is appro- 
priate to the maiden characterized later (line 24) as dulee loquentem, 
ultra terminum : i.e. beyond the boundaries of my farm. 

11. cuxis ezpeditis : with my cares laid aside. Prose diction 
would have doubtless been curis expeditus. 

12. Inermem : all unarmed though 1 was. Special emphasis is 
given this word by its position at the very end of the sentence and 
the stanza. 

13. quale portentuin : such a monster as, militarls Daunias : 
Daunias is a poetical name for Apulia, '■ the land of Daunus,' a mythi- 
cal king of that country. Apulia is called militaris, because of the 
martial prowess of its people ; cf. iii. 6. 9, where the Apulians are 
spoken of as the flower of the Koman army. 

15. lubae tellus: i.e. Mauretania and Numidia. The reference 
may be either to Juba I., who was defeated by Caesar at Thapsus in 
46 B.C., or to his son Juba II., to whom Augustus restored part of his 
father's dominions. 

16. arida: the epithet is boldly transferred from tellus to the 
appositive nutrix, 

17. pone : the imperative serves logically as a protasis, =siposueris, 
plgris campls: on lifeless (i.e. unproductive) plains; the reference, 
as the following context shows, is to the far North. The phrase be- 
longs logically with pone, nulla arbor recreatur : no tree is 
revived, i.e. there are here no trees to be brought to life, and to put 
forth their foliage at the advent of summer. 

238 BOOK I. ODE 23. [Page 31 

19. quod latas mundi, etc. : (in) a region of the earth over which 
broody etc. The use of latus (for pars, regio) is poetical. malus 
luppiter : a gloomy sky ; cf, i. 1. 26, sub lovefrigido; malus luppiter 
is explanatory of nebulae, rather than distinct from it. 

20. urget : the singular yerb is preferred by Horace when the sub- 
ject is compound. 

21. sab curru, etc. : i.e. in the tropics. 

22. domibuB : dative of purpose. 

23. 24. dulce ridentem, dulce loquentem: sweetly laughing, 
sweetly prattling. The accusative is that of * result produced ' (* in- 
ternal object^) ; B. 176. 2. In prose this usage is restricted to accu- 
satives of neuter pronouns and neuter adjectives of number and 
amount, but in poetry it is used somewhat freely outside of these 


1. hinnuleo BimiliB : beginning with the Augustan age, the use of 
the dative with similis grows increasingly frequent. We should, 
however, have expected ut hinnuleus; cf. line below, tigris ut 
aspera. Cblod: a Greek name derived from x^ht * green shoot,' 
and hence peculiarly appropriate to the subject of this ode. 

2. pavldam : a standing epithet of the deer. 

3. non sine : the litotes lends emphasis. vano : i.e. groundless. 

4. Biluae : by poetic license for silvae, as in Epodes, 13. 2. 

5. veprlB : found only here ; the regular nominative singular is 
vepres, though all singular forms are very rare. Inhomiit : lit. 
has bristled up, and so, has rustled. 

6. ad ventOB : in the wind. 

7. dimovere : have pushed aside, i.e. with their sudden movements. 

8. tremit : sc. hinnuleus. 

9. non ego : lit. not I, i.e. 1 should be the last. 

10. GaetuluB : Gaetulia was in northern Africa. frangere per- 
sequor : seek to crush (thee) ; this meaning of persequor is poetic 
and extremely rare. 

12. tempoBtlva viro = since thou art ripe for a mate ; cf. Virg. 
Aen. vii. 63, iam matura viro, plenis iam nubilis annis. 


1. sit: deliberative subjunctive, — lit. is there to be, verging, how- 
ever, toward the meaning * should there be,' *■ ought there to be.' 

Page 32.] BOOK I. ODE 24. 239 

pudor, modus : quis pudor asks, * Should we hesitate ? * quis modu8 
asks, ^ What limit nhould there be ? * 

2. capitiB: poetical for hominis, praecipe: teach* lugn- 
briB cantuB : not mournful song, but song of mourning, 

3. Melpomene: fittingly invoked as the muse of tragedy. 
pater : Jupiter ; the nine muses were daughters of Jupiter and Mne- 

5. ergo = really ; this force arises as the result of some reflection 
present to the writer's mind, but not expressed. QuintUltim : this 
is probably the Quintilius Varus to whom the eighteenth ode of this 
book is addressed. He was a native of Cremona, and died in 24 b.g. 
perpetuoB : for the orthography, see note on i. 3. 34, vacuom, 

6. cui : relative, and dependent upon parem, Pudor : Honor, 
luBtitiae Boror : this epithet implies that Quintilius was also iustus. 

7. nuda Veritas: nuda^aperta, i.e. * candid'; Horace else- 
where (Ars Poet. 438 ff.) praises Quintilius's honesty as a literary 

8. Inveniet : the singular verb with compound subject, as in 1. 22. 
20, urget, and regularly in Horace. parem : a peer. 

10. nulli: for nemini, as often in poetry and always in Horace. 
Vergili : the poet. 

11. tu fruBtra piuB poBcis : in vain despite thy fond devotion dost 
thou ask him back ; frustra is to be taken not only with poscis, but 
also with pius, — i.e. *vain is thy petition and vain thy devotion' ; 
pius is here used in the sense of * devoted,' a frequent signification of 
the word. Horace means that Virgil's affectionate attachment is in- 
capable of restoring Quintilius again to life. heu : with non ita 
creditum. non ita creditum : i.e. not committed to his friends by 
the gods on the understanding that when dead he should be restored 
again ; ita anticipates the idea involved in poscis Quintilium deos, 

12. poBciB : here = reposcis. 

13. quid : as verb we may understand some such word as valeat. 
Bi . . . moderere : i.e. wert thou to strike Orpheus' s lyre more per- 
suasively than Orpheus himself; though really impossible, the case 
is represented not as unreal, but as a possible contingency. This ref- 
erence to Orpheus may be intended as a delicate compliment to Virgil 
for his skilful treatment of the Orpheus myth in his fourth Oeorgic, 
published not long before. 

14. auditam : (jonce) heard, i.e. heard and heeded. Orpheus 
attracted not merely the beasts, but even the trees, by the charm 

240 BOOK I. ODE 26. [Paob 32. 

of his music; c/. i. 12. 7, vocalem temere insecutae Orphea tilvae; 
11, ( Orphea) blandum et auritas ducere quercua. arboiibna : dative 
of agency, frequent in Horace with the perfect passive participle ; 
cf. i. 1. 24, bella matribtis detestata. fidem: the singular is poetic. 
It occurs also in i. 17. 18, fide Tela, 

15. ntixn redeat, etc. : this question simply repeats in more spe- 
cific form the query begun by quid; the same protasis (si . . . mode- 
rere) is to be understood. vanae Imaginl : to the unsubstantial 

16. virga horrlda : the virga is characterized as horrida because 
it is the symbol of passage to the lower world. aemel: i.e. once 
for all. 

17. predbaB: the entreaties are personified. fata: a bold 
brachylogy tor portas fatorum. recludere : dependent upon lenis; 
non limits the complex idea contained in lenis recludere. For the 
infinitive dependent upon an adjective, cf. i. 10. 7, callidus condere 
furto ; Introd. § 41. c. 

18. Digro comimlerit gregi: has gathered to his sable flock; 
dative of direction, for ad with the accusative ; the grex is grex 
umbrarum; the epithet niger is added as characteristic of death. 
Mercurioa : for Mercury as }//vxoirofiir6s, the guide of shades to the 
lower world, see i. 10. 17-20. 

19. dnrom : sc. est. 

20. n«fas : i.e. forbidden, impossible. 


1. Parcina : i.e. less frequently than formerly. iunctaa fene- 
stras : probably double shutters fastened by a wooden bar ; glass win- 
dows were practically, if not entirely, unknown in Horace's day. 

2. ictibiia : of the hand. 

3. UlA : the final i* is long, as below in line 13, and often in poetry. 
This is simply a retention of the original quantity. somnos : note 
the plural ; so in English, slumbers. 

5. multum : with facilis ; this use of multum occurs repeatedly in 
Horace. facilia : with quae ; in this sense the word means willing, 
courteous, affable, and properly applies to persons. Here, by personi- 
fication, it is transferred to the door. 

7. me tao, etc. : while I thy lover, etc. The words are a snatch 
of a song belonging to the class known as rapaKkawlBvpay i.e. lovers' 

Page 34.] BOOK I. ODE 26. 241 

serenades sung at the door of one's mistress. longas noctea : i.e. 
to-night, as thou hast many nights before. perennte : perire, used 
of the languishing of a lover, is a common term in the poets ; so also 
1. 27. 12, quo volnere pereat. 

9. Invicem = vice versa, vicissim. In the past Lydia had dis- 
dained her suitors ; soon they shall disdain her. Note the emphatic 
position of invicem, — thy turn shall come. moechos arrogantia 
flebis : shall lament that they disdain thee ; arrogantis is predicate. 

10. solo = deserted. Her admirers no longer frequent the angi- 
partus. levia = neglected. 

11. Thracio, etc. : the allusion to the howling wind and the moon- 
less night is intended to heighten the picture of Lydia's loneliness. 
Thracio vento is the north wind, whose home was represented by the 
poets as being in Thrace ; cf. Epodes, 13. 3, Threicio Aquilone. 
magia : i.e. more than usual. In English we should use some posi- 
tive word, e. g. fiercely. aub inter-ltmia : interlunium was the period 
between the old and new moons, and so the season of dark nights. 
Belief in the effect of the changes of the moon upon the weather has 
always been common. As a temporal preposition, suh means properly 
» just before ' ; here it is hardly employed so precisely. For the break- 
ing of a word at the end of a Sapphic verse, cf. i. 2. 19, uxrorius amnis. 

13. ctixn : here = dum. tibi : dative of reference with saeviet. 

14. matrea equomm : proverbially passionate. 

15. iecur : on the liver as the seat of the emotions, see note on 
1. 13. 4. ulcerosum : i.e. impassioned. 

16. non Bine : note the emphasis of the litotes ; so also in 1. 23. 3. 

17. laeta : gladsome, joyous. pubes : frequent in the poets for 
iuventus. hedera, myrto : the fresh ivy and myrtle are types of 
youth, just as aridae frondes are typical of old age. 

18. pulla: dark (green), magia : sc. quam aridis frondibus. 
20. dedicet : note the adversative asyndeton. The word is used 

jocosely. Euro : to scatter with its blasts, 


1. Miuds amicus: dear to the Muses, i.e. beloved of them. The 
phrase stands in causal relation to tradam, etc. The favor of the 
Muses prompts the banishment of all common cares. metus : 
the plural, because concrete fears are thought of (quis metuatur; 
quid terreat). 

242 BOOK I. ODE 26. [Paoe 34. 

2. protervis = violentis,* mare Creticum : the definite epithet 
is used simply for poetic effect, as in i. 1. 14. 

3. portare : the poetic use of the infinitive to denote purpose, as 
in i. 2. 8, visere mantes. quia rez : the allusion is probably to the 
Dacian king, Cotiso, who in the year 30 b.c. was threatening the 
northern frontier of the Roman dominions. aub Arcto : lit. under 
the bear, and so, in the North, 

4. orae : used, as often (e,g. i. 12. 55), of some distant region. 
metuatur, terreat: these indirect questions depend upon secu- 
ru8 ; the two thoughts are mentioned merely as suggestive of the com- 
motions of the day. With metuatur understand in thought a nobis 

5. Tiridaten : in the year 37 b.c, Phraates, having murdered his 
father and brothers, secured possession of the Parthian throne. In 31 
B.C. Tiridates had headed a movement against the usurper, but 
without success, and had accordingly fled to Augustus (in 30 b.c, the 
date of this ode), to implore his assistance. unice : entirely, 

6. quae fontibus Integris gaudea : the Muses are extensively 
conceived of as goddesses of springs and fountains. 

7. apricoa : bright, golden, necte . . . necte : note the 
anaphora, — weave flowers, yea, weave them as a garland. Coronam 
is used predicatively ; flores refers figuratively to the garland of verses 
which Horace, with the Muses^ help, is (in the present poem) weav- 
ing in honor of his friend. 

8. Lamiae : either L. or Q. Aelius Lamia, two brothers, members 
of a distinguished family with which Horace was on terms of intimacy. 

9. Pimplel : Greek vocative singular of Pimpleis, -eidis, lit. 
* dweller at Pimplea,' and so ^ muse'; Pimplea was a fountain in 
Pieria, a favorite haunt of the Muses. te : sc. Musa. 

10. honores : i.e. the honor that I wish to bestow upon him in my 
verse, — tributes, iidibua novla : in nexo strain ; the reference, as 
shown by the following Lesbio plectro, is to the Aeolic lyric poetry, 
which Horace so often prides himself upon having introduced among 
his countrymen ; possibly, the reference is even more specific, and is 
to the Alcaic metre in which this ode is composed. Hence, some have 
thought this the earliest Alcaic ode written by Horace. 

11. Lesbio plectro : the plectrum (Greek wXijKTpop, lit. * striker ') 
was a short stick with which the player struck the strings of the lyre. 
sacrare: {= immortalitati consecrare) immortalize. 

Page 36.] BOOK 1. ODE 27. 243 


1. Natls : i.e. intended, designed. in usiixn laetitiae : pleas- 
ure's service; laetUicte is possessive genitive. scyphia: large 
beakers with two handles. 

2. pugnare : ue, by hurling the beakers. Thracum eat : is the 
way of Thracians, i.e. it befits them and them only ; various Thracian 
tribes were noted for their riotous excess in the use of wine ; c/. i. 18. 
9, Sithoniis non levis Euhius, 

3. verecundum : i.e. Bacchus i^ the god of wine in the sense of 
the proper use of wine ; he is not the god of wanton excess ; c/. the 
burden of i. 18. 

4. prohlbete : here in the sense of ^defend,' * protect.' 

5. vino et lucernia : dative, as often in Horace with discrepo, 
differo, etc. ; cf, EpisL ii. 2. 194, simplex nepoti discrepet, Medus 
aclnacea : the acinaces was a special kind of Persian scimitar ; the 
epithet Medus, however, is intended to suggest that the presence of 
weapons at a banquet is fit only for Medi (Parthians). 

6. immane quanttun : like mirum quantum, this phrase, by the 
ellipsis of some word (^e.g. here discrepet), acquires the value of a com- 
pound adverb, vastly. diacrepat : is out of keeping with. im- 
pitun: the uproar is thus designated as constituting an offence against 
the verecundus deus. 

8. cubito preaso : i.e. with elbow resting on the pillow of the lee- 
tus, or couch, at which the ancients reclined, not merely at dinner, but 
throughout the following comissatio, or drinking. 

9. voltie severl, etc. : this dramatic monologue naturally leaves 
much to be supplied by the reader's imagination. Apparently, the 
first speaker's exhortation to refrain from noisy brawling is met by the 
retort that he himself neglects the pleasures of the bowl ; upon this, he 
answers that he is ready to drink on one condition : Megylla's brother 
must name his sweetheart. 

10. Falerni : see note on i. 20. 10. Opuntiae : of Opus, in 

U. Megyllae: some well-known beauty. quo beatua vol- 
nere : note the oxymoron (* contradiction'). 

12. volnere, sagitta : sc. amoris. pereat : languishes ; almost 
a technical term in speaking of the sufferings of lovers ; cf. i. 25. 7, 
me pereunte, 

13. cessat volnntaa: does your inclination falter f This is 

244 BOOK 1. ODE 28, 1. [Paob 36l 

addressed to the f rater Megyllae^ who at first hesitates to answer the 

14. quae . . . cumque : the tmesis, as in i. 6. 3, and frequently 
in this word. domat: masters. Venom: passion, attachment; 
cf, Virg. Buc, 3. 68, parta meae Veneri sunt munera. 

15. non embescendis : note the emphasis resting upon these 
words, as shown by their position at the beginning of the clause ; non 
is to be closely joined in thought with erubescendis, — litotes. adu- 
lit: sc. te. 

16. ingenuo: worthy, 

17. quicquid habes : whatever wound you have ; habere is here 
figuratively used in the technical gladiatorial sense of habere volntut. 
age : come ! 

18. A : the interjection ; the words A miser follow the confidential 
communication of the sweetheart's name. tutis : trusty. 

21. saga, magus, dena : note the climax. solvere : viz. from 
thy infatuation. Thessalis venenis : potions brewed from certain 
Thessalian herbs were thought by the superstitious to be possessed of 
magic properties. The phrase applies only to saga and magus, not, of 
course, to deus. 

23. txiforml Chlmaera : to be taken both with inligatum (as abla- 
tive of association) and with expediet ; an instance of the construction 
known as &wh KOivofi. The Chimaera (from Greek xW^/^ii 'goat*) 
was a fabulous monster with the body of a goat, the head of a lion, 
and the tail of a serpent ; inligatum, therefore, applies to the coils of 
the chimaera's tail. 

24. Pegasus : the winged horse, Pegasus, destroyed the Chimaera 
by its hoofs. 


1. mails . . . mensorem, Archjrta : Archytas of Tarentum, a 
friend and contemporary of Plato, was a famous Pythagorean philoso- 
pher who flourished about 400 b.c. He was eminent as a geometer 
and astronomer, also in the fields of war and statesmanship. nu- 
mero carentis harenae: the countless sand; Archytas was appar- 
ently reputed to have made some attempt to estimate the grains of 
sand in the universe. 

2. cohlbent : confines. Notice the spondaic ending of the verse. 

3. pulveria ezigui parva munera : a slight tribute of scanty 
earth ; pulveris is epexegetical (appositional) genitive, and seems to be 

Page 37.] BOOK I. ODE 28, 1. 245 

used in the sense of tumulus ; munera is the poetic plural. The point 
of the observation is that Arcbytas, once so renowned, is now confined 
within the narrow limits of the grave. lltus Matintun : the exact 
locality is not known ; it was probably near Tarentum, Archytas's 

5. temptaaae : to have explored, domos*. i.e, abodes of the 

6. poltim : polus (properly the pole of the axis of the heavens) is 
often used figuratively for the heaven itself. morituro : causal, and 
made emphatic by position, — since thou wast destined to die; it 
agrees with tihi, 

7. et : also, Pelopis genitor : Tantalus. convlva deo- 
mm: with adversative force (like the following remotus in auras^ 
arcanis admissus), though admitted to the table of the gods, 

8. Tithonus: son of Laomedon. The legend concerning him 
takes two forms. According to the account here followed, Tithonus, 
in answer to the prayers of Aurora, who loved him, was translated to 
the skies (remotus in auras), but was not made immortal. Accord- 
ing to the more usual account, he was made immortal, but as Aurora 
failed to ask the gods to confer upon him the boon of perpetual youth, 
he shrivelled away and finally changed into a grasshopper. Horace 
follows this latter form of the story in ii. 16. 30, longa Tithonum 
minuit senectus. 

9. MinoB : king of Crete. The laws which he gave his country- 
men are said to have been suggested by Jove. 

10. Tartara : here in the general sense of the entire lower world, 
not in the narrower sense of the place of torment of the wicked. 
Panthoiden : son of Panthous, viz, Euphorbus, a Trojan hero, who 
slew Patroclus. He himself fell by the hand of Menelaus, who hung 
up his shield on the temple wall at Argos. Pythagoras (flourished 
640 B.C.), the great apostle of the doctrine of metempsychosis, or 
transmigration of souls, maintained that he himself, in a previous state 
of existence, had been this same Euphorbus, and in proof of his 
assertion, he is said to have entered the Argive temple and to have 
identified Euphorbus' s shield. iterum Oreo demiasum : the first 
time had been when Euphorbus died ; the second time was when 
Pythagoras himself died ; he is said to have been slain at Crotona, as 
the result of some political uprising. Oreo here = ad Orcum; cf. i. 24. 
18, nigro gregi, 

11. qnamvia conceaaerat: quamvis with the indicative first 

246 BOOK I. ODE 28, 2. [Paob 37. 

appears (with certainty) in the Augustan poets, Horace and Virgil ; 
later it became common in prose. clipeo refizo : by taking down 
the shield, 

12. ultra = praeter, 

14. iudice te : as a Pythagorean, Archytas naturally reverenced 
the founder of the school. non Bordidus: i,e. an eminent, 
auctor: authority, 

15. naturae : in the sense of * the universe.' una nox : euphe- 
mistic for mors. 

16. semel : i.e, once for all. 

17. alios : some ; the correlative aXiis is supplanted by nautis ; cf. 
i. 7. 1 f., Laudahunt alii . . . ; sunt quihus unum opus est, apec- 
tacula : predicatively, as a spectacle ; their death is a welcome sight 
to the war-god. 

19. mixta : without distinction ; the emphasis of the clause rests 
upon this word. denaentur: lit. are crowded together^ i,e, follow 
each other swiftly ; denseo is poetic ; denso, -are, is the commoner form. 

20. saeva . . . fugit : we expect rather saevam caput Proser- 
pinam fugit ; the idea is essentially the same ; fugit is the so-called 
* gnomic' perfect, used to express general truths. The allusion is 
to the traditional lock of hair said to be taken by Proserpina from the 
head of each person who died; cf, Virg. Aen, iv. 698, nondum illi 
(Dido) flavom Proserpina vertice crinem ahstulerat Stygioque caput 
damnaverat Oreo, 


1. Me quoque : i.e. me as well as many another. This opening 
of the ode is somewhat abrupt, but is thoroughly consistent with what 
follows. devezi: according to the Elder Pliny, the setting of 
Orion occurred in November, the beginning of the stormy season. 
comes Orionis : in apposition with Notus. On a wind as the com- 
panion of winter, cf. i. 25. 19, Hiemis sodali Euro. Note the spondaic 
ending of the verse. 

2. IllyriciB: i.e. of the Ulyrian Sea, that part of the Adriatic 
which borders on southern Italy. 

3. nauta : some passing mariner. vagae malignus harenae : 
vaga harenai^ ^ the shifting sand ' ; harenae is governed by malignus, 
which means grudging, withholding ; cf. the use of benignus with the 
genitive in Sat. ii. 3. 3, somni vinique benignus ; ne, though belonging 
properly to parce, goes also with malignus. Translate : do not with' 

Page 38.] BOOK I. ODE 28, 2. 247 

hold the shifting sand and refuse to scatter a little upon my unbuHed 
hones and head, parce dare : parco with the infinitive occurs first 
in Livy and the Augustan poets. 

4. capiti inhumato : notice the striking hiatus. No other instance 
occurs in the Odes ; but in Epodes, 13. 3, we find Threicio Aquilone ; 
inhumato qualifies ossihus^ as well as caj^ti, 

5. particoleun dare : three handfuls (see line 36) were regarded 
as sufficient to meet the requirements of formal interment, and to 
secure rest for the waiting spirit. sic : viz. if you grant my prayer 
(ne parce ^ etc,). This use of sic to resume the substance of a 
previous imperative or jussive subjunctive is conmion in poetry, 
quodcumque, fluctibus: quodcumque designates the content of 
minahitur ; fluctibus is indirect object. 

6. Venuainae : evidently the home of the nauta is Yenusia, or 
its neighborhood. 

7. plectantur sllvae te aospite : the perspective of the sentence is 
distorted by Horace^s form of expression. Logically the emphasis rests 
upon te sospite, mayst thou be safe when the Venusian woods are lashed 
by the gale; i.e. may the storm be confined to the land and not visit 
the sea. multa: i.e. rich, abundant. 

8. unde potest : unde = a quibus, and is explained by ab love 
Neptunoque, aequo : propitious; with both love and Neptuno. 

9. Neptuno, cuatode: Tarentum, according to the tradition, was 
founded by Taras, the son of Neptune ; hence the god^s guardianship. 
aaori Tarentl : the famous cities of antiquity are often spoken of as 
sacred ;. cf Homer's 'IXtos Ifyfi, and Hor. Odes, iii. 19. 4, sacro sub Ilio, 

10. neclegia . . . commlttere, etc. ; thou think^st it a light mat- 
ter to do a wrong which shall later harm thy guiltless offspring? The 
shade implies that failure to comply with its petition will entail ruin 
upon the house of the nauta. Neclegis represents the original spelling 
of the word, which appears occasionally in the poets, e.g. also in i. 2. 35 ; 
te is the subject of committere; postmodo modifies nocituram. 

11. for 8 et=fortasse. 

12. debita lura : iura is here used of funeral rites {cf the similar 
use of justa) ; hence, literally, due rites, i.e. the necessity of having 
similar rites of interment paid to you; i.e. you may die and lie un- 
buried like me. vices auperbae : vices means retribution ; superbae 
adds the notion of a retribution consisting in the exercise of disdain 
{superbia) toward the nauta on the part of the one to whom he 
appeals ; hence, a retribution of {like) disdain. 

248 BOOK I. ODE 20. [Paob 38. 

13. maneant; may avoait; an instance of the extremely rare may- 
potential ; ordinarily this use of the subjunctiye is confined to expres- 
sions of the type aliquU dicat, quiapiam dixerit non linquar: 
8C. a te, 

15. non est mora longa: t.e. for scattering the three handfuls of 
earth. llcebit curraa : may continue on your voyage; by the poets 
cnrro is often used of the mariner^s course. 


1. Icoi: evidently an intimate friend of the poet, though very little 
is known of him. He is also addressed by Horace in a letter {Epist. 
i. 12). nunc: ue. in striking contrast with the recent past, 

beatls Arabnm gaaia: by hypallage for gazia beatorum Arabum; 
beatus = dives, as in i. 4. 14. The wealth of the Arabians was pro- 
verbial ; c/. also iii. 24. 1, intactis thesauris Arabum. Note the poetic 
plural in gazis, 

3. Sabaeae: Sabaea was a district in southern Arabia ('Arabia 
Felix') famous for the production of incense and spices. A prosper- 
ous trade in these articles for centuries had greatly enriched its in- 
habitants ; c/. Milton, Paradise Lost, iv. 162, 

Sabaean odours from the spicy shore 
Of Araby the blessM. 

4. Medo : i.e. the Parthian ; see note on i. 2. 51. The expedition 
as planned was to be conducted only against the Arabians. In case 
this should be successful, possibly an attack upon the Farthians was 
also meditated. 

5. quae virginum barbara : what barbarian maiden f 

6. aponso necato : her lover slain, i.e. by thee. 

7. pner ex aula : lit. boy from the palace, and so page ; aula = 
aula regia. 

8. cyathnm : the cyathus was a ladle used in mixing wine with 
water and also in transferring the mixture to drinking cups ; hence 
ad cyathum statuetur = shall be thy cup-bearer f unctia = per- 

9. sagittaB tendere: a bold expression, since tendere, 'stretch,' 
applies properly only to the bow; cf. Virg. Aen. v. 608, telumque 
tetendit. Sericaa: Seres, Serious, are applied loosely to the 
peoples of the far East ; cf. i. 12. 56. 

Page 39.] BOOK I. ODE 30. 249 

10. arduia montibuB : dative of direction ; poetic for ad arduos 
monies; note, too, the intentional juxtaposition of arduis pronos; 
cf. i. 6. 9, note. 

U. pronos : i.e. naturally flowing down hill. 

12. et: the et does not add a new idea, but simply introduces a 
specific illustration of the principle stated in arduis relabi montibus, 

13. nobilis: with libros, 

14. Panaeti: a famous Stoic philosopher. He was a Rhodian 
who came to Rome about 150 b.c, where he won the admiration and 
attachment of the younger Scipio Africanus and Laelius. As a 
philosopher he gave especial attention to ethics ; his work on this 
subject was extensively used by Cicero in the de Officiis. Socrati- 
cam domtixn: the School of Socrates; i.e. the writings of the great 
representatives of the Socratic philosophy, particularly Plato and 
Xenophon. On domus, 'school,' cf, Cic. de Div. ii. 1. 3,/amt7ta; Hor. 
Epist. i. 1. 13, Lare^ — both in the same sense. 

15. loricls Hiberis : for Spanish corselet ; Spanish steel was of 
recognized excellence ; loricis (poetic plural) is ablative of association ; 
B. i. i. § 337 ; Introd. § 38. a. 

16. poUicltOB : with adversative force, — though thou hast given 
promise of better things : viz. eminence in philosophy. tendia : 
lit. art straining ; hence, art bent on ; a strong word. The use of the 
infinitive with tendere is mostly poetical. 


1. Cnldi Paphique : Cnidos, a Doric city of Caria, was an impor- 
tant seat of Venus's worship ; the goddess is said to have had three 
sanctuaries there. Paphos was on the western coast of Cyprus. 

2. aperne : here almost in the original sense of the word, put aside, 
leave ; cf, iii. 2. 24, spernit humum. Cypron : cf, i. 3. 1. 

3. te : dependent upon both vocantis and transfer, Qlycerae : 
for the name, see on i. 19. 5. 

4. aedem : as the word must mean ' temple,' it is best to conceive 
of some little shrine erected by Glycera, possibly in the garden. 

5. fervldus puer: Cupid. solutia zonis: i.e. nudae, as in 
iv. 7. 6. 

6. properentque : we should have expected nymphaeqite prope- 
rent, but it is characteristic ot Horace to append -que, -ve, in this way, 
to a word belonging in common to the words logically connected, 

250 BOOK 1. ODE 31. [Page 39. 

instead of to one of these words themselves ; c/. ii. 7. 24, quis depro* 
perare apio coronas curatve myrto 9 

7. parum comia sine te : youth without love is devoid of charm. 

8. MercuriuB : Mercury is mentioned as the god of speech, te, 
of winning discourse ; similarly Suada, the goddess of persuasion, is 
elsewhere mentioned as an attendant of Venus. 


1. dedicatom Apollinem : the consecrated or enshrined Apollo ; 
te, Apollo, whose shrine has just been dedicated. In Latin it is pos- 
sible to say either deum dedicare (Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 61, ut Fides, ut 
Mens, quas in Capitolio dedicatas videmus), or deo aliquid dedicare. 
On the temple referred to, see introduction to the poem ; on the 
attitude of Augustus toward the Apollo cult and the reasons for it, 
see on i. 2. 32. poscit : not demand, but ask for (earnestly), — a 
common force of the word. 

2. vates : viz. Horace ; on vates as a word for ' poet,' see note on 
i. 1. 35. patera : a shallow sacrificial bowl. novom llquorem: 
wine of the last vintage was regularly used for sacrificial purposes. 

4. Sardiniae : an important source of Rome's grain supply. 
Cicero, pro lege Manil, 12. 34, mentions Sicily, Sardinia, and Africa, 
as trla frumentaria subsidia rei publicae, feraces : ferax applies 
properly to the land, but is here poetically transferred to the crops. 

5. aeatuosae Calabriae : Calabria, situated at the southern 
extremity of the Italian peninsula, was a sultry district. grata: 
i,e. pleasing ; the herds lend a charm to the landscape. 

6. aumm aut ebur : Horace doubtless has in mind ceilings inlaid 
with gold and ivory ; cf. ii. 18. 1. Indiciun : to be taken with both 
aurum and ebur, 

7. Llria: this stream, the modem Garigliano, ran between tbe 
boundaries of Latium and Campania. qaieta, tacitumiui (8) : 
quietus implies absence of motion, tacitumus absence of sound; 
quieta is ablative. 

8. mordet : i.e, wears away. 

9. premant : prune; the ordinary word is amputo. The subjunc- 
tive is jussive with permissive force. Galena falce : the epithet is 
poetically transferred from the vine to the knife with which the vine 
is pruned. On the quality of Calenian wine, see note on i. 20. 9. 

10. dives at : for the position of the conjunction in the second 

Paou 41.] BOOK I. ODE 82. 251 

place, c/. i. 2. 7, omne cum Proteus, pecus egit, at . . . ezsiccet : 
the clause expresses a certain sarcastic humor characteristic of Horace ; 
those who grow the choicest wines, the poet urges, do so only to bring 
pleasure to others, not themselves. 

11. culillla : see Lexicon, under culuUus ; -illus probably repre- 
sents the correct spelling. 

12. vina : viz. Calenian wines ; the trader barters his Syrian mer- 
chandise for the wine, some of which he naturally sets apart for his 
own use. Syra reparata merce : procured in exchange for Syrian 
wares ; for this meaning of reparo, cf. i. 37. 24 ; merce is ablative of 
means. The wares probably consisted of spices, perfumes, incense, 
and other Oriental products. They are called Syrian, because shipped 
from Syrian ports. 

13. quippe : the particle intensifies the causal force which the par- 
ticiple revisens here has. 

14. anno : regular prose usage would have been in anno, 

15. me pascnnt, etc, : my fare is the olive ; as shown by the con- 
text and the anaphora, me is here emphatic. The poet proceeds to 
contrast the simplicity of his own aspirations with those of others. 

16. cichorea : endive ; the plural in olivae, cichorea, and malvae 
is poetic. Idves : lit. light, i.e. easy of digestion, wholesome. 

17. Inii : object of dones ; a poetical construction. paratis : i.e. 
what is at hand, what I have, as opposed to vain desires for what is 
beyond my power. et . . . et: these conjunctions connect 
valido and irUegra cum mente; frui is followed by degere without 
any connective ; nee . . . nee connect turpem and cithara caren- 
tem. valido : attracted to mihi ; logically it belongs with the 
omitted subject of frui and degere. 

18. Latoe : vocative singular of the adjective Latbus, lit. belonging 
to Latona (Arrrtb, Doric Aard) ; here son of Latona, i.e. Apollo. 

19. senectam : poetic for senectutem, 


1. PoBCimnr: / am called upon, i.e. for a song. vacul: in 
leisure hour. 

2. lusimuB : the word is chosen to characterize the poet's pre- 
vious efforts in the field of lyric poetry. quod : its antecedent is 
the following carmen. et . . . et : here in the sense of not merely 
. . . but. 

252 BOOK I. ODE 33. [Page 4t 

3. vivat : to live; subjunctive of purpose. Horace frequently gives 
expression to a proud confidence in the imoioTtality of his poetry. 
plurla : sc. in annos, die : sing, Latinnm cannen : evidently 
some serious poem which Horace has in contemplation, full of genuine 
Roman sentiment, like those at the opening of Book III. 

5. Lesbio clvl : Alcaeus ; see Introd. § 21 ; Lesbio is emphati- 
cally placed at the beginning of the verse ; the word civis is chosen in 
view of Alcaeus*s participation in the stirring political movements of 
his native city ; civi is dative of agency ; c/. i. 1. 24, bella matribus 
detestata, modulate : note the passive use of the deponent par- 
ticiple ; cf. i. 1. 25, detestata, 

6. feroz bello : Alcaeus fought against the Athenians and against 
the tyrants of his native city Mitylene. tamen : i,e. in spite of his 
martial temper (Jerox bello) and the stirring experiences of his career. 

7. sive: as correlative with this we must understand sive with 
inter arma; the two contrasted members are poetic equivalents of 
sive terra sive mari; for the omission of the first sive^ cf, i. 3. 16, 
tollere sen ponere voltfreta. udo; i,e, wave-washed. 

9. Liberum et Musaa Veneremque : i.e, 'Wein, Weib und 
Gesang.^ ill! haerentem : haereo with a dative of the person 
seems an innovation of Horace. 

10. puemm : Cupid, the regular attendant of Venus. 

11. Lyciim: a favorite of Alcaeus. nigris oculia nlgroque 
crlne : black hair and eyes are repeatedly mentioned as characteristics 
of special beauty ; observe that the initial syllable is long in nig-ris, 
but short in ni-groque, 

13. decuB Phoebl : see note on i. 10. 6 ; decus is in apposition 
with testudo. 

15. modicum : the lyre is not merely sweety it is also a soothing 
balm ; cf, Euripides, Bacchae, 283, where similarly wine is spoken of 
as a <pdp/MKov ir6pu)v„ salve : lit. be greeted, i.e, accept my greeting 
= be propitious to me. 

16. rite vocanti : when I invoke thee duly ; vocanti agrees with 
mihi to be supplied and to be construed as an ethical dative with salve; 
cf, Virg. Aen, xi. 97, salve aeternum mihi, maxime Palla; also the 
Greek x<^^P^ MO'* 


1. Albi : the elegiac poet Albius Tibullus (64-19 b.c), an intimate 
friend of Horace. Epist, i. 4 is also addressed to him. plus nimio : 

Paob 43.] fiOOtt 1. Ot)E d4. 253 

with do2ea^ ; for the force of nimio, see note on i. 18. 15. immitis : 
emel, because faithless. 

2. Qlycerae : a fictitious name. Possibly she is identical with the 
faithless Nemesis mentioned in TibuUus's elegies. mlserabilia : 
here in active sense, making complaint, plaintive ; cf. 1. 3. 22, dissoeia- 
bill ; ii. 9. 9, flebilibus modis, 

3. decantea: de- has the same force here as noted in previous 
compounds, e.g. i. 3. 13, decertantem; hence, ^sing unceasingly.' 
elegoa: this designation regularly applies to love-poetry composed 
in the elegiac stanza (distich), i.e, alternate hexameter and pen- 
tameter, cur praeniteat: indirect question dependent upon the 
notion of wondering, to be supplied in thought. 

4. laesa fide : sc. a Glycera. 

5. tenui fronte : of low forehead ; a mark of beauty. 

6. Cyrl : objective genitive. 

8. lungentur : with reflexive, or middle, force, — shall mate (them- 
selves), lupis: ablative of association. 

9. adulter o : here a suitor. 

10. visum : sc. est, imparia : ill-mated. 

13. mellor : i.e. worthier. Venus : flame, passion, as in i. 27. 

14. grata compede : note the oxymoron ; compes is but rarely 
employed in the singular. Myrtale : a common name of freed- 

15. Hadriae : frequently referred to by Horace as a type of 
boisterous fury. ' 

16. Calabros sinus r accusative of ^result produced,' i.e. making 
a curved bay ; the reference is to the Gulf of Tarentum, which is here 
reckoned as a part of the Adriatic. 


1. Parous: i.e. bringing but slight offerings to the altars of the 

2. insanientis sapientiae consultus: lit. an adept in (a votary 
of) a mad philosophy ; note the oxymoron in insanientis sapientiae ; 
the reference is to the Epicurean philosophy, of which system the 
poet represents himself as having been an adherent until his recent 
conversion ; except in the phrase iuris consultus, the genitive is but 
rarely used with consultus. dum erro : lit. while I was wander- 

254 BOOK I. ODE 34. [Page 4a 

ing (se. from the true path), but with distinct adversative force, — 
though aforetime I wandered, yet novo. 

3. retrorsum dare : i.e. set sail for a return to the truth. 

4. iterare : retrace. 

5. Diespiter: i.e. Dies pater, the original nominative of Jupiter: 
Jupiter was originally a vocative, which has replaced the old nomi- 
native ; Diespiter survives chiefly in poetry. See B. L, L. § 180. 4. 

6. nubila dividens plerumque : the emphajsis rests upon nubila, 
which stands in sharp antithesis to per purum, — though His usually 
the clouds that Jove cleaves ; plerumque is also contrasted with some 
temporal notion to be supplied with egit, e.g. yesterday, recently. 

7. per purum : sc. caelum. It was a cardinal principle of the 
Epicurean faith that the gods did not direct the affairs of the world, 
but dwelt in a state of eternal bliss somewhere in the interstellar 
spaces of the universe. The poet admits that the thunderbolt from 
a clear sky has shattered his belief in this doctrine. He is now con- 
vinced that the gods do intervene. 

9. quo : the relative refers to the general statement made in 
egit equos. bruta: lifeless. 

10. horrlda Taenari aedea : Taenarus was a promontory at the 
southern extremity of Laconia ; on it wajs located the fabled entrance 
to the lower world by which Hercules was said to have brought Cer- 
berus to the world above ; hence the epithet horrida ; Taenari is the 
appositional genitive. 

11. Atlanteua finis : i.e. the end of the world, where Atlas was 
conceived to stand, sustaining the mass upon his shoulders. 

12. concutitur: the singular verb with compound subject, as 
usually with Horace. valet : emphatic, as shown by the context and 
the position, — 'power is possessed by the gods,* — a principle which 
the Epicureans denied ; they referred all natural phenomena to the 
spontaneous working of inflexible physical laws. ima aununis 
mutare : to interchange the lowest and highest ; this is the general 
statement, which is then more particularly set forth in the antithetical 
insignem attenuat, obscura promens. 

13. insignem, obscura: note the abrupt change from the con- 
crete to the abstract. deus : i.e. Fortuna. 

14. hlnc ; from one man ; contrasted with hie, apioem : lit. 
the piece ^«ed into (root ap-, *fit,' 'fasten') the top of the flamen's 
cap ; then the cap itself ; then the tiara or diadem of Oriental mon- 
archs; then in the transferred sense of 'crown,' 'glory,' 'power,' as 

Page 44.] BOOK I. ODE 36. 255 

here. Possibly Horace means to allude to the political vicissitades of 
Tiridates ; see note on i. 26. 5. rapaz : with sudden swoop. 

15. Btridore acuto : toith noisy whirring ; sc. alarum. 

16. Bostulit : the so-called ^ gnomic ^ perfect, used in the expres- 
sion of general truths. hie : upon another. posulBBe : the perfect 
is perhaps here used in its proper temporal sense, i.e. Fortuna rejoices 
to have succeeded in placing. For the infinitive with gaudere, cf. i. 1. 
11, gaudentem Jindere. 


1. diva : viz. Fortuna. gratom : pleasant ; cf. Cic. ad Au, iv. 
8^, 1, {Antio) nihil amoenius, Antium : a town near the coast of 
Latium, containing two temples dedicated to Fortuna. It was the 
old capital of the Volscians. 

2. praeaeiiB: here in the sense of powerful, and governing the 

3. mortale corpuB : our mortal frame, 

4. vertere funeribua triomphoB: lit. to change triumphs with 
funerals, i.e. to turn proud triumphs into funeral trains ; funeribus is 
ablative of association. In writing these words Horace doubtless had 
in mind the tragic fate of the two sons of Lucius Aemilius Paulus, one 
of whom died a few days before, the other a few days after, their 
father's triumph over Perseus. 

5 f. te, te, te, te : notice the emphasis produced by the anaphora. 
5. ambit : courts, entreats, a figurative meaning of amhire, a word 
primarily used of going about canvassing for votes. 

6. niriB colonuB : peasant. dominam : in predicate relation 
to te, — thee as mistress of the sea. The conception of Fortune as 
presiding goddess of agriculture and of the sea appears also upon 
ancient coins, which represent the goddess with a cornucopia in one 
hand and a rudder in the other. 

7. Bithyna carina : Bithynia in northern Asia Minor was famous 
for its production of ship-building materials. laceBBit : braves, lit. 

8. Carpathium pelagua: the name given to that part of the 
Aegean north of the island of Carpathos. 

9. DacuB, etc. : Dacus, Scythae, urbes, gentes, Latium, are all 
subjects of ambit {ambiunt) alone ; matres and tyranni, while gram- 
matically the subjects of metuont, are also felt to go back to ambiU 
prof ugi : roving. 

256 BOOK I. ODE 36. [Page 44. 

10. Latinm feroz : martial Latium. 

11. regum matres barbarorom : the influence of the queen 
mother among the Oriental peoples was often very great. 

12. parpnrei : clad in purple. metuont = metuunt ; Introd. 

13. inlurioso : wanton. ne . . . promas : this clause is the 
logical object of metuont ; te, te are introduced proleptically . For the 
position of ne in its clause, see note on i. 2. 6, grave ne rediret. 

14. Btantem columnam: i.e. public order, the pillar of the 
government. populuB frequens: i.e. a mob. neu concitet, 
frangat : this phrase simply amplifies more specifically the general 
idea already enunciated in ne . . . columnam. 

15. ad arma, ad arma: the repetition is perhaps designed to 
suggest the cries of an excited mob. ceBBantis : the laggards^ i.e. 
those who at first hold back. 

17. te . . . NeceasitaB : Fortuna*s decrees are inevitable ; hence 
Necessity is conceived of as one of her attendants. saeva : grim, 

18. clavoB, cuneoB,. uncus, plumbum : emblems of strength. 
Fortuna is depicted in ancient works accompanied by the symbolic 

19. ataa : al^nus, -a, -um is a collateral form of aeneus. 

20. uncus, plumbum : in building, it was common among the 
Romans to fasten together huge blocks of stone with iron clamps, and 
run with molten lead the cavities in which the ends of the clamps 
were inserted. Extensive remains of this kind of building may still 
be seen in Rome. 

21. Spes, Fides : i.e. Hope and, sometimes, loyal friends sustain 
the unfortunate. albo velata panno : bound with a white cloth ; 
probably we are to think of the goddesses hand as thus enveloped ; cf. 
Livy i. 21, where the priests of Fides are said to have offered sacrifice 
to her with their hands bound with a cloth, to show that the seat of 
faith was in the right hand, and deserved to be protected. colit: 
cherish; the singular verb with plural subject, as regularly in 

22. nee comitem abnegat : as direct object of abnegat, we must 
understand se ; cf. Ovid, Ars Amat. 1. 127, si qua repugnarat nimium 
comitemque negarat ; Propertius, iv. 2. 39, professus amicum. 

23. utcumque : whenever, but with an added adversative force, 
mutata veste, etc. : in hostile mood thou leavest the homes of the 

Paob 45.] BOOK I. ODE 36. 257 

mighty in mourning ; mutata veste is an ablative of quality and stands 
in predicate relation to domos potentis ; changed raiment was a symbol 
of mourning, as with us ; for the expression mutata veste used pre- 
cisely as here, c/. Cic. de domo sua, 37. 99, omnis bonos mutata 
veste vidi. 

The apparent contradiction of this passage is to be thus explained : 
Fortuna (* Chance') may be either good or ill. Whenever good For- 
tune abandons one, ill Fortune takes her place, i.e. the same goddess, 
but in another phase. It is obviously the Fortuna of this second 
phase upon whom Spes and Fides are conceived as attending. 

25. retro cedit : i.e. prove faithless. 

26. diffuginnt : i.e. scatter in all directions. 

27. cum faece : i.e. dregs and all ; stronger than merely * to the 
dregs' {faece tenus). 

28. ferre dolosi: {too) treacherous to hear ; on the infinitive with 
adjectives in Horace, cf. i. 1. 18, indocilis pauperiem pati. iugum: 
sc. of adversity. pariter : i.e. equally with the unfortunate. 

29. iturum CaoBarein : as early as 34 b.c. Augustus had formed 
the plan of invading Britain. Though revived at various times there- 
after, the project was never carried into execution. 

30. iuvennm recens examen : the reference is to the levy made 
for the expedition of Aelius Gallus into Arabia Felix ; see introduction 
to i. 29. 

31. timendam : to be an object of dread. 

32. partibus = regionibus. 

33. cicatricom, etc. : alluding to the horrors of the civil wars. 

34. fratrumque : the sentence is left incomplete. We may supply 
in thought a fratribus occisorum. 

35. nefasti : best taken as genitive of the whole with quid. 

38. pepercit aria : i.e. suppliants had been denied the protection 
of the sanctuaries to which they had fled. O utinam : hiatus after 
the monosyllabic interjection, as in i. 1.2, et. 

39. difiingaB .* a rare word, found only in two passages of Horace, 
and apparently used in the meaning ^ reforge.' The word is here used 
in the pregnant sense of *reforge and turn (against).' retusum: 
i.e. in the civil wars. in Massagetas : with difflngas. The Mas- 
sagetae were a branch of the Scythians, and at present were in alliance 
with the Parthians ; hence the phrase virtually means in Parthos. 

40. Arabaa : see note on line 30, above. 

268 BOOK I. ODE 36. [Page 40. 


1. fidibuB : music was customary on sacrificial occasions. iuvat 
placate : almost with the hortatory force of placemus ; placare here 
has the meaning * thank.* 

2. debito : i.e, due the gods for their watchful care of Numida. 

3. Numidae : nothing is known of him ; his nomen is variously 
given as Plotius and Pomponius. 

4. Hesperla : probably here used of Spain. Numida is thought 
to have accompanied Augustus in the expedition of 27-25 b.c. against 
the Cantabrians. Bospes : having returned in safety. 

5. multa OBCula : in some continental countries it is customary 
even to-day for men to exchange kisses. 

6. nulli : frequent in the poets for nemini. dividit = dis- 
tribuit ; yet with Lamiae we must supply in thought some such word 
as donat. 

7. Lamiae: probably the Aelius Lamia of i. 26. 

8. Don alio = eodem, rege = magistro. puertiae : poetic 
syncopated form for pueritiae ; cf, ii. 2. 2, lamnae^ foi> laminae. 

9. mutataeque . . . togae : i.e. of the fact that they changed 
togas together. Reference is to the assumption of the toga virilis. 
With the completion of the sixteenth year, as a rule, the Roman boy 
laid aside the toga praetezta or purple-bordered toga, and assumed the 
plain unbordered toga of manhood (the toga virilis). The formal 
assumption of the toga virilis took place at the festival of the Liber- 
alia, which was celebrated annually on the 17th of March. In this 
ceremony all young men who had completed their sixteenth year 
within the preceding twelvemonth were competent to participate. It 
thus often happened that a youth was nearly seventeen years old before 
putting on the badge of manhood. This would be true, for instance, 
of all boys bom in the last two weeks of March. 

10. CroBsa DOta : i.e. with a white mark ; owing to a confusion 
of Creta, * Crete,' and creta, 'chalk,' the adjective Cressa ('Cretan ') 
is here used with nota, to mean a white mark. The ancient custom 
of marking lucky days white and unlucky days black is well attested ; 
c/. Catullus, 107. 6, o lucem candidiore nota. 

11. promptae modus amphorae : i.e. limit to indulgence in the 
jar that has been brought out; amphorae is here genitive; promptae 
is the participle. 

12. morem in Salinm : Solium is genitive plural. The Salii 

Page 47.] BOOK I. ODE 37. 259 

were a college of priests dating from the days of Numa and Tullius 
Hostilius. They guarded the sacred shields (ancilia), and annually, 
in the month of March, performed a sacred dance, carrying the shields 
and weapons in procession. 

13. multi meri: i.e, capable of drinking much wine, — a hard 
drinker. Damalis: the name is Greek, and literally means 
* heifer.' 

14. BasBum : evidently, a moderate drinker ; here he is exhorted 
to rise to the occasion, and not permit himself to be outdone even by 
Damalis. Threicia amystide : the amystis (Greek AfwaTis) was 
a long draught drunk without taking breath. On the indulgence of 
the Thracians in wine, see i. 18. 9, Sithoniis. 

15 f. No feast was complete without (lowers for the garlands of the 

17. putrls: here apparently in the sense of * languishing.* 

18. deponent : shall cast. novo adultero : from her new 
lover, viz. Numida ; for this force of adultero, cf. i. 33. 9. 

20. lascivis bederis: like a fond lover, the ivy fiings its arms, 
so to speak, about the tree. ambitioBior : here following the literal 
sense of amhire — * go around ' — and so more clinging ; cf. Epodes 
15. 5, for a similar characterization of the ivy. 


1. Nunc, nunc, nunc : note the anaphora. The purpose of the 
poet is to emphasize the fact that no previous time had been suited for 
celebrating the victory over Cleopatra. After Actium any celebration 
would have been premature, for Antony and Cleopatra, though de- 
feated, were still in arms, and still constituted a menace to the Roman 
state. It was only now, after the complete oveithrow and death of 
both, that such rejoicings were fitting. This explains the use of erat 
in line 4 — *now was the time,' not a year ago after Actium, as had 
been urged by many then ; cf. Ars Poetica, 19, sed nunc non erat his 
locus. Nunc est bibendum : now is the time to drink ; these open- 
ing words of the ode are a translation of Alcaeus, vvv xp^ iifOivOriv Kal 
X96va irpds pLav iralriv iveidif Kdrdave M^ffxriXoi. Myrsilos was a tyrant of 
Mitylene, in whose overthrow Alcaeus himself had assisted. pede 
Hbero : i.e. feet that give themselves up to dancing without restraint. 

2. SaliarlbuB dapibuB : the banquets of the Salii, like those ol 
the pontiffs, were proverbial for their sumptuousness. 

260 BOOK I. ODE 37. [^aq^ 47. 

3. pulvinar: the singular for the plural ; the pulvinaria were 
cushioned couches, on which were set images of the gods, while viands 
were placed before them; the ceremony was designated a lectistemium 
(* couch spreading '). 

5. antehac : te, before the complete annihilation of Antony and 
Cleopatra ; to be read as a dissyllable by synizesis. neiaB : sc. fuit. 
The caesura after nefas is unusual for the Alcaic metre. See Introd. 
§ 43. Caecabom ; sc. vinum ; see note on i. 20. 9. 

6. avitis : the epithet is transferred from the wine to the store- 
rooms, dam . . . parabat : dum with the imperfect indicative occurs 
only here in Horace ; we should naturally have expected the present. 
Capitollo regina : the abomination of a regina menacing the cen- 
tral sanctuary of Rome is finely emphasized by the juxtaposition of 
the two contrasted ideas. Such juxtaposition is a common rhetorical 
device, in prose as well as in poetry ; another fine example is found in 
iii. 5. 9, sub rege Medo Marsus et Apulus. To the Romans, the very 
names rex and regina had been odious since the days of the Tarquins. 
Horace, also, doubtless means to suggest that Cleopatra, as an Oriental 
sovereign, contemplated supplanting the worship of the Capitoline 
deities (Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva) by introducing native Egyptian 
rites. She was, at all events, reputed to have made frequent boasts 
that she would issue her sovereign decrees from the Capitol. 

7. dementis ruinaB : bold transfer of the epithet from regina to 

8. fmniB et : for et in the second place, c/. i. 2. 9, piscium et 
summa ; the order is frequent in the poets. 

9. contaminato grege : the allusion is to the eunuchs of Cleo- 
patra's court, sarcastically alluded to as viri, 

10. morbo : with turpium^ — foul with disease, quidlibet : 
any scheme of glory and conquest, however visionary. impotens 
Bperare : mad enough to hope ; the infinitive as in i. 1. 18, indocilis 
pauperiem pati. 

13. vix mia sospeB navia ab ignibus : the grammatical subject 
of minuit is navis, but the logical subject is the idea contained in the 
whole phrase, = the rescue of scarcely a single ship from the flames ; 
cf i. 15. 33, iracunda dassis Achillei, with note ; ii. 4. 10, ademptus 
Hector, The poet is referring to the Battle of Actium ; fire broke out 
among the ships of Antony and Cleopatra, and many of them were 
destroyed. Horace, however, exaggerates the facte, for Cleopatra 
escaped with sixty vessels. 

Page 48.] BOOK I. ODE 37. 261 

14. lymphatam, veroB timoroB: lymphatus properly means 
'bereft of reason,^ and so: * filled with wild delusions and hallucina- 
tions,* those already hinted at in the words quidlibet sperare impotens; 
with lymphatus (lit. * crazed by the nymphs,* lympha being a col- 
lateral form of nympha)^ cf, the Greek yv/i^Xiyrrot. Horace's mean- 
ing is that Caesar turned these unsubstantial visions (cf. lymphatam) to 
the reality of fear (veros timores) ; the antithesis, therefore, which the 
poet aims to bring out, is between the reality of Cleopatra's terror and 
the unreality, i.e. iir.possibility, of the dreams of empire in which she 
indulged. Mareotico: sc, vino. The Mareotic wine was grown 
around Lake Marea, near Alexandria. It was a sweet wine with a 
high bouquet. 

16. ab Italia : really from Actium ; but the poet evidently wishes 
to emphasize the fact that, whereas Cleopatra's purpose was to pro- 
ceed in Italiam, she was, on the contrary, forced to flee in the oppo- 
site direction. Note that the / of Italia, which is historically short, is 
often arbitrarily lengthened in poetry, metri gratia. volantem: 
reginam is easily understood from the context. 

17. remlB adurgens : the pursuit was not immediate, as would 
naturally be understood from these words. Octavian wintered at 
Samos, and did not push on to Egypt till the following spring 
(30 B.C.). 

19. nivaliB : Thessaly was not always covered with snow. The 
epithet is here added because the hare was usually hunted in winter, 
when the snow lay upon the ground. 

20. Haemoniae : the old name for Thessaly. daret : consign, 

21. fatale monstrum : Cleopatra. quae: hut she; the femi- 
nine, despite the occurrence of monstrum just before. genero- 
BiuB : i.e. more nobly than Octavian intended she should ; his secret 
purpose was to allow her first to grace his triumphal procession, then 
to put her to death. 

22. perire : the infinitive with quaero is poetic ; cf. iii. 4. 39, Jinire 
quaerentem. muliebriter : i.e. in womanish terror. 

23. ezpavit ensem : according to Plutarch, Cleopatra first 
attempted suicide by the sword, but was prevented by Proculeius 
from executing her intention. latentiB . . . oras: the meaning 
of reparavit here is uncertain. It seems to mean seek in exchange, 
i.e. she did not seek distant coasts in exchange for, or in place of, 
her throne as queen of Egypt ; cf i. 31. 12, vina Syra reparata merce, 
Cleopatra was reported to have cherished at one time the plan ol 

262 BOOK I. ODE 38. [Page 48. 

transporting such galleys as she had left, across the Isthmus of Suez 
and of re^tablishing her ruined fortunes somewhere on the coast 
of the Red Sea. 

25. iacentem regiam : iacentem is used in the figurative sense of 
ruined ; it is the opposite of stantem in i. 35. 14 (^stantem columnam). 

26. voltu sereno : the queen is said to have concealed her chagrin 
at the defeat of her troops and even to have exhibited a merry de- 
meanor in the presence of her guards. 

27. tractare: the infinitive, as above in line 11. serpentes: 
according to the traditional account, she met her death from the bite 
of an asp, which she had secreted in her bosom. atrum : as bring- 
ing death ; black is the color belonging to death and to all things asso- 
ciated with it. 

29. deliberata morte ferocior : ' emboldened by a stern resolve 
to die^ (Bryce). 

30. aaevlB LibtuniB : the Liburnae (sc. naves) were swift galleys 
patterned after those of the Libumians, a people dwelling ou the 
eastern coast of the Adriatic in the modem Albania. The Liburnae 
had rendered special service in the fight at Actium. They are saevae 
to Cleopatra. Liburnis is ablative of means with deduci. scilicet : 
the word has here none of the ironical force so common to it. 

31. privata: a queen no longer; In predicate construction. 
deduci: invidens governing the infinitive without subject accusa- 
tive is a Grecism. auperbo triompho: dative of purpose with 

32. non hmnilis mulier : emphatic, — no craven woman, she. 


1. Peraicosappazatiui: Pernco^ is used generically for * oriental.' 
Oriental luxury, even a generation before Horace's day, had already 
made great inroads in the social life of Rome. pner: i,e. slave, 
as often. 

2. nezae philyra coronae : garlands made by fasteniUg flowers 
on a wisp of linden bast (philyra) ; such coronae were specially made 
by professional craftsmen and were of great elegance. Horace, how- 
ever, pleads for plain myrtle wreaths, such as can easily be plaited by 

3. mitte aectari -. a poetic periphrasis for a prohibition. roaa ; 
^oses were highly prized, and great pains were often taken to force them 

Pagb51.] book II. ODE 1. 268 

before the season. Sometimes they were even imported from Egypt 
and other warm countries. quo locorum : in wfi>ich of its haunts, 

4. sera : predicatively, — lingers late. 

5. simpllci : i.e. as opposed to the luxury of costlier garlands. 
nihil adlabores : adlahoro is found only in two passages of Horace, 
here and Epodes 8. 20 ; it seems to mean, ' take the trouble to add ' ; 
nihil goes logically with cura^ with which it makes a prohibition, — 
strive not; for the subjunctive without ut in a substantive clause 
developed from the jussive, see B. 295. 5 ; 8. 

7. arta: dense. 


1. Motum civicom : i.e. the civil wars ; rivicus in good prose is 
found only in the phrase corona civica ; r/. hosticus (as against hos- 
tilis) in iii. 2. 6. ez Metello consule : beginning with Metellus'^s 
consulship ; the phrase is a modifier of Motum. The Metellus referred 
to is Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, whose consulship belongs to 
the year 60 b.c, the time of the formation of the First Triumvirate by 
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. This coalition is regarded as marking 
the real beginning of the civil commotions that, with few inter^ 
ruptions, continued for the next thirty years. Actual hostilities, 
however, did not commence till 49 b.c, when Caesar returned from 
Gaul and crossed the Rubicon. 

2. causas : e.g. the death of Crassus on his ill-starred expedition 
against the Parthians, the death of Julia (Caesar^s daughter), whom 
Pompey had married, the rivalry of Pompey and Caesar, etc. vitia : 
especially the errors of Caesar, Pompey, and their partisans. mo- 
doB : phases^ i.e. the general way in which the war was waged. 

3. gravis ; the amicitiae are styled gravis, because the league of 
the triumvirs was so portentous in its bearings on the fortunes of 
the Roman state. 

4. principum amicitiae : i.e. the league of the triumvirs. 

5. nondum ezpiatis cnioribus .- the same sentiment as in i. 2. 
29, Cut dahit partis scelus expiandi f uncta : i.e. polluta. cni- 
oribus: the plural suggests the many times and places at which 
Roman blood had been shed ; so in Greek,. aXfiara, 

264 BOOK II. ODE 1. [Paob 61. 

6. perlculoMie : i.e. there was danger in such a work of giving 
offence to the siui^iving partisans. aleae : ka2ard, — a common 

7. inc«dis per ignea, etc, : per is inexact ; super would have been 
the correct word. The picture is of one walking over ashes under 
which slumber the treacherous embers of a recent conflagration. 

9. paulum : emphatic, — let it be only for a little that the stage 
is deprived of your energies, Musa tragoediae dealt : PoUio's , 
reputation as a tragic poet is well attested ; cf. Virg. Buc, 8. 10, sol^ 
Sophocleo tua earmina digna coturno; Hor. Sat. i. 10. 42, Pollio 
regum facta canit pede ter percusso. Yet no fragments of Pollio^s 
tragic writings have come down to us. Note the force of desit, 
which implies that the absence is felt. 

10. moz = sed moz, publicaa rea ordinaria : ordinare is here 
used with the force of componere, i.e. * compose,' in the literary sense; 
under publieas res understand the events of the civil wars. 

11. grande munus : viz. of writing tragedy. 

12. Cecropio cotamo : in Attic buskin ; cotumus, properly the 
high shoe worn by the tragic actors to add dignity to their appear- 
ance, is used figuratively for tragedy. Tragedy is called Cecropian, i.e. 
Attic (from Cecrops, a mythical king of Attica), because it was on 
Attic soil that tragedy originated and developed. repetea : resume ; 
the future has the force of an Imperative, standing in adversative 
relation (see note on mox, line 10, above) to the foregoing desit, 

13. praeaidimn reia : Pollio was famous as a lawyer also, espe- 
cially in the defence of criminal cases. 

14. conaulenti : here in the sense of deliberanti. Pollio : the 
final o, regularly long, is here used as short. This shortening is rela- 
tively rare in the Augustan period, but later became quite general. 
curiae : properly the building in which the senate regularly held its 
deliberations ; here used for the senate itself. 

16. Delmatico triiimplio: in 39 b.c. Pollio had achieved a 
notable victory over the Parthini, an lUyrlan people dwelling near 
Dalmatia, and had also taken the Dalmatian town of Salonae. 

17. iam nunc : i.e. the poet in anticipation conceives himself as 
already listening to the recital of the stirring events of Pollio's history. 

21. andire ducea : i.e. to hear them issuing their commands to 
their troops ; with cuncta . . . subacta, audire means ' hear of.' 

23. cuncta terrarum : a neuter plural adjective used substan- 
tively and followed by a genitive of the whole is found only in the 

Page 52.] BOOK II. ODE 1. 265 

poets and later prose writers ; another instance in the Odes is iv. 12. 
19, amara curarum, subacta : sc, a Caesare, 

24. atrocem . . . Catonis: his spirit was shown in his in- 
domitable adherence to conviction. The Cato referred to is M. 
Porcius Cato. At the time of the strife between Caesar and the sena- 
torial party, Cato figured as an uncompromising defender of the con- 
stitution. He took up arms against Caesar, and committed suicide 
at Utica rather than fall into Caesar^s hands. From the place of his 
death he received the name UUcensis. For another tribute to his 
memory, c/. i. 12. 35, Catonis nobile letum. 

25. luno, etc, : Juno had been the patron deity of Carthage, the 
metropolis of Africa. 

26. cesserat : the notion is that the gods had abandoned Africa 
when they found themselves no longer able to afford it their protec- 
tion, precisely as the gods are represented as abandoning Troy, in 
Aen, ii. 351, excessere omnes, adytis arisque relictis^ di quihus imr 
perium hoc steterat. impotens : here powerless, helpless. 

27. victorum nepotea : the reference is to the descendants of the 
Romans who had conquered Jugurtha. Many of these fell at the 
Battle of Thapsus, fought in 46 b.c. 

28. rettulit : i.e. offered in return. inferias : <is a funeral 
offering ; used predicatively. lugurthae : the Numidian king who 
long outgeneralled the Roman commanders sent against him, but was 
finally defeated in 106 b.c. 

29. Latino Banguine: Latinus, as being less usual than 
Bomanus, is more poetical. pingulor : not logically comparative 
here, but rather enriched, drenched, 

31. auditom Media : hyperbole ; Medis is dative of agency. On 
Medis for Parthis, see i. 2. 51. As enemies of Rome the Parthians 
would naturally rejoice at her disasters. 

32. Hesperiae : here used as an adjective, — Italian, The word 
properly means * western,' ' land of the west,' and applies sometimes 
to Italy, sometimes to Spain. sonitum ruinae: the fall of the 
state is thought of as that of some huge structure. 

34. ignara belli : i. e. do not bear traces of the conflict. Dauniae : 
properly ' Apulian' (from Daunus, a mythical king of Apulia), but 
here in the general sense of ^ Italian,' * Roman.' 

37. relictds iocis: i.e, abandoning sportive themes, such as 
Horace was wont to treat. 

38. Ceae . . . mnnera neniae : lit. essay again the offices of the 

266 BOOK II. ODE 2. [Page 52. 

Cean dirge, i.e. revive the solemn style of Simonides of Ceos ; neniae 
is appositional genitive. 

39. Dionaeo Bub antro : i.e. in lovers haunt ; Dionaeo, * belong- 
ing to Dione (the mother of Venus),' is the equivalent of Veneris; on 
sub antro, see i. 5. 3. 

40. leviore plectro : of a lighter strain ; on the first meaning of 
plectro, see on i. 26. 11. The characteristic of the poem itself is 
transferred to the instrument. 


1. Nullns color : no lustre ; i,e, no worth. avarlB tenia : the 

epithet is boldly transferred from the persons who hide treasure in 
the earth to the earth itself. 

2. abdito : i,e. laid away in a hoard. lamnae: syncopated for 
laminae. The word properly means a plate or bar of metal, wood, 
marble, etc., and so comes to be used for metal in general, or, as here, 
for precious metal, money. 

3. Crlape Sallnsti : his full name was Gains Sallustius Crispus. 
The inversion of nomen and cognomen, as here, occurs even in prose 
(beginning with Cicero), when the praenomen is omitted ; c/. 11. 11. 2, 
Hirpine Quinctt The Sallust here referred to was a grand-nephew 
Of the historian, and inherited the latter's vast wealth, including the 
famous horti Sallustiani, situated on the northern slope of the Quiri- 
iial. He was celebrated for his generosity. nisi aplendeat : to be 
joined closely with inimice lamnae; the subjunctive is employed 
because of the implied indirect discourse ; Sallust^s own thought, as 
represented by Horace, is lamnae inimicus sum, nisi usu splendet, 
temperate nsu : i.e. by avoiding prodigality on the one hand, and 
meanness on the other. 

5. extento aevo: through long ages; ablative of duration of 
time. ProculeluB : C. Proculeius Varro, son of A. Terentius Varro. 
When his two brothers lost their property in the civil war, Proculeius 
gave each a third of his fortune. He stood high in the favor of 
Augustus, who at one time even thought of giving him his daughter 
In marriage. 

6. animi patemi : known as a man of fatherly affection (for his 
brothers) ; predicate genitive of quality after notus, limiting Procu- 

7. aget : here used in the sense of toilet. metuente Bolvi : 

Page 63.] BOOK II. ODE 2. 267 

[pinions) that refuse to droop, te. tireless ; timeo and metuo atre not 
infrequently used by the poets in the sense of nolo; cf. iv. 5. 20, 
culpari metuit fides. 

8. BuperBtes : i.e. Proculeius^s fame shall survive his death. 

9. regnes : the second person is here indefinite. avidom Bpiri- 
turn : the spirit of greed. 

10. Libyam Qadibus : i.e. Africa to Europe. 

U. iungas : i.e. as owner. et = and so. uterque Poenns : 
i.e. the Phoenicians in northern Africa and in Spain. In Horace's 
day there were Phoenician settlements in both countries. 

12. tmi : sc. tihi. 

13. crescit, etc. : the poet means to institute a comparison be« 
tween dropsy and avarice ; the latter, like the former, he claims, 
grows by indulgence ; help can come only by banishing the cause of 
each disease ; crescit is emphatic by position. 

14. sitim : an unquenchable thirst is one of the symptoms of the 
disease. pellit : as subject, we must understand the sufferer from 
the disease. 

15. fagerit venia : this is pathologically correct. The disease is 
the result of a separation of the water in the blood ; fugerit is future 
perfect ; the tense emphasizes the importance of the prior fulfilment 
of the condition. aqnosus languor: i.e. the weakness resulting 
from an excess of water in the system. albo corpore : the skin 
of a dropsical person is abnormally white. 

17. redditum Phraaten: Phraates, king of Parthia, had been 
driven from his throne by the machinations of his rival, Tiridates, but 
had secured his restoration through the help of the Scythians in 27 
B.C. Redditum is put first in the strophe, for the purpose of empha- 
sizing the antithesis; though he has been restored, yet Virtue will 
not allow that he should be reckoned as being truly happy. Cyri 
Bolio : Arsaces, the founder of the Parthian dynasty of the Arsacidae, 
claimed descent from Cyrus, the founder of the Persian empire. 

18. diBBidens: i.e. dissenting in its views. plebl : from th$ 
vulgar crowd; Horace is particularly fond of using the dative with 
verbs of differing, etc. Introd. § 36. c. beatorum : i.e. happy in 
the full sense of the word. According tg the Stoic view, which 
Horace has here in mind, only the upright are happy ; the final -um 
is elided before the initial vowel of the following line ; the phenomenon 
is called synapheia. Cf. ii. 3. 27. 

19. ezimit : lit. excepts from, i.e. refuses to admit to, to reckon 

268 BOOK II. ODE 8. LPagb 63. 

among ; c/. iii. 2. 32, deseruit^ ^fail to overtake.* Vlrtas : the per- 
sonification of the lofty Stoic ideal of rectitude. falBis vocibus : 
wrong names, e.g. the title beatus as applied to Phraates ; only the 
upright man, urges the poet, deserves this name. 

21. dladema, lannim: added as more specific explanations of 

22. propriam: lasting, and so real, as opposed to the fleeting 
nature of the ordinary laurels of victory. 

23. inretorto : i.e. without casting longing glances behind ; inre- 
tortus is a new word, coined by Horace. 

24. acervoB: sc. of treasure. 


1. Aequam . . . mentem : the figure in the Latin calls for a 
level spirit when circumstances are steep. This trope cannot be re- 
produced in English. 

2. non secuB: {and) likewise; asyndeton and litotes. in 
bonia: the figure begun in arduis is here abandoned. 

3. temperatam : agreeing with mentem understood. 

4. laetitia: i.e. manifestation of joy. moritare : destined, 
doomed, to die. In prose of the Ciceronian period, the future active 
participle is regularly restricted to combination with the forms of 
esse ; poets and the later prose writers freely use the participle alone. 
Delli : an unprincipled character who had played a somewhat con- 
spicuous part in the recent political history of Rome. He had succes- 
sively supported and deserted Dolabella, Cassius, and Mark Antony. 
Just prior to the Battle of Actium, he had attached himself to Octa- 
vian ; but the ode suggests that at present he was out of favor with 
the Emperor. 

5. sea vizeris, etc. ; to be joined closely with moriture ; cf. ii. 2. 
2, inimice lamnae nisi splendeat, omni tempore : ablative of dura^ 
tion of time. 

6. In remoto gramlne: i.e. in some retired grassy nook. 

8. interiore nota Falerni: with some old Falemian vintage; 
lit. with some inner label of Falemian; nota is the mark or label 
attached to the wine jar, giving the (late of the vintage (c/. iii. 21. 1, 
O {testa) nata mecum consule Manlio). Wine of the oldest vintages 
would naturally be kept in the remoter part (interiore) of the store- 
room. Concerning the Falemian wine, see note on L 20. 10. 

Page 64.] BOOK II. ODE 3. 269 

9. quo : the adverb ; (lit. whither) for what purpose, i.e. unless 
we enjoy these delights. alba : alluding to the silvery leaves of 
the poplar. 

10. ombram . . . ramis: i.e. join their branches in inviting 
shade ; in the Latin, umbram is an accusative of * result produced * 
(* internal object '), — » produce (by joining) an inviting shade.* 

11. quid : used in the same sense as quo above. obliquo : 
zigzag, winding, laborat : the winding course of the stream hin- 
ders the progress of the brook ; hence, the water is represented as 
exerting itself to hurry on. 

13. hue : i.e. to the imaginary sylvan retreat pictured in lines 9-12. 
et . . . et : note the emphasis of the polysyndeton '; so in line 15. 

14. fiores : for garlands. ferre lube : have brought ; as subject 
of ferre, supply in thought pueros, 'slaves,' or some such word. 

15. res : i.e. your fortunes. aetas : youth. sorcrum trium ; 
viz. the Fates, — Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. 

16. atra : a natural epithet of Jila, since the Fates themselves are 

17. cedes, etc. : i.e. you will sooner or later be forced to leave 
these things. saltdbus : woodland pastures for cattle. Vast tracts 
of these were held by wealthy Romans, particularly in the region of 
southern Italy. et . . . que : et connects saltihua on the one hand 
to domo and villa on the other. domo villaque : domus is the 
palace ; villa covers the entire estate. 

18. flavos : as in i. 2. 13. lavit : poetic instead of lavat (from 
lavare), which is used in a literal sense. 

19. cedes : the anaphora gives the force of ^ yes, you must leave 

21. divesne, etc. : lit. it makes no difference whether you linger 
beneath the skies rich {and) descended from ancient Inachus, or, etc. 
The adjectives are predicate modifiers of the subject of moreris. 
natus : note the asyndeton. Inacho : the earliest Argive king, 
and so suggesting ancient lineage. 

23. sub divo moreris : a poetic equivalent of vivas. 

24. victima (sc. es) : the apodosis of the protasis logically in- 
volved in lines 21-23. 

25. eodem : viz. to the realm of Orcus. cogimur : we are being 
gathered (lit. herded) ; the figure is drawn from pastoral life ; cogo 
is the technical term for gathering a scattered fiock ; cf. Virg, Buc. 
iii. 20, Tityre, coge pecus. omnium : for the purpose of an effective 

270 BOOK II. ODE 4. [Paob 54 

anaphora, Horace here uses omnium instead of cuiusque, which would 
be the accurate word. 

26. versatur umft : cf. iii. 1. 16, omne capaz movet uma nomen, 
■erluB ociuB: sooner or later; disjunctive asyndeton; the words 
modify exUura. 

27. eadtura, impoaitura : see note on line 4, moriture, aeter- 
niim : an hypermeter verse, like ii. 2. 18. 

28. exsilltim : sc. mortis, ciimbae : sc. Charonis. 


1. anclllae : 3c, tuae. pndori : dative of purpose. 

2. Xanthlft Phocen : Greek vocative of Xanihias Phoceus ; the 
name Xanthias (Hhe yellow-haired *) suggests that Horace may here 
be giving a Greek paraphrase of the name of some Roman Flavins, 
priuB: i,e, before this. insolentem : high-spirited; cf, Ars Poet, 
122, iura neget (sc. Achilles) sibi nata^ nihil non adroget armis, 

3. BrisfiiB : a captive maiden of whom Achilles was enamoured ; 
see Iliad i. colore : skin, complexion. 

5. Aiacem Telamone natum : Ajax the son of Telamon, as 
opposed to Ajax the son of Oileus. The former ranked next to 
Achilles in prowess. 

6. captivae dominum: the juxtaposition of the two words 
emphasizes the difference of social station ; though a captive, and so a 
jslave, Tecmessa inspired her master with love. TScmesBae : the 
initial syllable is short ; cm in Greek words is sometimes treated like a 
mute + a liquid. 

7. arsit: i.e. with love. Atrldea: Agamemnon. medio in 
trlumpho: i,e. at the fall of Troy. 

8. virgine rapta : the reference is to Cassandra, who at the sack 
of Troy was first seized by Ajax, the son of Oileus, and was then 
taken from him by Agamemnon. 

9. barbarae : i.e, of the Trojans. tnrmae : properly the word 
refers to troops of cavalry ; it is here used of troops in general. 

10. Theaaalo victore : i.e. Achilles, whose victory over Hector 
was the decisive event of the war ; the ablative is best taken as one of 
instrument with cecidere, which is here equivalent to a passive. We 
should naturally have expected a victore; but Horace seems to be 
thinking of the victory as the means of Troy's overthrow. ademp- 
tiu Hector : tA« loss of Hector ; lit. Hector removed. 

Pagb 56.] BOOK II. ODE 6. 271 

11. fesslB : namely, with the loiig siege. leviora tolli : easier 
to be destroyed; for the infinitive, see on i. 1. 18, indoeilis pati. 

13. The vein of delicate irony pervading the whole ode is particu- 
larly prominent in this and the following stanza. nescias an, etc. : 
one canH tell but that, etc. Nescias is an instance of the rare * can- ' 
potential, a use restricted to the indefinite second person singular pres^ 
ent of verbs of thinking, knotoing, seeing, and the like. Similarly we 
find videas, *one can see' ; intellegas, *one can observe.' By omis- 
sion of the first alternative of the double question, tlie an- clause here 
stands alone ; cf. the similar haud scio an. beat! : rich. 

15. regiiim : sc, est, penatis iniquoa : the household gods are 
called cruel, as having permitted the decay of the house. 

17. credo = be sure. non illam, etc. : that she whom you love 
belongs not to the common herd ; non is emphatic ; tibi is a dative of 
agency ; the phrase de plebe depends upon esse to be supplied in 
thought ; scelesta is used to indicate a permanent quality ; cf. ii. 16. 30, 
malignum volgus. 

19. lucro : ablative. 

20. pudenda : the context shows that this refers to birth, not to 

21. teretls: shapely. 

22. integer: i.e. free from passion for the maiden. luge bub- 
picari = noli suspicari; see note on i. 0. 1«3, fuge quaerere. 

23. cnioB : (a man) whose ; its antecedent is eum, the omitted 
object of suspicari. octavom lustrum : i.e. the fortieth year. 
trepidavit =properavit 


1. Bubacta : sc. ab amore. valet : as subject, understand in 
thought the name of the maiden referred to in line 4 f . as tuae iuven- 
cae, and later (line 16) mentioned as Lalage. For vcUet with infini^ 
tive, cf. i. 34. 12. 

2. cervice : poetic for cervicibus. munla compaxlB aequare .* 
^ match the labors of a mate ' (Page). 

5. circa eat : i.e. is set upon. 

6. campoB, fluviia, cum vitulia: under these figurative refer- 
ences the poet means that the object of his friend's attachment is still 
but a child, at play with her mates in field and wood. 

7. oolantia = levantis. 

272 BOOK II. ODE 6. [Page 56. 

10. immitis nvae: an abrupt transition to another figure. 
iam : presently. tlbi : ethical datiye. lividoa dlstlnguet race- 
moB : shall tinge the clusters purple, t,e. shall ripen them ; lividos is 
used proleptically. 

12. purpureo variiu colore : gay ufUh crimson ; the colors of 
autumn foliage and fruits are poetically attributed to autumn itself. 

13 f. te aequetur proterva fronte : the poet here returns to the 
earlier figure of the iuvenca. currit . . . aetaa : time runs madly 
on ; ferox is a poetic exaggeration for velox. 

14. llli . . . annoB: i,e, she shall mature as you pass on from 
middle life ; the friend addressed by the poet has reached a time of 
life when each passing year is felt as taking away (dempserit) from 
lifers allotted span ; with Lalage, who has not yet reached mature 
maidenhood, time is conceived as adding something; c/. Ars Poet. 
175, anni venientes . . . recedentes. 

16. marltum : i.e. thee, who wilt then be her mate. 
17 f. Pholoe, ChlorlB, Oygea : earlier flames. 

17. Fugaz: coy. 

21. si Inaereres . . . falleret : the form of the conditional sentence 
is peculiar ; we should naturally expect the present subjunctive. 

22. mire : with falleret. hoapltea : strangers. 

23. dlBcrimen : i.e. the difference between him and a maiden ; cf. 
ambiguo in line 24. obBCumm : here equivalent to obscuratum ; 
hence the following ablatives. 


1. Septiml : very likely the Septimius mentioned in Epp, i. 9. 13 
as fortem bonumque. Oadia : a town in southern Spain, and so in 
the extreme west of the Roman dominions; Gadis and Cantabrum 
are the direct object of aditure ; at all periods, adire is occasionally 
used transitively. aditure : i.e. ready to go ; said of a loyal friend. 
For the participle, see on ii. 3. 4, moriture. 

2. Cantabrum : singular for plural ; the Cantabrians were a tribe 
of northern Spain who had recently been defeated by the Romans, in 
20 B.C. At the time this ode was written, they were apparently in 
revolt. Agrippa finally subdued them in 10 b.c. iuga: poetic 
plural. nostra = Bomana. 

3. Syrtia : here of the treacherous sands off the northern coast of 
Africa ; in i. 22. 5, it was used of the adjacent desert, Maura : the 

Paor 68.] BOOK II. ODE 6. 273 

wave is called Moorish from Mauretania, though this district was 
really somewhat farther west than the Syrtes. 

5. Tibur : see on i. 7. 12. Argeo colono : Tibur is said to have 
been founded by three Argive brothers, Catilus, Coras, and Tibumus 
(or Tiburtus) ; Argeo is poetic for Argivo ; the dative is one of agent. 
positum = conditum. 

6. aenectae : poetic for senectuti. 

7. modus : here equivalent to finis, * resting-place.' lasso : sc. 
mihi. maris, viarum, militiae : the genitive is poetic. Introd. 
§ 37. a. Cf, Virg. Aen, i. 178, feasi rerum. 

9. unde: for inde, viz, from Tibur. For the sentiment of the 
entire strophe, cf, Epp. i. 7. 44, mihi iam non regia Boma, Sed vacuum 
Tibur placet aut imbelle Tarentum. prohlbent : the present some- 
times occurs (particularly in poetry) where logical exactness leads us 
to expect the future. Iniquae : used here not as a standing epithet, 
but rather with adverbial force, — cruelly, 

10. dulce pellitis ovibus : the river is spoken of as sweet to its 
skin-covered sheep, because they love to roam along its banks and 
drink its waters ; pellitis refers to the custom of protecting the wool 
of the finer sheep by means of skins tied about them. The custom is 
still in vogue. Oalaesi: appositional genitive with flumen; the 
Qalaesus was a small river near Tarentum. 

11. regnata . . . Phalantho: the district (once) governed by 
Spartan Phalanthus, viz, Tarentum, which was a Spartan colony 
founded by Phalanthus, 708 b.c. ; regno is here transitive, a usage 
confined to poetry and post-Augustan prose. Phalantho is dative of 
agent. For the feminine caesura after regnata^ see Introd. § 44. 

13. omnia : sc, omnis alios angulos, 

14. ridfit : has a charm ; the e is a reminiscence of the original 
quantity of the termination ; cf, ii. 13. 16, timet. Hymetto : i,e, 
to the honey of Hymettus ; * compendiary comparison ' {cf i. 1. 23, 
lituo), a license which would best be retained in translation. So 
below, Venafro. Hymettus was a mountain near Athens famous for 
the excellence of its honey. 

15. viridi Venafro: Venafrum was a Samnian town near the 
border of Latium, famous for its verdant olive-orchards ; Piiny, A'. H, 
XV. 2. 8, says Venafran oil is the best. For the dative with certare, 
cf, i. 3. 13, decertantem Aquilonibus, 

16. baca : lit. berry, i,e, the olive. 

17. ver longum tepidasque brumas : chiasmus. ubi : for the 

274 BOOK II. ODE 7. [Page 68. 

position of the introductory relative, c/. i. 2. 7, omne cum . . . egit. 
Note the i in uM, a reminiscence of the original quantity. 

18. amicus Aulon Baccho : Anion (evidently some locality, hill 
or vale, near Tarentum) is spoken of as dear to fertile Bacchus, since 
the god brings rich harvests to its vineyards ; for this use of amicus^ 
* dear to,* ' beloved,' cf. i. 26. 1, Musis amicus. 

19. fertill : i.e. productive, bringing increase. minimum : by 
no means. Falemia uvia : for the Falemian wine, see on i. 20. 10. 

22. postulant: i.e. summon, invite. arces: i.e. heights, hill- 
tops, as in i. 2. 3. calentem: i.e. from the funeral pyre. 

23. deblta: i.e. due his memory. 

24. vatis amici : of thy poet friend, viz. Horace. 


1. O : for the separation of the interjection from its vocative, cf, 
i. 26. 6, . . . Pimplei, saepe: Brutus and his forces had held 
the field for two years before the decisive battle of Philippi, and 
several minor engagements had occurred during this period. tem- 
pus In ultimum : into extremest peril, 

2. Bruto duce: ablative absolute with temporal force. mili- 
tiae : with duce ; Horace refers to the campaign of Brutus and Cassius 
against Octavian and Antony, in 43-42 b.c. 

3. quis: Octavian, after Actium, had extended amnesty to all 
who had been in arms against him. redonavit : a word coined by 
Horace, and used only by him. Quiritem : predicate accusative 
with te. In the singular, this word is extremely rare, being confined 
to poetry. It designates a citizen in the fullest and highest sense of 
the term, also a citizen as opposed to a soldier ; hence here, one who 
has abandoned military service and has been restored to full civic 
rights and privileges, — a citizen full and free. 

4. patiiis: of thy country. Italoque: the I was originally 
short, as here, and is always so used in prose. But the poets, from 
metrical exigencies, more commonly use it as long. 

5. Pompei: it is not known with certainty what his full name 
was. The word is here dissyllabic by synizesis. prime : probably 
combining both notions : earliest and dearest. 

6. cum quo: Horace always avoids quocum and quibuscum. 
morantem : i.e. tedious, slowly passing. 

7« fregi : 1.6, whlled away. coronatus : the passive here has 

Page 69.] BOOK 11. ODE 7. 275 

the force of a middle ; hence capillos is direct object ; see on i. 1. 21, 
membra sub arbuto stratus. 

8. malobathro: to be taken with nitentis. Syrlo: the malo- 
bathi-um was prepared from an Indian shrub ; it is here called Syrian, 
because shipped from Syria, the great emporium of eastern products. 

9. Philippoa: the battle was fought in Nov. 42 b.c. celerem 
fagam : the partisans of Brutus and Cassius were defeated and fled. 

10. aensi: i.e, experienced, went through; sentire is often thus 
used of unpleasant experiences. rellcta parmula : Horace^s refer- 
ence to the loss of his shield is doubtless a literary fiction in imitation 
of Archilochus and other Greek poets who recount similar experiences. 
non bene : ingloriously. 

11. fracta : sc. est. et mlnacea, etc. : i.e. * and threatening 
spirits ignobly bit the dust ^ ; a humorous reference by Horace to the 
large hopes and small performance of himself and his party. Indirectly 
the poet also intends a compliment to the Emperor. 

13. aed : the earlier experiences of Horace and his friend had been 
the same ; later fate had separated their paths ; sed brings out the 
contrast. me : in strong antithesis with te in line 15 ; Horace pro- 
ceeds to contrast Pompey's experience since the war with his own. 
MercurluB : as curvae lyrae parens (i. 10. 6), Mercury was naturally 
the patron god of poets, who are accordingly, in ii. 17. 29, called Mer- 
curiales viri. celer : with adverbial force. 

14. denao aere : i.e. in a cloud, the conventional Homeric way 
in which defeated combatants were rescued. 

16. fretia tulit aeatuoaia : i.e. Pompey had been engaged in the 
stormy events of the thirteen years since Philippi. Probably he joined 
those who after Philippi took service under Sextus Pompeius. 

17. ergo : i.e. since you are safely restored to your home. obll- 
gatam = pledged ; obligatus^ strictly applicable only to the person, is 
here transferred to the thing. redde: i.e. give in return for your 
preservation. dapem : properly of a sacrificial feast, as here. 

18. latua = membra. 

19. nee : common in poetry instead of neu; see on i. 9. 15. 

21. obllvioBO: i.e. which brings forgetfulness, * care-dispelling.' 
levia = polished ; cf. i..2. 38, galeaeque leves. Maaaico : concerning 
this wine, see on i. 1. 19. 

22. dborla : ciboria proprie sunt folia colocasiorum, in quorum 
similitudinem pocula facta eodem nomine appellantur (Porphyrio). 
exple : ue. fill to the brim. 

276 BOOK II. ODE 8. [Page 6ft 

23. quia : sc.ptter, udo.: pliant; the word seems to be used in 
imitation of the Greek ^p6s, lit. ^moist,^ but also * pliant,* 'twining.' 

24. deproperare : t.e. hurriedly weave. 

25. curatve myrto : for myrtove curat ; for the position of the 
enclitic, c/. ii. 19. 28, pads eras mediuaque belli; 32, ore pedes tetigit- 
que crura. quern: i.e. of our company. Venus: the Venus- 
throw^ the name given to the highest throw of the dice, or tali. These 
were numbered only on four sides : I, III, IIII, VI. In the Venus- 
throw all these four numbers appeared. arbitrum bibendi : called 
also the magister bibendi ; the person chosen to act as master of 
ceremonies and regulate the drinking ; arbitrum is predicate accusative 
with quern. 

26. dicet : appoint ; cf. the technical expression for appointing a 
dictator, dictatorem dicere. non aanius: litotes for insanius, 
* more wildly than.' 

27. Edonia: a Thracian tribe famed for the license of their 
carousals. recepto = recuperato. 

28. furere : . the word suggests a wild enthusiasm, but it almost 
defies translation into adequate English. 


1. XTlla : emphatic by position. iuria pelerati : i.e. for viola- 
tion of thy oath ; iuris for iuris iurandi, 

2. Barlne : the name is not elsewhere found, and has consequently 
been suspected by critics. Perhaps it is derived from Barium, a town 
on the coast of Apulia ; hence * maid of Barium.* Horace visited this 
town on the journey described in Sat. I. 5. 

3. dente . . . ungul: uno (*a single') and nigro are to be taken 
with both dente and ungui; i.e. Barine, despite her violation of every 
pledge, does not become uglier in the least, not by so much as a single 
tooth or finger-nail. The Greeks and Romans believed that the gods 
visited the perjured with such physical inflictions as are here alluded to. 
fierea : the imperfect implies * if it were your custom to become.' 

5. crederem: sc. tibi. Horace declares that he would believe 
Barine, did the gods but punish her ; for then she would respect her 
pledges. tu: emphatic, suggesting that Barine stands in contrast 
with all others. aimul: for simul ac, as often in poetry, e.g. i. 12. 
27. obligaatl . . . caput : i.e. pledged yourself in vows ; caput 
here is equivalent to a reflexive te. 

Pagb61.] book II. ODE 8. 277 

7. prodiB publlca cura : i.e. wh6n you appear you are a puhlica 
cura ; cura here means * object of affection ' ; puhlica is equivalent to 

9. ezpedit : i.e. thou not only dost this with impunity, but actually 
reapest advantage by false swearing, for thou art more beautiful than 
ever ; the strophe is a fuller development of the thought contained in 
enitescis pulchrior muUo. matris cinerea, etc, : it was common to 
swear by the ashes of some near relative, e.g. Cic. pro Quinct. 97, obse- 
cravit per fratris sui mortui cinerem ; Prop. ii. 20. 15, ossa tibi iuro 
per matris et ossa parentis ; so also by the stars, e.g. Virg. Aen. vi. 
458, per sidera iuro. opertoa : i.e. sepultos. 

10. fallere : to swear falsely by; cf, Virg. Aen. vi. 824, {Styx) di 
cuius iurare timent et fallere numen. 

12. carentla : exempt from. 

13. rldet, rident : the position and the anaphora both lend 
emphasis to these words ; for the thought, cf. Tibull. iii. 6. 49, periuria 
ridetamantum luppiter; Shakspere, Borneo and Juliet, ii. 2, At lovers'* 
perjuries they say Jove laughs. inquam = upon my word, actually. 
Venus ipsa : even Venus, who as the goddess of love might be 
expected to respect the sanctity of lovers' vows. 

14. simpllces: artless, et: for the position, cf. ii. 1. 9, 
piscium et. 

15. ardentiB : the epithet is transferred from the enkindled heart 
tb the arrows of the god. 

16. cnienta: by anticipation of the destruction to be wrought 
by the arrows, the epithet is applied to the stone on which they are 

17. tibi creacit : i.e. are growing up to be your victims ; tibi is 
emphatic, — for you alone. 

18. servituB nova: i,e. a new company of devoted slaves. 
prioreB : sc. amatores. 

19. relinquont : for the spelling, see Introd. § 34. 

20. minati : viz. to leave thy roof ; cf. Tibull. ii. 6. 13. iuravi quo- 
tiens rediturum ad limina numquam ! Cum bene iuravi, pes tamen 
ipse redit. 

21 f. te, te, tua : note the effect of the anaphora. metuont : 
for the spelling, see Introd. § 34. iuvencis : for iuvencus and 
iuvenca applied to youths and maidens, cf. ii. 5. 6 ; note that metuo, 
which may govern either an accusative of direct object or a dative of 
interest, here irregularly unites both constructions. 

278 BOOK II. ODE 9. [Page 61 

22. parol : parens is a standing epithet of the old man ; ef. Ars 
Poet. 170, quaerit et inventis miser abstinet ac timet uti; such old men 
would naturally fear that their sons might squander their wealth upon 
an adventuress like Barine. 

23. nuptae : brides, retardet : i.e. detain, make them linger. 

24. aura : radiance, as in Virg. Aen, vi. 204, auri aura^ ^ the lustre 
of the gold.' 


1. Non semper: placed at the beginning of the sentence for 
emphasis. hispldos : i.e. the fields whose grain has been cut and 
which are thus left rough and stubbly at the end of harvest time, the 
season when the fall rains naturally begin. 

2. mare Caapimn : Pomponius Mela, the geographer of the early 
empire, speaks of the Caspian as atrox, saevum, sine portubus,procellis 
undique expositum. 

3. inaequalea : i.e. blasts which make the surface uneven ; so 
rough, boisterous. 

4. usque : synonymous with semper. Armeniis In oris : the 
reference is to the distant slopes of Mt. Taurus ; for orae = * mountain 
slopes,' cf. i. 12. 5. 

5. Valgl : C. Valgius Rufus, a poet of some note, belonging to the 
literary circle which clustered about Maecenas ; he was the author of 
love-poems, epigrams, and also of some grammatical and rhetorical 

6. Aqullonibus : ablative of means with laborant, which here has 
the force of * are harassed ' ; the plural, as in i. 3. 13. 

7. Oargani : a well-wooded mountain in eastern Apulia, close to 
the Adriatic and exposed to the winds on all sides ; it rises to the 
height of some five thousand feet. laborant : as in i. 9. 3. 

9. tu : in sharp contrast with Nature herself in the phases just enu- 
merated, urges : dwellest upon, flebilibus modls : i.e. in 

10. Mysten : probably a favorite slave of Valgius. Vespero 
. . . solem: i.e. neither at evening nor morning; surgente is some- 
what loosely used of the appearance of the evening star in the western 
sky at the time of year when it sets after the sun ; in strictness, the 
same star when it rose before the sun, was designated as Lucifer. 

11. amores: i.e. thy expressions of affection; hence the plural; 
cf. i. 16. 9, irae. 

Page 62.] BOOK II. ODE 10. 279 

12. rapldum = celerem, ue, swiftly moving through the heaveos. 

13. ter aevo functus aenex : viz, Nestor ; c/. Clc. de Sen. 10. 81, 
tertiam iain enim aetatem hominum videbat; aevum is here used in 
the sense of aetas. amabilem : here equivalent to amatum. 

14. Antilochum : the son of Nestor and favorite of Achilles ; 
slain at Troy by Memnon, son of Aurora. 

16. Troilon : the youthful son of Priam ; he was slain by Achilles ; 
cf, Virg. Aen, i. 475, infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli. 
Phrygiae : i.e. Trojan. The Troad was a part of Phrygia. 

17. mollium : i.e. effeminate, unmanly. 

18. tandem : expressive of impatience. querellarum : from 
complaints ; the construction is a Grecism ; cf. iii. 27. 69, ahstineto 
irarum. Introd. § 37. b. 

19. cantemuB : i.e. in verse. tropaea : just what victories are 
here alluded to is uncertain. 

20. xigidum Niphaten : Niphates was a mountain of eastern 
Armenia ; rigidum here apparently means * ice-bound * ; the name 
Niphates suggests the meaning *• snow-capped.' 

21. Medumque flumen : the Euphrates ; for the form of the 
adjective, cf. i. 27. 6, Medus acinaces; Ar8 Poet. 18, Bhenum flumen. 

22. mlnores volvere vertices : i.e. in token of the subjugation of 
the tribes bordering upon its banks; observe the change from the 
accusative to the infinitive after cantemus. 

23. praeacrlptum : ac. a Bomanis. Gtolonos : a Scythian tribe 
who lived along the upper course of the Don, famed as bowmen {cf. 
iii. 4. 35, pharetratos Gelonos) and fearless riders ; in ii. 20. 18, they 
are spoken of as ultimi Geloni. 

24. ezigulB campia : repeating the idea of intraque praescriptum. 


1. Licini : probably L. Licinius Murena, son of the Murena de- 
fended by Cicero. Through his adoption by A. Terentius Varro, he 
became the brother of Proculeius (see ii. 2), and of Terentia, the wife 
of Maecenas. The warning given by Horace in the third stanza of 
the ode was almost prophetic, for in 23 b.c. Licinius, who was consul 
for the year, engaged in a conspiracy against Augustus, was con- 
demned, and executed. altum: sc. mare; i.e. the deep' sea» 
Horace is fond of comparing life with a voyage. 

2. diim . . . horreacia : the clause stands in a causal relation to 

280 BOOK II. ODE 10. [Pagb 62. 

premendoj — for fear of etc. procellas : horresco with the accusa* 
Uve is poetical ; cf ii. 13. 14, Bosphorum perhorrescit, 

3. nimlum premendo : by hugging too closely. 

4. iniqnom : i.e. on account of reefs and shallows. 

5. aaraam mediooritatem : the golden mean ; for aureus used iu 
this sense, cf i. 6. 9, qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea. 

6. caret, caret : escapes^ avoids, as in ii. 14. 13 ; the asyndeton 
and anaphora emphasize the antithesis of the two members. 

7. Invidenda : i.e. a palace which arouses t£e envy of others ; cf. 
iii. 1. 46, invidendis postihus, 

8. aobriuB : prudently. 

9. aaepiuB : i.e. oftener than the lower trees, etc. ingens, 
celaae, Biunmos montlB : the emphasis of the passage rests upon 
these words, — 'tis the tall pine, etc. 

11. stunmoB montlB : t?ie tops of the mountains, as regularly in 
this order ; mons summus means *• highest mountain.' 

13. Bperat, metult : as the position indicates, the emphasis of the 
passage rests upon these two verbs. InfeBtiB, BecundiB : for ad- 
versity, for prosperity ; the words are equivalent to rebus infestis, rebus 
secundis; dative of interest ; cf Sail. Cat. 40. 2, exitum tantis malis 
sperare ; 40. 3, miseriis suis mortem exspectare. 

14. alteram sortem : with sperat the altera sors is prosperity, 
with metuit, adversity. 

15. informlB : unlovely ; from forma, in the figurative sense of 
* beauty.^ reducit : i.e. from year to year ; reducit, though gram- 
matically coordinate with summovet, is yet logically subordinate, — 
though he brings back, yet he takes away. 

16. idem : likewise. 

17. si male : sc. est. et : also. olim : by and by, as in Virg. 
Aen. i. 203, forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit. 

18. sic : viz. male. quondam : at times. dthara . . . Mu- 
8am : i.e. plays the lyre as a prelude to singing ; Musam is used by 
metonymy for carmen. 

19. arcum tendit : i.e. in hostile mood, as«.^. in Iliad, i., where 
the shafts of the god bring pestilence upon the Greek hosts. 

21. rebuB anguatlB : in time of stress ; ablative absolute ; angus- 
tis here = qxiae angunt. animoBUB, fortla : animosus designates 
the inner resolution, fortis, aggressive physical resistance ; the two 
words are combined also in Cic. de Sen.20. 72, ex quo fit, ut animosior 
etiam senectus quam adulescentia sit et fortior. 

Page 64.] BOOK II. ODE 11. 281 

22. appare : show thyself; the student should beware of con- 
founding this word in meaning with videri^ * appear.* idem = on 
the other hand. 

23. contrahes : with imperative force, parallel with the preceding 
appare. Note the somewhat abrupt return to the nautical figure with 
which the ode opened. ventO: ablative of means with turgida^ 
which here has the force of a perfect participle. 


1. Cantaber et Scythes : chosen as dwelling on the extreme 
western and northern frontiers of the empire ; concerning the Can- 
tabrians, see on ii. 6. 2. Though only the Cantabrians are here 
referred to as hellicosu8 and only the Scythians as remote (Hadria 
diviaus obiecto), the context naturally suggests that both tribes are 
warlike and both are separated from Rome by intervening seas. 
Horace wishes to rally his friend on his unnecessary concern about 
what is occurring on the far frontier. 

2. Hirpine Quinctl : for the transposition of nomen and cogno- 
men, cf. ii. 2. 3, Crispe Sallusti. cogltet : i.e. is planning, plotting ; 
the singular verb with compound subject, as regularly in Horace. 
Hadria diviaiiB oblecto : there is a touch of humor in this phrase, as 
though Hirpinus wei*e in fear lest the Scythians should sweep down 
through lUyria, cross the Adriatic, and descend upon Rome itself. 

3. remittas quaerere : Horace is particularly fond of such peri- 
phrastic forms of prohibitions ; cf. i. 9. 13, fuge quaerere. 

4. nee trepidea : and be not anxious ; nee, at all periods of the 
language, is used much more commonly than neve (neu) to introduce 
a prohibition or negative wish after a previous imperative or sub- 
junctive ; cf. i. 9. 15, lucro appone nee dulcis amores speme puer. 
in OBiim aevi : for the needs of life; aevum is here used in the sense 
of vitae. 

5. poBcentia pauca : these words contain the reason for the' in- 
junction nee trepides, etc., — since it demands but little, viz. the things 
enumerated in strophes 4 and 5. fugit retro: i.e. youth and 
beauty are disappearing behind us, while our own lives travel forward. 

6. Ifivia : apparently intended to suggest the soft, smooth skin of 
youth as compared with the dry and wrinkled (^arida) features of old 
age {canitie) ; cf iv. 6. 28, levis Agyieu (of Apollo) ; Tibull. i. 8. 31, 
carior est auro iuvenis, cui levia fulgent ora. 

282 BOOK II. ODE 11. [Page 64. 

8. canltie = aenectute. facilem : i.e. soft, pleasant. 

9. honor : i.e. beauty, glory ; the flowers do not retain their 
beauty, but wither soon. 

10. vemiB : not that the spring flowers were more ephemeral than 
others, but because coming after the long winter they were of special 
interest. neque uno : sc. uno et eodem ; i.e. the moon waxes 
and wanes. 

11. aeternia confliliiB : i.e. with thoughts of matters which be- 
long to the remote future and for which we need feel no present con- 
cern ; consiliis \b ablative of means with fatigas, but must be supplied 
in thought as an ablative of comparison with minorem, minorem : 
unequal to them, i.e. to their contemplation. 

13. platano : a spreading shade tree extensively planted by the 
Romans. hac : to be taken with both platano and pinu. As in ii. 3, 
the poet evidently imagines himself already reclining in some shady 

14. sic temere: i.e. carelessly as we are. roaa odoratl: i.e. 
having garlanded our brows with fragrant roses ; odorati is used as a 
middle ; hence the accusative, capillos; cf.\. 1. 21, membra sub arbuto 

15. canoB : cf. line 8, which suggests that canities is already press- 
ing on Horace and his friend. 

16. ABB]niaque : nardo is here feminine ; elsewhere Horace uses 
the word as neuter ; Assyria = Syria in the sense noted on ii. 7. 8, 
malobathro Syrio. 

17. EuhiuB : i.e. Bacchus ; see on i. 18. 0. 

18. coraB edacis : cf. i. 18. 4, mordaces sollicitudines. puer : 
i.€. slave, as in i. 38. 1. ocius : right quickly. 

19. roBtlnguet : i.e. temper by mingling water with it. Falerni : 
concerning this wine, see on i. 20. 10. 

21. devium : shy. 

22. ebiima: i.e. ornamented with ivory. die age: come, bid 
her; age is interjectional. 

23. maturet : sc. venire ; the subjunctive depends upon die used 
as a verb of bidding ; a substantive clause without ut developed from 
the jussive. Incomptaxn : simple, careless; further explained by 

24. comam religata: the accusative depends upon the middle 
participle, as in line 15, odorati capillos. 

Page 65.] BOOK II. ODE 12. 283 


1. Nolls : no one would wish ; indefinite second singular. longa 
ferae bella Numantiae : the reference is to the war of 143-133 b.c. 
The epithet /crae is justified not only by the stubborn resistance of the 
Nuniantines, but also by the resolution with which many chose death 
rather than surrender to a Roman conqueror. Note the interlocked 
order of the words (synchysis). 

2. dunim Hannibalem : Hannibal is characterized as durus, in 
view of his prowess as an antagonist ; c/. Virg. Georg. ii. 170, Scipia- 
das duros hello. Siculom mare : referring to the First Punic 
War (264-241 b.c), and more particularly to the sea-fights of Mylae 
(260 B.C.) and of the Aegates (241 b.c). Note that the three great 
wars alluded to are enumerated in reverse chronological order. 

3. moUibuB : contrasted with ferae, durum^ purpureum sanguine. 

4. aptari : here in the sense of necti, ^ to be linked with.' mo- 
dis : ablative of association with aptari ; cf, iv. 9. 4, verba socianda 

5. saevoB Lapithas : for the fight of the Centaurs and the Lapi- 
thae at the wedding feast of Pirithous, see on i. 18. 8, Centaurea cum 
Lapithis rixa, nimliim : excited ; cf. Tac. Hist, iv. 23, rebus 
secundis nimii. 

6. Hylaeum : the name (from Greek vKrf, ^ wood ' ; hence 
* Ranger ') is appropriate for a roving Centaur. Virgil (Georg. ii. 457) 
mentions Hylaeus as magno Lapithis cratere minantem. domitos 
. . . manu :' Tellus, according to the legend, had ensured her offspring 
(the giants) against destruction by the gods, but had not taken the 
same precaution to protect them against mortal assault ; hence Hercu- 
les was enabled to compass their ruin. Herculea : the adjective 
with the force of a genitive, as in i. 3. 36, Herculeus labor. 

7. Telluris iuvenes : the giants. unde = a quibus, as not in- 
frequently, perlculmn : object of contremuit, which is here used 
as the equivalent of pertimuit; cf. Virg. Aen. iii. 648, vocemque 
tremesco; Hor. Odes, ii. 13. 14, Bosphorum perhorrescit. 

8. fulgens : as situated in the shining aether ; cf. iii. 3. 33, lucidas 
sedes deorum. domuB: here in double meaning : (1) literally, as 
indicated hy fulgens; (2) in the sense of household, for all the Olym- 
pian gods were threatened ; cf i. 6. 8, saeva Pelopis domus. 

9. veteris = senis; cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 180. tuque pedestri- 
buB meliuB : emphasis rests upon both tu and pedestribus, i.e. Hwill 

284 BOOK II. ODE 12. [PAOBda 

be better for you to describe Augustus's exploits than for me to attempt 
it, and 'twill be better to describe them in prose (pedeatribus his- 
toriis) than in verse. Horace was the first to introduce the word 
pedester in this sense, in imitation of the Greek we^bt X&yos. There is 
no evidence that Maecenas ever complied with the suggestion here 
offered by Horace. 

11. ducta per viaa : i.e. led in triumph through the streets of the 
city, and particularly along the Sacra Via, through the Forum, up to 
the temple of Capitoline Jupiter. 

12. colla : i,e. bound with chains ; c/. Ovid, Ars Amat. i. 215, 
speaking of a triumph, ibunt ante duces, onerati colla catenis. 
mlnacium : i.e. before their subjugation. 

13. me : in emphatic contrast with tu, dulcis : with cantu8, 
domlnae Licymniae : the reference is probably to Maecenas's newly 
wedded wife Terentia, daughter of Aulus Terentius Varro. She is 
here designated by the pseudonym Licymnia, in accordance with a 
practice common among the Roman poets, whereby fictitious Greek 
names were substituted for the actual Latin ones ; but the number and 
quantity of the syllables were scrupulously observed. Thus here 
Licymnid = T^rentid. Similarly Catullus called Clodia, Lesbia; 
TibuUus gave the name Delia to Plania ; Propertius, the name Cynthia 
to Hostia. The name Licymnia is thought by some to have been 
chosen from its easy suggestion of Xt7()f, 0fxv6t (^ the sweet singer^) ; 
cf. line 13 f., dulcis cantus. 

14. cantuB: object of dicere (^ sing of) ; musical accomplishments 
were a part of the education of the women of Horace's diCy. luci- 
dum fulgentlB : brightly gleaming ; for this poetic use of the aocussr- 
tive, cf, i. 22. 24, dulce loquentem, 

15. bene : in the sense of valde, probe {cf. French bien) ; to be 
taken Ttithfldum. 

17. nee dedecnlt: litotes for et valde decuit ferre pedem : 
poetic for saltare. 

18. certare loco : evidently referring to sallies of wit in social 
intercourse, e.g. at convivia, which the women of Horace's day some- 
times attended. dare bracchia : this refers to the dance, in which 
joining of hands naturally formed an important feature. 

19. ludentem : i.e. participating in the ceremonial observance, 
nitidis : i.e, in festal array. virginibuB : with dare. aacro 
die : i.e. the day of some recurring festival. 

20. celebriB: thronged; the epithet is here transferred from the 

Page 66.] BOOK II. ODE 13. 285 

temple to the goddess herself; cf. Tibull. iv. 4. 23, Phoebe, iam 
celeber, iam laettts eris. 

21. divoB AchaemenoB : mythical founder of the Persian royal 
hoase of the Achaemenidae. The wealth of the Persian kings was 
proverbial ; c/. ill. 9. 4, Persarum vigui rege beatior, 

22. Phrygiae opes : the richness of Phrygia in various products 
is often referred to. MygdoniaB : derived from the name of Myg- 
don, an early Phrygian king. 

23. permntare : miUo and its compounds cover a wider range of 
meaning than our English * change * ; they may mean either ' give in 
exchange * or * take in exchange ' ; permutare here has the latter mean- 
ing ; cf. i. 16. 26 ; i. 17. 2. crine : ablative of association with 
permutare. B. App. § 337 ; Introd. § 38. a. 

24. plenaB ant Arabum domoB : for the position of the con- 
junction, see on i. 2. 5 ; on the proverbial wealth of the Arabians, cf. 
i. 29. 1, beatia Arabum gazis; iii. 24. 1. 

25 1, cum ilagrantia, etc. : three situations are enumerated : 
(1) Sometimes Licymnia bends down her neck to receive Maece- 
nas's kisses ; (2) sometimes in teasing playfulness {facili 8aevitia) 
she refuses, since she prefers to have them snatched from her 
(^magis gaudeat eripi) ; (3) sometimes she even takes the initiative 
{occupat) and snatches them herself from Maecenas. The diaere- 
sis which we should naturally expect in the middle of the verse 
(Introd. § 47) is here neglected ; cf i. 18. 16. detorqnet : i.e. 
turns aside from its position ; de in composition frequently haa the 
force of * from where some one or something naturally belongs.' 

26. cervicem : the poetic singular, as in i. 13. 2 ; Horace never 
employs the plural form. lacili saevitia : lit. with an easy (grace- 
ful ^ winsome) cruelty, a good example of oxymoron. 

27. quae . . . gaudeat: since she delights more; the clause 
explains why Licymnia at times refuses the kisses ; the antecedent of 
quae is the subject of negat ; the subjunctive is one of characteristic 
with the accessory notion of cause, — *as being one who delights.' 
poBcente maglB : more than he who asks them {sc. oscula). 

28. occupat: parallel with detorquet and negat; note the dis- 
junctive asyndeton ; we should have expected aut before interdum. 


1. Ille, ilium (line 5), ille (line 8): observe the emphasis of the 
anaphora. et : correlative with et in line 2. poBuit : i.e. planted. 

286 BOOK II. ODE 13. [Page 66. 

2. quicumque: ac.teposuit. primum: i. 6. originally. 

3. produzit: reared; properly used of children, though some- 
what rare in this sense. 

4. opprobrium pagl : the scandal of the neighborhood ; the dis- 
trict {pagus) in which Horace's Sabine farm was situated was Mandela. 

5. et : even^ actually, crediderim -. potential subjunctive. 

6. freglsBe cervicem : strangled ; lor cervicem, see note on ii. 12. 
26. penetralia : properly an adjective ; here used substantively 
in the sense of ' hearthstone,' the inner part of the house, where the 
images of the Penates were set up. 

7. nocturno : i.e. shed at night, when the stranger would be 
expected to be sleeping securely in the house of his host. 

8. venena Colcha : i.e, such potions as were brewed by Medea, the 
famous mythical sorceress, whose home was Colchis ; on Colcha for 
Colchica, cf. ii. 9. 21, Medum Jlumen, with note. Ovid, Met. xiii. 20, 
has Colcha carina. 

9. quicquid nefas : quisquis is occasionally used as an adjective 
in early Latin and in the poets; cf. Sat. ii. 1. 60, quisquis color. 
concipitor : is conceived of. 

10. tractavit: zeugma; with venena the word means ^has 
handled,' with nefas, 'has engaged in.' agro meo: the Sabine 
farm ; see Introd. § 4. 

11. triste lignum : thou wretched stump ; lignum is contemptu- 
ous for arbos. caducnm : here in the sense of casurum, ' destined 
to fall ' ; cf. Virg. Aen. x. 622, caduco iuveni. 

13. quid vitet : what to shun ; deliberative subjunctive in indirect 
question. numqueun homini, etc. : man never takes sufficient heed 
from hour to hour ; homini is dative of agent with cautum est, which 
is here gnomic. 

14. navita Poenus, etc. : introducing an illustration of the gen- 
eral truth just enunciated ; Poenus (* Punic ') is introduced merely for 
the sake of greater vividness ; see on i. 1. 13, trahe Cypria; navita, 
for nauta, is archaic and poetic. Bosphorum : the Thracian Bos- 
phorus, noted for its tempestuous weather ; cf iii. 4. 30, insanientem 

15. ultra . . . lata : hidden fates ( = death) from other quarters 
beyond, i.e. after passing the obvious and well-known dangers of the 
Bosphorus itself. 

16. caeca = occulta. tim6t : for the quantity of the e, see on 
ii. 6. 14, ridet. 

Page 67.] BOOK II. ODE 13. 287 

17. miles {sc, Bomanus), etc. : another illustration. sagittas 
et celerem fugam : object of perhorrescU ; cf. ii. 10. 2, procellas hor- 
rescis. The reference is to the Parthian custom of wheeling in flight 
and discharging arrows upon the pursuing enemy ; cf. Virg. Georg. iii. 
S\,Jidentemqne fuga Parthum versisque sagittis. 

18. catenas : by metonymy for captivity ; supply in thought Italas 
from Italum robur. Italum robur: i.e. the flower of the Italian 
soldiery, e.g. Marsian and Apulian {cf. iii. 5. 9) ; for this use of robur, 
cf, Cic. in Cat. ii. 11, florem totius Italiae ac robur educite. For the 
quantity of the /, see on ii. 7. 4, Italoque. 

19. sed improvisa : the emphasis of the sentence rests on impro- 
viaa ; the dangers that men fear, says Horace, are obvious and visible 
ones (Bosphorum, sagittas, fugam, catenas, Italum robur), but the 
violence that ravages and shall ravage the generations of men is some- 
thing they do not see and do not anticipate, just as in the case of the 
falling tree which had so nearly destroyed the poet himself. 

20. rapuit rapletque: similarly JEpp. i. 2. 43, labitur et labetur; 
i. 7. 21, tulit et feret. 

21. quam paene vidimus : how narrowly I escaped seeing I vidi- 
mus is a plurale modestiae ; cf i. 6. 9, nos conamur. furvae : the 
epithet is transferred from the regna to the goddess who presides over 
them. Prdserpinae : here with 6 ; but 5 in i. 28. 20 ; Sat. ii. 5. 110. 

22. iudicantem Aeacum : Aeacus, Minos, and Rhadamanthus 
are frequently mentioned as performing the functions of judges in 
the lower world. 

23. discriptas : i.e. set apart from the abodes of the wicked. 

24. Aeoliis fidibus : the epithet * Aeolian ^ is applied to the lyre, 
since Sappho lived in Lesbos (an Aeolic Island^ and wrote in the 
Aeolic dialect. querentem Sappho, etc. : 'Sappho's strongly 
masculine, ardent nature naturally complained of the cold, unsym- 
pathetic attitude of her townswomen, who failed to requite her affec- 
tion. Sappho is accusative. 

26. sonantem: i.e. playing and singing; the verb is here used 
transitively; its object is dura. plenius: i.e. the subjects of A 1- 
caeus^s song (battles, exile, etc.) are richer than the purely erotic 
song of Sappho. aureo plectro: for the plectrum, see note on 
i. 26. 11, Lesbio plectro. 

27. Alcaee: the most famous of the Greek melic poets. See 
Introd. § 21. dura, dura, dura : note the effective anaphora ; the 
hardships were those of Alcaeus's personal experience on land and sea. 

288 BOOK II. ODE 13. [Page 67. 

28. mala: editors sometimes join this with dura belli; but the 
hardships of exile (fugae) were beyond question more terrible to the 
ancient mind than those of war. 

29. atrumque, etc, : lit. marvel that both lUter, etc, ; but the evi- 
dent idea is: marvel at both (Sappho and Alcaeus) as they utter, 
sacro ailentio : i,e. such silence as was observed at sacrifices and 
other sacred ceremonials ; cf, iii. 1. 2, favete Unguis, 

30. maglB pugnas, etc. : i,e, prefer to listen to descriptions of 
battles and the expulsion of tyrants, rather than to the complaints 
of Sappho. 

31. ezaotoB tyrannoB : Alcaeus had been active in securing the 
banishment of Myrtilus, tyrant of Mitylene ; for exactos tyrannos 
t the expulsion of tyrants,' cf, the common post reges exactos, 

32. denBum umerls : lit. dense with their shoulders, i.e. packed 
shoulder to shoulder. bibit anre : cf, Propertius, iv. 6. 8, suspen- 
sis auribus ista bibam; Ovid, Tristia, iii. 6. 14, auribus ilia bibi, 
volguB : sc. umbrarum, 

33. quid mlmm : sc, est, — what wonder f ubl : lit. when, but 
with decided causal force. Btupens : charmed, beguiled, 

34. belua oenticepB: viz, Cerberus; elsewhere he is usually 
represented as having but three heads. 

36. recreantur : here with reflexive meaning, refresh themselves, 
stop for rest ; ordinarily the serpents twined in the hairs of the Furies 
were in a state of restless motion ; but the sweet strains of Alcaeus's 
lyre lull them to rest. 

37. qain et : merely a stronger quin, — yea also, as in i. 10. 13. 
PrometheuB: this is the only passage in Latin literature which 
alludes to Prometheus as undergoing punishment in Hades. The 
ordinary account represents him as expiating his offence on Mt. 
Caucasus. For the offence itself, see i. 3. 27. Pelopia parens: 

38. labomm decipitur: are beguiled of their sufferings; the 
genitive here is a Grecism ; cf iii. 27. 69, abstineto irarum. For the 
singular verb with compound subject, cf ii. 11. 2. 

39. Orion : famed as a hunter. 

40. timidoB: not * timid,* but wary, shy. The lynx usually 
hunted its prey at night, retiring by day to its lair, which was difficult 
for the hunter to discover. T Elsewhere the word is usually feminine, 
but Priscian (600 a.d.) expressly mentions its use as masculine in this 
passage. ~| 

Paob69.] book IL ODE 14. 289 


1. Eheu denotes profound feeling. fugaoea: predicatively 
with annii — the years glide swiftly by. Postume, Postume: 
note the impressive repetition of the name ; as i. 13. 1, Cum tu^ Lydia, 
Telephi cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi laudas bracchia, and fre- 
quently in Horace. Fostumus^s identity is uncertain. 

2. pietas : apparently here used in the broadest sense, covering all 
human responsibility, to the gods and to one^s fellow-men. 

3. Benectae : poetic for senectuti. 

4. indomitae = indomabili, 

5. trecenia : three hundred, i.e. three hecatombs ; * three hundred ' 
is not infrequent for a large round number. qnotquot eunt dies 
= cottidie. 

6. inlacrimabllem : the verb here haa active force ; c/. the Greek 
dK\av<rros, and Odes, i. 3. 22, dissociabili, 

7. taurls: the most expensive victim offered in sacrifice. ter 
£unplum Geryonen: Geryon was a mythical monster with three 
bodies. His abode was Spain, where he was the possessor of a herd of 
magnificent cattle. Hercules succeeded in killing Geryon, and thus 
secured the cattle. With ter amplumf cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 289, forma 
tricorporis umbrae, 

8. Tltyon : son of Terra ; he attempted to ravish Latona, but was 
slain by the darts of her children, Apollo and Diana. He is repre- 
sented in Tartarus as covering nine acres with his vast frame ; cf. 
Virg. Aen. vi. 696. The inexorableness of Pluto is well brought out 
by reference to the fact that even Geryon and Tityos were unable to 
escape his grasp. 

9. unda: sc. Stygia. Bcilicet: with certainty. onmibus: 
with enaviganda. 

11. enaviganda: viz, in Charon^s skiff; as a transitive verb, 
enavigare is found first in Horace, reges : princes^ in the sense of 
men of wealth ; cf. i. 4. 14, regumque turris. 

12. colon! : peasants, the original meaning of the word (from colo, 

13. careblmns: i.e. avoid, evade; cf. ii. 10. 6. Note that logi- 
cally carebimus stands in adversative relation to the following visendus^ 
linquenda, — * though we escape, yet we must visit, must leave, etc,^ 

14. fractiB rauci fluctibus Hadriae: note the interlocked ar« 
rangement (synchysis) ; fractis fluctibus means * breakers.' 

290 BOOK II. ODE 14. [Page 69. 

15. per autuixmos nocentem : autumn was the sickly season at 
Rome ; c/. Sat ii. 6. 19, Autumnusque gravis^ Libitinae quaeatus 

16. corporibus may be taken with eitiier nocentem or nietuemus. 
AuBtrum : the south wind, which prevailed in autumn, is conceived as 
bringing the seeds of disease. 

17. viEiendus: like linquenda in line 21, this word is strongly 

18. Cocytos: Greek Ku)kvt6s, from kwkj^uj, i.e. the river of lamen- 
tation ; c/. Milton, Paradise Lost, ii. 579, Cocytus named of lamenta- 
tion loud. Danai genus infame : the fifty daughters of Danaus, 
the Danaids, had (with the exception of one, Hypermnestra) slain their 
husbands on the wedding night. As a penalty for their crime, they are 
represented in the lower world as endlessly pouring water into per- 
forated vessels. On genus, * offspring,' 'daughters,' cf. i. 3. 27, 
lapeti genus, ' son of lapetus. ' 

20. Sisyphus Aeolides : in the lower world be is said to have 
been punished by rolling up hill a huge stone, which, so soon as it 
reached the summit, again rolled down. His special crime is variously 
stated. laboris : with verbs of * condemning,' the genitive is regu- 
larly used to denote the charge ; to denote the penalty the ablative is 
commonly used ; B. 208. 2. b ; the genitive of the penalty, as here, is 

21. linquenda tellus, etc. : cf. Lucretius, iii. 894, iam iam non 
domus actipiet te laeta, neque uxor optima nee dulces occurrent 
oscula nati praeripere. 

23. invisas cupressos: the cypress was emblematical of death, 
and hence was frequently planted about the tombs of the dead and 
places where bodies were burned. 

24. brevem : short-lived ; cf. ii. 3. 13, nimium brevis flores. 

25. Caecuba : sc. vina; for the Caecuban wine, see on i. 20. 9. 
dignior : the heir is characterized as worthier because he uses what 
Postumus jealously guards (servata centum clavibus) and refuses to 

26. mero tinguet pavimentum : hyperbole, for the purpose of 
giving a vivid picture of the reckless abandon with which the heir 
enters into his new possessions ; cf. Cic. Phil. ii. 41. 105, natabant 
pavimenta vino, madebant parietes. The floors of the Roman dwell- 
ing were regularly paved with marble, the central space often con- 
sisting of elaborate mosaic patterns. 

Page 70.] BOOK II. ODE 16. 291 

27. Buperbis pontificuin potdore cenis: i.e. a wine better than 
that used at the splendid banquets of the priests ; compendiary com- 
parison. The feasts of the priestly colleges were proverbial for their 
magnificence ; c/. i. 37. 2, Saliaribus dapihus. 


I. lam: presently^ soon; as in i. 4. 16. panca: t.e. only a 
few. regiae moles: princely piles; regiae here equals regales. 
An era of magnificent building began in the peaceful times following 
the civil wars. Wealthy men vied with each other in laying out vast 
country estates on the grandest and most luxurious scale. Horace fre- 
quently enters his protest against the evils of such lavish expenditure. 

3. Lucrlno lacu : the Lucrine lake was near Naples. While it 
was not large, yet its size would be great for a fish-pond. 

4. Btagna : artificial ponds or lakes, for the breeding of fish. 
platanus caelebs: the lonely plane tree; the tree is characterized as 
caelebs because it was primarily a shade tree and was not adapted to 
the training of the vine, as was the elm, for example, which, in conse- 
quence, is sometimes spoken of as married to the vine. 

5. evincet : shall supplant. 

6. myrtuB : here of the fourth declension, and, as the metre helps 
to show, nominative plural. omnis copia narium : a bold poetic 
expression -for * every kind of sweet perfume.' 

7. olivetiB: i.e. in places where olive orchards had previously 
stood ; Horace's prophecy implies the disappearance of the oliveta. 

9. spissa : i.e. densely planted ; the laurel itself was not a dense 
shrub. laurea : sc. arbor ; the laurel. 

10. ictus : i.e. the beating rays of the sun. 

II. intonsi Catonis :'Cato Major (234-149 b.c), often cited as 
typical of the old-fashioned sturdy simplicity. On the early mode of 
wearing the hair, see on i. 12. 41. 

12. auspiciis : i.e. under the rule, guidance. 

13. census : lit. assessment^ and so property. 

14. commune: i.e. the common weal. decempedis: the 
porticoes of the present day, it is implied, are so large that the unit of 
their measurement is not the foot, but ten feet. 

15. metata : for the perfect passive participle of deponents used 
passively, cf. i. 1. 25, detestata. prlvatis : best taken as dative of 
interest with metata^ — 'for private individuals* ; privatis implies, what 

292 BOOK n. ODE 16. [Page 70. 

U known to be true, that the temples and other public buildings of the 
early days were often constructed on a large and costly plaa 
opaoam Aroton: i.e, the shady north side. 

16. ezdpiebat : lit. caught, received^ i.e, lay open to. 

17. lortuitum oaespitem : the reference is obviously to the use 
of turf in constructing the simple homes of the early days ; cf. Virg. 
Buc. i. 68, tuguri congestum caespUe culmen; fortuitum = forte ohla- 
turn, i.e. which chance everywhere offered. 

18. legOB : sumptuary laws, which were Intended to enforce sim- 
plicity of living. pablioo sumptu : referring to both towns and 

20. novo sazo : the reference is to marble, which was a novelty 
in the early days, and hence expensive ; in Horace^s time, its use had 
become well-nigh universal. With the thought of the closing stanza, 
cf. what Sallust, Cat. 9, says of the early Romans : in suppliciis deorum 
magnifici erant, domi parci erant; and contrast the words of the 
younger Cato speaking of the closing days of the Republic (Sail. Cat. 
62) : hahemus luxuriam et avaritiam, puhlice egestatem, privatim 


1. Otium, otium (line 5), otium (line 6) : observe the emphasis 
of the anaphora and the initial position in the verse. Otium is used 
in the sense of the Greek irapa^la, i.e. freedom from care and trouble. 

2. prenaus = deprehenaus, the regular nautical term ; prensus is 
here used substantively, ^the mariner overtaken.* Aegaeo: sc. 
mari. eimul : for simul atque, as in i. 9. 9, and frequently in the 

3. certa : to be taken predicatively, — shine sure. 

4. eidera : as the ancients had not discovered the magnetic needle, 
they were dependent upon the stars when navigating at night. 

5. bello furioaa Thrace : cf Virg. Aen. iii. 13, terra Mavortia, 
Thraces arant. 

6. Modi pharetra decori : the Farthians, distinguished for their 
skill with the bow ; see on i. 2. 22, Persae. 

7. Grosphe : probably Pompeius Grosphus, who, in Epp. 1. 12. 23, 
is commended by Horace to his friend Iccius, then in Sicily, as a man 
who nil nisi verum orabit et aequum. purpura : i.e, purple vest- 
ments, coverings, and hangings ; all stuffs dyed with purple were rich 
and costly. ve-nale : with neque, which cannot be bought ; f oi 

Page 72.] BOOK II. ODE 16. 293 

the division of the word between two successive lines, e/. i. 2. 19, ux- 
oriits amnis. 

8. neque auro : Horace nowhere else admits elision in the fourth 
verse of the Sapphic stanza. 

9. non : emphatic, — ^tia not riches nor the consuVs lictor that 
banishes. enim : justifying the statement in lines 7 and 8. With 
the thought of the strophe, c/. Lucretius, ii. 37-52, where the same 
idea is developed with fuller illustration. consularis lictor: lit. 
the consuVs lictor, but logically, * the consul with his lictors,^ which 
is a figurative expression for the highest power. 

10. Bummovet : sttmmovere was the technical term for clearing 
the crowd from the streets by the lictors ; qf. Livy, iii. 48, i, lictor, 
summovere turbam. 

11. laqueata tecta : fretted ceilings; see on ii. 18. 1. 

13. vivitur : lit. it is lived (by one), i.e, one lives. The sentence 
is in adversative relation to the previous strophe, — wealth and power 
cannot banish care, _but he lives happily (i.e. without cai*e), who, 
etc. parvo : upon a little. bene = beate. cui : dative of 
reference, — on whose frugal board glistens ; its antecedent is 
(ab) eo to be supplied in thought with vivitur; cui extends also to 
aufert. patemum salinum : it was customary among the Romans 
to offer a sacrifice of salted meal to the household gods at the begin- 
ning of each meal ; hence the salinum was an indispensable article of 
table furniture; and as such was naturally handed down from genera^ 
tion to generation as an heirloom. 

15. levis somnos : soft slumbers; levisi& opposed to gravis; cf. 
ii. 11. 8, facilem somnum. timor : viz. of loss, robbery, etc. 
cupido : in the sense of greed, avarice ; the word is always masculine 
in Horace. 

17. quid : why f lortea : with adverbial force, — eagerly. 
iaculamur : aim at, strive for. aevo = aetaie. 

18. multa: t'.e. many possessions. terras alio calentis sole : 
i.e. foreign climes. 

19. matamns : i.e. seek in exchange (for our own) ; on the broad 
meaning of mutare as compared with English * change,' cf i. 17. 2 ; 
for the sentiment, cf. Epp. i. 11. 27, caelum, non animum, mutant qui 
trans mare currunt. patriae : as the position and context show, 
patriae is emphatic, and is contrasted with se; the construction of 
the genitive with exsul is after the analogy of the genitive with 

294 BOOK II. ODE 16. [Page 72. 

20. fugit : i.e. ever escaped ; note the poetic use of the simple verh 
in the sense of the compound effugere. 

21. scandit, etc. : for the thought, cf. iii. 1. 37 ff. aorataa na- 
vis : i.e. triremes with brazen prows. 

22. relinquit : here in the sense of * fail to overtake ' ; cf. the 
similar use of deserere in iii. 2. 32. 

25. laetus in praesens : the injunction in oderit and temperet ex- 
tends also to laetus, i.e. let the soul be joyful in the present and refuse, 
etc. quod ultra est : i.e. the future. 

26. oderit: let it disdain; the infinitive with odi is poetical. 
lento : quiet, i.e. a smile of quiet resignation. 

27. ab omni parte : in every respect, altogether. 

29. Two illustrations are given of the truth just enunciated, one 
drawn from the career of Achilles, whose life was brief, but glorious, 
the other from that of Tithonus, whose life was long, but wretched. 
abstulit clarum minuit aenectus ; note the poet^s art as seen in the 
juxtaposition of the contrasted ideas j Achilles was cut off (abstulit) 
despite his glory (clarum) ; Tithonus, despite his length of days 
(senectus), wasted away (minuit). This should be borne in mind by 
the student in translating. clta : in the sense of early, untimely. 

30. Tithonum : see on i. 28. 8. 

31. mihi : the original quantity of the final i is here retained, as 
often in poetry. forsan : at this period of the language, the word is 
poetic only. ' negarit : future perfect. 

32. hora : i.e. the passing hour. 

33. te, tibi, te : emphatic by position and anaphora. greges 
Siculaeque vaccae : a hundred herds of Sicilian kine ; hendiadys. 
Grosphus's estate was in Sicily. circum : when prepositions suffer 
anastrophe, they usually ^tand immediately after the governed word, 
but cf. i. 2. 34, quam locus circum. 

34. tibi: for you. tollit hinnitum: whinnies; the final -um 
is elided before the initial vowel of the following verse, thus producing 
an hypermeter line ; cf ii. 2. 18 ; Introd. § 44. 

35. apta quadrigis equa : for racing, mares were preferred by 
the Romans. bis tinctae : Greek dlpa4>oi. Afro murice : the 
coast of Gaetulia was famed for the choice quality of the purple dye 
yielded by its shell-fish (murex) . 

37. mihi : as contrasted with te. parva rura : the Sabine farm. 

38. Bpiritum tenuem : the fine inspiration; the phrase is logi- 
cally in adversative relation to parva rura, i.e. though Fate has njt 

Page 73.] BOOK II. ODE 17. 295 

given me an extensive estate like yours, yet she has given me the 
priceless gift of song. Graiae Camenae : i.e. Greek poetry, par- 
ticularly Greek lyric poetry. Camena is the native Latin word cor- 
responding to the Greek Mouo-a. 

39. non mendaz: of the Fate whose decrees are unerring; cf. 
Carm, Saec. 25, veraces cecinisse Parcae ; possibly also Horace may be 
thinking of the Fate that has not belied his own hopes and aspirations 
for poetic fame. malignum volgus : the envious crowds viz. of 
those who, failing in appreciation of Horace's art, begrudged him his 
poetic fame and his social status as the friend of Maecenas, Augustus, 
and the other chief men of the day. 

40. spemere ; coordinate with spiritum as object of dedit ; the 
infinitive with dare is poetical ; cf. i. 31. 17, frui dones. 


1. querellis ezanimas: i.e. crush me by thy forebodings of ill. 
Maecenas evidently despaired of recovering from his illness. 

2. priuB: i.e. before me. Introd. § 6. 

4. decus columenque renim : cf. i. 1. 2, praesidium et dulce decus 
meum; rerum is here almost equivalent to * existence.' 

5. te meae : the contrasted ideas are juxtaposed, as regularly. 
partem animae : the half ^of my life ; pars is here used in the same 
sense as dimidium in i. 3. 8, animae dimidium meae. rapit : in 
colloquial language and in poetry, the present is not infrequently used 
where in standard prose the future would be employed. 

6. maturior vis : i.e. some untimely blow ; the comparative here 
has the force of a strengthened positive. altera : sc. pars. 

7. cams : i.e. to myself and others. nee Buperstes integer : no7'^ 
surviving entire; i.e. Horace feels himself so much a part of his friend > 
that Maecenas's death will destroy the completeness of his own self ; 
superstes is here employed with the value of the missing participle of 
super esse; integer is thus used predicatively. 

8. ille dies : i.e. the day of thy death. utramque ruinam : the 
doom of both of us ; for utriusque ruinam. 

9. non : to be joined with perjidum. 

10. diad sacramentum : sacramentum dicere was the technical 
military term for swearing allegiance to one's commander ; so here 
Horace represents himself as having made a solemn pledge of devotion 
to his friend. ibimns, ibimus : such emphatic repetitions are 

296 BOOK II. ODE 17. [Page 73. 

characteristic of Horace ; c/. iii. 3. 18, Ilion, Ilion ; iv. 4. 70, occidit, 
occidit. The ' we ' in ibimus does not refer to Horace alone, as shown 
by comites in v. 12 ; the poet means that they shall both go on their 
final journey whenever Maecenas leads the way. As a matter of fact, 
the poet survived his friend and patron only a few weeks, though 
both lived for many years after the date of this poem. 

12. oarpere iter : a poetic expression for * travel * ; c/. Sat, ii. 6. 
93, carpe viatj^. 

13. Chimaerae : see on i. 27. 23. 

14. si resorgat, centimanua Oyas : 6yas wafi one of the hundred- 
banded monsters who were overthrown in their assault upon the Olym- 
pian deities. The myth represented them as confined under Mt. Aetna 
and other volcanic mountains ; hence the addition, si resurgat. 

15. divellet : sc. a te. 

16. placitamqne : -que is irregularly joined to placUum instead of 
to Parcis ; see on i. 30. 6. 

17. sea Libra sea me ScorpioB, etc. : lit. whether Libra or 
dread Scorpio gazes on me as the predominant constellation of my 
natal hour, etc, te, whether Libra or Scorpio or Capricorn is the con- 
stellation on which hangs my destiny. Some particular star was 
popularly believed to be predominant in the life of each individual. 
The present, adspictt (instead of adspexit), is used because the infiuence 
is conceived of as permanent. Pars (through adspicit) is in predicate 
relation to the subjects Libra, Scorpios, Capricornus ; adspicere and 
pars (in the sense of 'sign of the zodiac *) are both technical terms of 
ancient astrology. 

Horace* s utterances in i. 11 imply that he lacked faith in astrology. 
Such was probably his real attitude. The allusions in this poem need 
not be interpreted as more than a poet's free application of popular 

19. t3rraimaB . . . undae : the rising of Capricorn was supposed 
to bring tempestuous weather. 

21. atmmque noBtmm aatrum : for utriusque nostrum astrum ; 
utrumque agrees directly with astrum ; nostrum is best taken as 
genitive plural. 

22. consentit : i.e. indicate the same destiny. te : the sentence 
introduces the reasons for the statement just made. lovis tntela ; 
impio Satumo : in astrology the infiuence of the planet Jupiter was 
regarded as favorable, that of Saturn as malign; (/. the English 
'jovial,* 'saturnine.* 

Paob76.] book II. ODE 18. 297 

23. refnlgeiui : re- (as in resiato) seems to suggest that the benign 
influence of Jupiter counteracts the baleful influence of Saturn. 

24. eripolt : the reference is to Maecenas's recovery from ilhiess 
in 30 B.C. volucris Fati : Fate is thus characterized, since it comes 

25. cum popolufl . . . crepuit : the temporal clause is, of course, 
inexact ; Maecenas's illness was prior to the occasion here referred to. 
It was on his reappearance in public that the people manifested their 
joy at his recovery. For another reference to the same occurrence, 
see i. 20. 6 f . 

26. orepuit Bonum : the accusative is of * result produced ' ; 
cr^are rarely takes an object ; c/. Prop. iv. 9. 4, et manihua faustos 
ter crepuere 8ono8. 

27. tmncufl inlapBus, etc, : the incident is described more fully 
in ii. 13. cerebro : poetic for capiti. 

28. Biuitalerat : sustulisset would ordinarily have been used here ; 
the indicative expresses the thought with greater vividness, representing 
the result as one all but consummated ; for this form of conditional 
sentence, cf. iii. 16. 3, tristea excubiae munierarU aatis^ si non luppiter 
et Venu8 rUissent, Faunas: from the root fav-; hence literally 
*the favorable god,' particularly the patron god of shepherds, and 
sometimes also, as here, the patron god of poets. As seen by i. 17, 
Horace cherished the thought that this god loved to abide upon his 

29. Mercnriallum ▼iromm: i.6. men under the protection of 
Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, and so the tutelary patron of 

30. reddere : t.6. to give in return for, or in recognition of, the 
favor of the gods ; for the infinitive with memento^ cf, ii. 3. 1, aequam 
memento aervare, 

32. humilem: i.e. a simple offering as opposed to the more costly 
one of Maecenas. 


1. ebnr neqne aureum lacunar : i.e. panelled ceilings decorated 
with ivory and gold. Such ceilings were coming into vogue in 
Horace's day. 

3. trabes H]rmettlae : t.e. beams of Hymettian marble; trabs 
may refer not only to beams of wood, but also, as here, to the marble 
architrave resting upon columns ; the Hymettian marble was quarried 

298 BOOK II. ODE 18. [Page 76l 

on Mt. Hymettus near Athens. Its color was white, marked with 
delicate bluish-grey veining. 

4. ultima recisaB Africa: the reference is probably to the 
Numidian marble, a highly prized variety with rich dark veins of 
yellow and purple (the giallo antico) ; ultima does not here have 
superlative force, but merely designates Africa (Numidia) as relatively 
remote from Rome. 

5. Attali regiam oocupavi : occupo regularly (like Greek <ped¥u) 
involves the notion of anticipation, of doing something before some one 
else, or unexpectedly to one's self ; so here, * I have not come suddenly, 
unexpectedly, into possession of the palace of an Attains,' as did the 
Roman people in 133 b.c, when Attains III., King of Pergamus, at 
his death bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people. This idea is 
further emphasized by the words ignotus heres, i.e. 'not knowing I 
was an heir ' ; ignotus is here used actively. 

7. LaooDlcaa purpnraa : i. e. vestments dyed with Laconian purple. 
The coast of Laconia furnished the shells of the murex, which when 
ground formed the basis of a most splendid £uid costly dye, second 
only to that prepared on the coast of Phoenicia. Enormous shell- 
heaps near Gytheum on the southern Laconian coast are said to testify 
to the extent of the ancient industry. 

8. trahunt: here trail; cf. Ars Poet. 215, tibicen traxitque vagus 
per pulpita vestem. honeatae clientae = high-born dames. 

9. fidea: i.e. loyalty and devotion to my friends, particularly to 
my patron Maecenas. ingeni : in allusion to Horace's poetic gifts ; 
cf. ii. 16. 38, spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae. 

10. benigna : generous. eat : sc. mihi. panperem : the 
adjective has adversative force, divea : probably to be taken gen- 
erally, — i.e. many a rich man. 

11. nihil deoa laceaso : lacesso here takes the construction of 
verbs of demanding ^ like flagito below ; cf. the similar use of veneror 
in Car. Saec. 49. supra : here an adverb. 

12. potentem amicum : viz. Horace's patron, Maecenas. 

13. largiora: i.e. more liberal bounty. 

14. unicis Sabinis : toith my cherished Sabine farm ; Sabinis is 
the ablative of Sabini, lit. * Sabines ' ; but by the Roman idiom names 
of peoples were freely used to designate estates situated among a 
people ; thus mei Sabini = * my Sabine estate' ; mei Tusci, ' my Tuscan 
estate ' ; no substantive is to be supplied in this usage ; for unicus, 
* unexampled,' * precious,' cf iii. 14. 6, unico gaudens mulier marito. 

Page 76.] BOOK II. ODE 18. 299 

15. tmditur dies die : ^day treads upon the heel of day. ^ 

16. pergunt: haste. interire : t.e. towane. 

17. tu : some imaginary rich man, addressed as representative of 
the class. aecanda marmora locas : let contracts for savoing 
marile ; the Romans of Horace^s day seldom built structures of solid 
marble, but ordinarily attached a thin veneer of marble slabs to walls 
of brick, tufa, or concrete ; such slabs were also used for pavements ; 
secanda refers to cutting or sawing the marble into these slabs. This 
process was difficult and slow ; hence the significance of the follow- 
ing words, sub ipsum funus. For the grammatical usage in secanda 
marmora^ see B. 337. 7. b. 2. 

18. Bub ipsum funus : on the very verge of the grave. 

20. Bais: for Bails {i.e. Bdjis), as frequently in words of this 
type. The ablative is one of place. Baiae was a famous seaside 
resort at the northern extremity of the Bay of Naples, attractive not 
only for its delightful climate, but also for its warm springs, which 
were utilized for baths. urges summovere litora : art eager to push 
out the shore ; the infinitive with urges is poetical and rare ; sum- 
movere is used for promovere. In Horace^ s day the fashion had be- 
come prevalent of building houses out over the edge of the water, 
massive piles of masonry being laid under the water for the purpose ; 
cf. iii. 1. 33 f., contracta pisces aequora iactis in altum molibus. 

22. parum locuples : lit. too little rich, i.e. not contented ; hence 
the following ablative. continente ripa: the mainland; c/. Livy, 
xliy, 28, continenti litori; ripa is used for litore in order to avoid the 
repetition of litus in two successive lines ; participles used as adjectives 
more commonly have -l in the ablative, but many exceptions occur 
both in prose and poetry. 

23. quid quod, etc. : lit. what (jof the fact) that f i.e. consider 
the enormity ! As Lucian Miiller observes, the expression quid est 
quod is seldom found in poetry of a high order ; it belongs rather to 
oratorical prose. usque prozimos reveilis agri terminos : 
usque means 'straight on,' 'continuously' ; in sense it is here joined 
closely with proximos, i.e. you tear down the boundary stones of the 
adjoining estate, one set after another; boundary stones were re- 
garded by the ancients as something sacred, being under the special 
tutelage of the god Terminus ; cf. the annual festival of the Terminalia ; 
proximoSy while grammatically limiting terminos, is logically to be 
taken with agri. 

25. olientium : the obligations of the patronus to his cliens were 

800 BOOK II. ODE 18. [Page 7a 

most strict; the Laws of the Twelve Tables declared, * Whoever 
wrongs his client, shall be accursed.* 

26. sails : as the quantity shows, from the verb salio. The bold 
word suggests the contemptuous attitude of the rich lord. 

28. sordidos : our * ragged * is the nearest equivalent in English ; 
there is no reference to squalor. 

29. certior : predicatively with manet; hence, more certainly. 

30. rapacls Orel fine destlnata: than the destined limit of 
rapacious Orcus; the genitive is appositional, t.e. the limit where 
Orcus is; c/. i. 34. 11, Atlanteus finis, 'the limit where Atlas is' ; 
there is a certain sarcasm in the poet's suggestion that there is one 
finis not to be treated with contempt, however lightly the rich man 
may ignore the^ne« of his clients. For the gender of finis (regularly 
masculine), cf, Epod. 17. 36; Lucretius also regularly uses the word 
as feminine. 

32. eruin : this word (lit. master of slaves) suggests that the rich 
man, by casting aside all justice, is no longer a protecting patronus 
towards his clientes, but a mere slave-master. ultra tendis : i.e. 
strive for more, for more lands and grander houses. aequa : with 
adverbial force, impartially; cf. i. 4. 13, pallida Mors aequo pulsoit 

34. regomque pueria : reges in the sense of ' the rich,* as often ; 
cf i. 4. 14, regumque turris ; pueris = filiis. Note that in the second 
foot of the verse the long of the iambus is resolved into two shorts 
(pMr-is). This is the only instance of such resolution in the entire 
poem. aatellea Orel : Orcus is here the god ; the satelles is 

35. oallidum Promethea, etc. : the story alluded to is unknown ; 
the negative (nee) is to be taken with auro captus, as well as with 
revexit ; captus is used in the sense of corruptus, ' bribed.* 

36. hlc : referring to Orcus. 

37. Tantalum: cf. i. 28 (1). 7. Tantali genua: the refer- 
ence is to Pelops ; genus for filius, as in i. 3. 27, lapeti genus. Tan- 
talus and Pelops are cited as types of rich men. The possessions 
of the former were traditionally described as extending a ten days* 

38. levare : depending upon voc<Uus, — a poetic usage. Introd. 
§ 41. d. 

40. vooatUB atque non vooatua: i.e. death comes relentlessly, 
whether desired or not. audit : used absolutely, — gives ear. 

Page 77.] BOOK II. ODE 19. 801 


1. Bacchum : the theme of the ode is emphasized by the position 
of the word. remotis: i.e. in some lonely retired spot. car- 
mina : hymns in honor of the god. 

3. nymphaa : the nymphs had nursed Bacchus when an infant, 
and are often represented as in his train. 

4. capxipedum : the classic poets represent the satyrs as having 
the heads and bodies of human beings, with the legs of goats. 
aoutas: lit. pointed, as the ears of the satyrs were regularly con- 
ceived, but here with the added notion of ' attentive.* 

5. euhoe : Greek e^T, the cry of the Bacchic worshippers ; hence 
the god is called JSuhiu8 ; cf. i. 18. 9. recenti meta : i.e. the 
awe with which the spectacle inspired him is still fresh in his 

6. pleno pectore : ablative absolute with causal force. For the 
sentiment, c/. iii. 26. 1, quo me, Bacche, rapis tui plenum f turbl- 
dum laetatur: rejoices tumuUuously ; turhidum is an accusative of 
the result produced ; c/. i. 22. 23, dulce ridentem ; ii. 12. 14, lucidum 
fulgentis oculos. Introd. § 35. b. 

7. parce, parce : emphatic repetition, as in ii. 17. 10, ibimus, 
ibimus. Liber : see on i. 12. 22. 

8. gravi thyrao : gravi means mighty, potent ; the thyrsus was 
the staff carried by the worshippers of Bacchus ; . it was wound about 
with fillets and foliage, and was tipped with a pine-cone. Those 
touched by it were supposed to come under the spell of the god, and 
involuntarily to join in the excited celebration of his festival. 

9. faa est : i.e. in view of the vision already vouchsafed. per- 
vicacia Thyiadas : tireless Thyads (Greek 0i&€iv, * rave ' ; cf, Mae- 
nades, from fiaivofMi) ; only women and maidens shared in these 
celebrations ; ** waving their thyrsi and torches, with serpents in their 
flying hair, to the music of tambourines and shrill flutes, they shouted 
and raved, danced and roved through wood and over mountains'' 

10. vini fontem, etc. : Bacchus is the god of productivity and fer- 
tility ; hence at the touch of his thyrsus streams of wine and milk and 
honey are conceived as bursting forth. . et: postponed, as often in 
the poets. 

12. Iterare : lit. repeat, and so re-produce in narrative, describe, 

13. et : also. beatae coniugia : lit. of his blessed, = of his 

302 BOOK II. ODE 19. [Page 77. 

deified, consort (Ariadne) ; beatae is the participle of beo, a verb 
which in Horace's day had become well^igh obsolete. 

14. honorem : the reference is to the crown of Ariadne, made by 
Vulcan for her wedding gift, and which was afterwards placed among 
the stars ; the accusative depends upon some such word as dicere, to 
be supplied in thought from iterare. PenthSI: Pentheus, of the 
third declension in Greek, is here declined as of the second. Fentheus 
was king of Thebes. His hostility toward the celebration of the wor- 
ship of Bacchus brought upon him the vengeance of the god ; his pal- 
ace fell in ruins, while a band of frenzied Bacchanals, his own mother 
and sisters at their head, fell upon him and tore him to pieces. The 
legend is vividly depicted in Euripides' s Bacchae. 

15. non leni = gravissima. 

16. et : as above, in line 10. Lycurgi : a Thracian king, who 
was visited with blindness in punishment for his hostility to the god. 

17. tu, tu : notice the emphasis lent by the frequent repetition of 
the pronoun in this and the following lines. flectis amnes : ap- 
parently an iallusion to the occasion when Bacchus, in his triumphal 
progress through the Orient, dried up at a touch of his thyrsus the 
rivers Orontes -and Hydaspes, over which he and his followers then 
passed dry-shod. mare barbarum : probably the Indian Ocean, 
which, as the legend goes, Bacchus also visited. 

18. separatis: a synonym of remotus in the sense noted above 
(line 1). uviduB : i.e. flushed with wine ; c/. i. 7. 22, uda Lyaeo 

19. nodo coerces, etc. : i.e, bindest with harmless knot of ser- 
pents the hair of the Bistonian women ; fraus in this sense is confined 
to the phrases sine fraude and fraudi esse. The Bistonians were a 
Thracian tribe devoted to the Bacchic orgies. Elsewhere the Baccha- 
nals are represented as themselves twining serpents in their hair. 

21. parentis: sc. tui, viz. Jove. per arduom : i.e. up the 
ascent to Olympus. 

22. Bcanderet : here with conative force, corresponding to the 
conative use of the imperfect indicative scandebat. The allusion is to 
the war of the giants upon the gods. 

23. Rhoetum : one of the giants. leonis : with mala, as well 
as with unguibus; Bacchus on this occasion assumed the form of a 

25. aptior : in predicative agreement (through dictus) with tu 

Page 79.] BOOK II. ODE 20. 303 

27. ferebaris: thou voast reputed, 

28. paciB eras medius, etc, : i.e, thou didst share in peace and war: 
the emphasis, as the context shows, rests upon belli, — in war aa well 
as peace ; on mediusque belli for medius bellique, cf. ii. 7. 25 ; the mean- 
ing here attached to medium, * sharing in,' is nowhere else attested. 

29. te vidit : Bacchus had descended to Hades to bring back 
Semele, his mother. insons : with adverbial force, — without offer- 
ing harm. aureo comu decorum : cornu is best taken as refer- 
ring to the golden drinking horn, filled presumably with wine, carried 
by the god. atterena : sc. tibi. 

31. recedentiB: dependent upon the genitive involved in tuos 
(pedes) understood. trilingui ore tetigitque : i.e. fawned upon 
thee ; trilingui ore for Unguis trium capitum ; for the position of -que, 
see above on line 28. 


1. tenui: i.e. slight, feeble. 

2. biformls: in that he changes his human form for that of 
a swan. 

4. longius : for diutius, as in Nepos, Att. ii. 4 ; Caes. B. G. iv. 1. 
invidia maior : i.e. superior to envy, beyond its reach. During his 
lifetime, Horace had been a mark for malignant criticism ; cf. Sat. 
i. 6. 46, quern rodunt omnes libertino patre natum. 

5. paupemm sanguis parentum : for Horace's humble parent- 
age, see Introd. § 1, and cf. iii. 30. 12, ex humilipotens. 

6. quern vocas : whom you so call, i.e. my real self shall not die. 

9. residunt : are gathering. cruribus : best taken as dative of 
reference. asperae pelles : i.e. the wrinkled skin of the swan. 

10. album in alitem : i.e. into a swan. 

11. supeme : with short final e, as in Lucretius, vi. 544. 15ves: 
note the quantity of the first e. 

13. tutior : i.e. he is to escape any such disaster as befell Icarus. 

15. canoruB ales : the ancients popularly attributed the gift of 
song to the swan. 

16. H3rperboreoB campos : the Hyperboreans were a mythical 
folk, conceived as dwelling in the far North (hence the name). They 
were represented as passing an idyllic existence in a sunny land, in 
the midst of plenty, and uncontaminated by the vices of civilization. 

17. Colchus : Colchis was in the remote East, at the extremity 

304 BOOK III. ODE 1. [Page 79. 

of the Black Sea. qui dlBfllmnlat metmn, DacoB : t.e. the Dacian, 
who feigns not to fear. 

18. Maraae cohortis : the Marsians, here, as elsewhere (c/. i. 2. 
39; iii. 6. 9), are cited as typical of Roman prowess; they were 
famous as infantrymen. 

19. Gtoloni: a Scythian tribe, dwelling in what is now south- 
western Russia. perituB Hiber: no one has yet fathomed the 
significance of this reference to the * learned Spaniard ' ; very probably 
the text is corrupt. 

20. Rbodani potor : i.e. the Gaul. 

21. With this closing stanza of the ode, we may compare Ennius : 

Nemo me dacrumis decoret neque funera fletu 
Faxit. Cur ? Volito vivo' per ora virum. 

inani fanere : Horace characterizes his death as inani, because it is 
unreal ; his real self, as he has already asserted, will live on. neniae : 
the dirges of the praejicae (hired mourners). 

22. turpes : unseemly ; alluding to the customary frantic mani- 
festations of grief at funerals, such as tearing the hair, beating the 
breast, etc, 

23. sepalcri honores: i.e, the honor of erecting a tomb to my 
memory ; sepulcri is appositional genitive. 

24. mitte : dispense with. 



1-4. Though incorporated in the first ode by nearly all editors, 
this opening stanza is really introductory to the entire series of the 
six following odes. 

1. *Odi profanum volgiui,* etc: properly the language of the 
priest in conducting some solemn ceremony whose sanctity would be 
polluted by the presence of those not properly qualified to participate 
in the rite, e.g, foreigners, slaves, and in some cases women. As Page 
observes, profanus literally means * outside the shrine,' and so * for- 
bidden to enter.' The phrase profanum valgus defies English trans- 
lation, owing to the absence of the corresponding institution in our 
modern civilization ; neither Page's * unhallowed throng ' nor Smith's 
^uninitlate herd' gives a just rendering. As priest of the muses, 

Pagb82.] book III. ODE 1. 305 

Horace here makes the conventional priestly warning his own, bidding 
none approach but those who have full right, and enjoining upon these 
to keep a reverent silence (favete Unguis) . With odi profanum valgus 
et arceo, cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 25S, procul O, procul este, profani; and with 
favete Unguis^ cf, the Greek €C4>rifi£TT€, similarly employed in Hellenic 

2. carmina non priua audita : the reference is probably solely 
to the serious content of the following six odes. 

4. virginibuB puexisque : i.e, for the rising generation, the future 
hope of the state. 

5. regiixn . i . loviB : both words are made emphatic by position 
and chiasmus ; the power of kings is over their own subjects ; but 
Jove's power is over the kings themselves ; this double statement is in- 
tended merely to prepare the way for the more general and important 
one in lines 14 f. greges : apparently a reminiscence of the Ho- * 
meric conception by which the king was the * shepherd of his people,' 

7. Giganteo trinmpho : cf ii. 12. 7 ; 19. 21 f. Giganteo has the 
force of an objective genitive. 

8. Bupercllio : i.e. with the nod of his brow ; cf. the familiar 
passage, II. i. 528, 1j, Kal Kvapiytriv iv diftpiitri vevae Kpovlcav, moven- 
tis: controlling, determining. 

9. est ut, etc.: the clauses in lines 9-14 stand logically in an 
adversative relation to sortitur, movet, — * though men differ individ- 
ually in power and wealth and rank, yet inexorable Destiny with 
impartial hand pronounces the doom of high and low alike.' est ut 
ordinet, deacendat, contendat, sit : lit. it is that, etc., — merely a 
poetic periphrasis for ordinat, descendit, contendit, est. viro vir 
latiua : i.e. one man more extensively than another. 

10. arbuBta: vineyards and olive groves, important sources of 
wealth among the Romans, as among the modern Italians. sulcia : 
i.e. the regular diagonal lines (arranged in quincuncem) in which the 
vines were planted. hie generosior deacendat, contendat: 
the logical perspective of these clauses is somewhat obscured to our 
English sense by the apparent prominence of these two verbs. The 
verbs are really very subordinate elements in the situations which the 
poet is aiming to depict ; the emphasis rests upon generosior and- 
moribus melior ; lit. one man comes down to the Campus a candidate 
of higher birth, another competes better in character and repute; i.e. 
one candidate who comes down to the Campus is nobler born, another 

306 BOOK III. ODE 1. [Page 82. 

contestant is of higher character (while yet a third has a laiger body 
of supporters) ; logically, therefore, descendat and contendat are not 
limited each to its grammatical subject, for both the candidates re- 
ferred to come down to the Campus, and both contest for the high 
office ; the verbs merely give color and detail to the general picture. 
hie, hie, Uli : one, another, yet a third. 

11. descendat: i.e. from the hills on which Rome was built. 
The Campus was on low, level ground. Campnm : i.e. the Campus 
Martius ; it was here that the Comitia Centuriata assembled for the 
election of the chief Roman magistrates. petitor : in predicate 
relation to hie. 

12. meliorque fama : i.e. famaque melior; cf. ii. 19. 28 ; 32. 

13. clientium : the original relation of patronus and cliens had 
fundamentally changed by Horace^s time. In his day the ch'ente^. were 
often cives, who for a definite consideration (commonly a dole of food) 
served as the visible supporters and partisans of some political leader 
desirous of thus emphasizing his public importance. Horace's opinion 
of such methods seems indicated by the word turha. 

14. aequa lege NecesaitaB, etc. : Necessitas here is Death ; a 
different conception is seen in i. 35. 17, where Necessitas is the hand- 
maiden of Fortuna ; the thought is a commonplace with Horace ; cf, 
i. 4. 13 ; ii. 18. 32. 

15. Bortitur : pronounces the doom. insignis et imoB : cf. i. 
34. 13. 

16. omne eapaz movet urna : for the thought, cf ii. 3. 25, where 
is found the same conception of the constant movement of the lots in 
the urn of Fate. 

17 f. The connection of thought between this and the preceding 
stanzas seems to be this : In view of the futility of all earthly power, 
and wealth, and glory, let us be content with a humble lot, and cease 
to strive for the vanities which can never bring peace. destrietuB 
enais, etc. : an allusion to the familiar story of the * sword of Damo- 
cles.* Damocles was *^a Syracusan, one of the companions and 
flatterers of the elder Dionysius. When Damocles extolled the great 
felicity of Dionysius on account of his wealth and power, the tyrant 
invited him to try what his happiness really was, and placed him at a 
magnificent banquet, in the midst of which Damocles saw a naked 
sword suspended over his head by a single horse-hair, — a sight which 
quickly dispelled all his visions of happiness" (Smith's Classical 
Dictionary), Cicero, Tusc, Disp. v, 01 f., gives the story in fuller 

Pagb82.] book III. ODE 1. 307 

detail. cui : its antecedent is illi to be supplied in thought with 

18. cervlce: poetic for cervicibus; cf. i. 13. 2; ii. 5. 2. Sicu- 
lae dapes: alluding to the banquet placed before Damocles by the 
Sicilian tyrant Dionysius ; Sicilian luxury, however, was proverbial. 

19. 61aborabiint : the word is nicely chosen, involving, as it does, 
the notion of producing by the application of effort ; so here, with the 
negative, — * by no amount of effort will such viands be made to pro- 
duce,' etc. 

21. agrestium vlroram: of peasants; the genitive is best taken 
with domos. 

24. Tempo : a Tempe ; the famous valley in northern Thessaly 
through which flowed the river Pen6us. It was in reality a wild but 
beautiful gorge, though Horace here seems to use the word in the 
generic sense of * vale.' 

25. deaiderantem quod satiB est : i.e. desiring only what he 
needs. In view of the length of the sentence beginning with deside- 
rantem^ it is better in translating to change the structure of th^ sen- 
tence, — the man who desires . .' . is troubled not by . , . nor by^ etc. 

27. Arcturi cadentiB impetuB, etc. : the autumnal storms were 
conceived as caused by the setting of Arcturus (end of October) and 
the rising of Haedus (beginning of October). 

29. verberatae vineae: i.e. the lashing of one's vineyards; for 
this use of the participle, cf. ii. 4. 10, ademptus Hector tradidit Per- 

30. arbore culpante : the ablative absolute here gives the justi- 
fication of the epithet mendax just applied to fundus^ — * yes, treach- 
erous, for the trees complain at one time of too much rain,' etc. 

31. torrentia sidera : i.e. the dog star. 

32. iniqiiaB: i.e. cruel, bitter. 

33 f. The poet turns somewhat abruptly to a condemnation of the 
lavish expenditure in building characteristic of the day. contracta : 
in predicate relation to aequora^ and made emphatic by position. 
The extravagant hyperbole of the statement here made is hardly in 
keeping with Horace's usual taste. 

34. lactiB in altnm molibus : referring to foundations for palatial 
residences built out over the water at Baiae and elsewhere ; cf. ii. 
18. 20. Orelli says iacere C lay ') was a technical term in Roman build- 
ing, hue : i.e. in altum. frequens redemptor cum famulis : 
i.e. the contractor with his throng of laborers. 

808 BOOK IIL ODE 2. [Paob 82. 

35. oaementa : the moles of line 34. 

36. terrae : with fastidiosus ; the owner disdains the land, and 
builds out into the sea ; c/. ii. 18. 22, parum locuples continerUe ripa, 

391 A repetition in form and content of ii. 16. 21 f. txiremi: 
here a private galley kept for pleasure purposes. 

41. dolentem : agreeing with an indefinite pronoun (^ one ') to 
be supplied in thought. The reference is to distress of mind, not of 
body. PhrygiuB lapis : the marble quarried at Synnada in Phrygia, 
variously described as reddish with blue tints, and white with reddish 

42. purporarum vlwoa : a x>eriphrasis for purpurae, purple rugs, 
coverlets, or vestments. clarior : to our sense, somewhat unnatu- 
rally combined with usus, 

43. Falema vitiB : vitia for vinum^ as often. On the Falemian 
vnne, see i. 20. 10. 

44. Achaemeniumque coatnin : the spikenard is called ' Achae- 
menian * from the ancient Persian dynasty of the Achaemenidae (jcf, ii. 
12. 21). It was in reality an Indian product, and is here called Persian 
either because brought from Persian emporiums or because widely 
used in Persia. 

45. invidendis : as in ii. 10. 7, invidenda aula, postibus : i.e, 
marble columns. et novo rita : there is a slight inconcinnity here 
in the two members connected by et ; invidendis postibus is an abla- 
tive of quality ; novo ritu of accordance. By novo^ we are hardly to 
understand anything specific ; the allusion is rather to the generally 
luxurious standards of the time. 

46. sublime : in predicate relation to atrium, — rear aloft. 
atrium : properly the main room of the Roman house, but here used 
by synecdoche for the whole edifice ; c/. English * hall.* 

47. valle permutem divitias : for the double meaning x>ossible 
with muto and its compounds, see i. 17. 2 ; valle is an ablative of 
association. The vallis Sabina is Horace's Sabine farm, presented 
to him by Maecenas about 33 b.c. For the poet's satisfaction with 
this estate, cf, ii. 18. 14, satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 

ODE n. 

1. Angustam pauperiem: trying privation, amioe: with 

2. robustus : almost with the participial force of * hardened*; cf. 

Paos 84.] BOOK III. ODE 2. 809 

Cic. in Cat, ii. 0. 20, genus ezercitatione rohustum. pner : the 

military age was only seventeen. 

3. ParthoB : see on i. 2. 22. 

4. eques : predicatively, as a horseman ; as the Parthian strength 
was mainly in the cavalry, the Roman youth are urged to seek excel- 
lence in the same arm of the service. 

5. Bub divo : i.e. under the open sky ; so also, ii. 3. 23 ; c/. i. 1. 25, 
sub love, trepldis in rebus : i.e. in dangers ; trepidis is trans- 
ferred from the person experiencing the emotion to the circumstances 
causing the emotion. 

6. ilium : emphatic ; i.e. let him be such a one that, at sight of him, 
etc. hosticia = hostilibus (i.e. hostium) ; cf. ii. 1. 1, motum civicum, 
where civicum = civilem (i.e. civium). ez moenibas proBpiciens : 
such * views from the walls * are a repeated feature in ancient writers ; 
e.g. see Iliad, iii. 148 f. 

7. matrona = uxor. 

9. Boapiret : for the singular verb with compound subject, a con- 
struction specially frequent in Horace, cf. ii. 13. 38, decipitur. rudia 
= inscius; hence the genitive. 

10. aponauB regiuB : i.e. some youth of royal blood, betrothed to 
the maiden watching with her mother from the wall. aapenim 
tacta leonem : i.e. the Roman, referred to above in ilium. 

13. dolce et decorum, etc. : evidently modelled on Tyrtaeus (Frag. 
10), TtBvdfJXpai ybip KoJhJbv ivl vpoftdxouri V€<r6irra &vdp iyaSbv vepl i 
Tarpldi /tapvdfuvov, 

14. et : too ; with fugacem virum. peraequitur : here appar- 
ently in the sense of coTisequitur, * overtakes'; properly it conveys 
only the notion of persistent pursuit, — * dogs the steps of.' For the 
sentiment, cf. Simonides (Frag. 65), 6 d' ad Bdvaros kIxs koI rbv 

15. iuventae : poetic for iuventutis ; cf senecta for senectus. 

17. Virtua : i.e. true manhood, true worth, repulaae neacia aor- 
didae : i.e. admitting no disgrace (the emphasis on sordidae) in tempo- 
rary defeat or disappointment ; repulsa is the technical term for defeat 
at the polls. In the popular mind such a political defeat would be 
associated with a certain lack of prestige, — hence, sordidae. Horace, 
however, is employing repulsa figuratively in a wide sense, to cover 
every rebuff of fortune or society for which the individual character is 
not primarily responsible. The possessor of true worth, he asserts, is 
80 far superior to such rebuffs, that they merely bring him fresh glory. 

310 BOOK III. ODE 2. [Page 84 

18. intaminatiB : the word is rare and chiefly poetic. 

19. ponit: for deponit, as in i. 3. 40, ponere fulmina, and often. 
secarls : the axes of the lictors, symbolic of the consular authority ; 
here the meaning is not specially restricted to consular authority, but 
covers the conception of authority in general. 

20. arbitrio populaxis aurae : at the dictates of popular favor ; 
aura^ lit. * breeze,' often has the figurative meaning here noted, e.g. 
Cic. de Harusp. Eesponso, 20. 43 ; cf also pro Cluentio, 130, ventus 

21. Virtus : emphatic continuance of the thought begun in line 17. 

22. negata: i.e. denied to others. 

23. udam hnmum: figurative for all grovelling pursuits and 

25. et : also ; i.e. fidelity to a trust has its sure reward, as well as 
Virtus. For the sentiment of this verse, cf. Simonides (Frag. 66), 
HffTL Kal (ri7as dKivdvvov yipas, Udell allentio : logically, rather Jidei 
silenti, since fidelity is the quality really in the mind of the poet. A 
special instance of fides is cited, — by way of greater concreteness, — 
as suggesting the quality in general. Fides is repeatedly emphasized 
by Horace as of cardinal importance ; cf i. 24. 6, where Fides is styled 
lustitiae soror; i. 18. 16, where the poet censures arcani ^68 prodi^a ; 
i. 35. 25, where the infldum volgus desert the victim of adversity: 
As a goddess. Fides was worshipped in a temple on the Capitoline, 
whose foundation was attributed to Numa. 

26. vetabo sit, aolvat: a peculiar construction not elsewhere 
found ; the subjunctive in sit and solvat is probably to be explained as 
following the analogy of the subjunctive with iuheo; iubeo, while 
ordinarily construed with the infinitive, is also, at most periods, occa- 
sionally construed with the subjunctive either with or without ut; it 
is a noticeable feature of linguistic development that words of opposite 
meaning mutually influence each other's construction ; so here vetabo 
sit seems to be modelled on some such expression as iubebo sit. 
Cereria sacrum: the Eleusinian mysteries of Demeter (Roman 
Ceres), one of the most conspicuous Hellenic rituals, had been trans- 
planted to Italy, where they likewise came to be of great importance. 
The secrets of the mysteries were supposed to be faithfully guarded by 
those initiated into them. 

27. volgarlt : subjunctive by attraction. 

28. trabibua: roof-tree. 

29. solvat : loose from its moorings ; launch. phaselon : origi* 

Paob 85.] BOOK III. ODE 3. 3H 

nally a long, slender bean (Greek <t>dari\oi)^ whence figuratively * skiff,* 
* bark ' ; c/. English * shell.' Horace retains the Greek inflection of 
the word. Diespiter : for the etymology and original force of the 
word, see on i. 34. 6 ; i. 1. 25. 

30. neclectuB : when outraged; the spelling nee- is archaic. in- 
cesto addidit Integrum : Le has involved the innocent with the 
guilty, viz. in inflicting punishment. 

31. antecedentem : with adversative force, i.e, even though the 
guilty man may gain the start of Vengeance. 

32. desemit : fails to overtake ; the perfect is gnomic ; for the 
force of desero^ *fail to overtake,' cf. Cat, ii. 3, qui exercitum deserue- 
runt, * who have failed to join the army.' pede Poena claudo : 
the ablative of quality has adversative force, — ' Vengeance, though 
lame of foot.' 


I. luatum et tenacem propositi : i.e, tenacious of purpose in a 
righteous cause. 

3. instantlB : threatening, 

4. mente : ablative of separation ; quatit here has the force of 

5. dux . . . Hadxiae: cf. i. 3. 15 (Noti), quo non arbiter Hadriae 

7. si fractuB Inlabatnr orbls : i.e. if the vault of heaven should 
break and fall. 

8. impaviduni: in predicate relation to the omitted object of 
ferient; note, too, the emphatic position. ferlent: the indicative 
here in the apodosis gives greater vividness. 

9. hac arte : i.e. by the quality or virtue covered by iustuni et 
tenacem propositi. Note again the emphasis of the position, ' 'twas by 
such virtue that,' etc.; arte depends upon enisus, which involves the 
notion of strenuous effort. Pollux, Hercules: mortals whose 
achievements raised them to the gods. In Epp. ii. 1. 5, Horace men- 
tions them, in connection with Romulus and Bacchus (as here), as 
great benefactors of mankind. vagus : viz. in the performance of 
his famous labors. 

10. arces igneas : i.e. the starry citadels of heaven. 

II. quoB inter : anastrophe, as not infrequently with many dis- 
syllabic prepositions. 

12. purpureo ore : with ruddy lips; purpureo is merely a inore 

812 BOOK III. ODE 3. [Paqb 86. 

picturesqae word for pulchro. blbet: {,e, when he, like Pollux and 
Hercules, shall be deified and admitted to the company of the gods. 
13. hac : 8C. arte ; to be joined closely in thought with merentem^ 
which is here used absolutely. Bacchus was fabled to have travelled in 
triumphal progress through the Orient, introducing the arts of civilized 
life, particularly the culture of the vine. merentem ; in causal 
relation to vexere, tnae vezere tigres: the Greek legend repre- 
sented Bacchus as passing in triumph through India upon a chariot 
drawn by panthers. In Roman literature, tigers take the place of 
panthers. But the present passage hardly alludes to Bacchus^s Indian 
progress ; we are rather to think of the tigers as conveying Bacchus 
to the skies ; cf. Prop. iv. 17. 8, lyncibus ad caelum vecta Ariadna 
tuis ; Ovid, Trist. i. 3. 19, {Bacche) ipse quoque aetJ^erias meritia invec- 
tU8 e8 arces. 

15. QnirinuB: Romulus. 

16. Martis: the father of Romulus. Acheronta fagit: i.e. 
was raised to the skies; in Acheronta^ Horace follows the- Greek 
inflection ; fugit is for effugit, 

17. gratum elocuta . . . lunone, etc. : the ablative absolute here 
expresses time, — at the time when Juno uttered the words, welcome to 
the gods met in council, Juno's utterance is characterized as gratum, 
since Juno alone of the gods cherished a hostility for the Roman race. 
conaUiantibuB : i.e. deliberating whether or not Romulus should be 
admitted to the company of the gods. 

18. Ilion, Ilion : for the repetition, cf. ii. 17. 10, ibimus, ibimus. 

19. fatalia ludex : Paris, who awarded the golden apple to Venus 
as fairest of the goddesses ; witti fatalis, cf. the Greek Ai^xaptt, ' luck- 
less Paris* ; also Horace's fatale monstrum (Cleopatra), i. 37. 21. 

20. mulier peregxlna : Helen. vertit : the sii^^ar verb with 
compound subject, as frequently in Horace. 

21. ez quo . . . deatitult : to be joined closely with damnatum, 
which goes back to Ilion (here neuter ; cf. i. 10. 14, Ilio relicto) ; 
ex quo is equivalent to ex quo tempore ; destituit here has the force of 
deprived, cheated ; hence the ablative. 

22. mercede pacta : the covenanted revoard ; Poseidon and Apollo 
had erected the walls of Troy for Laomedon, king of that city ; upon 
the completion of the work, Laomedon not merely refused the gods 
the promised reward, but rudely expelled them from his dominions ; 
Yfiih pacta, used passively, cf. i. 1. 26, detestata. mihi . . . damna- 
tum : i.e. handed over for punishment to me. 

Page 87.] BOOK m. ODE d. 313 

23. castae Mlnenrae : i.e. the virgin goddess, 'ABi/ivri TopOivo^, 

24. duce: Laomedon. 

25. iam nee : andno longer. Lacaenae adulterae : Helen, wife 
of Menelaus, King of Sparta ; the case is probably dative. aplendet : 
lit. shines^ and so, with adulterae (dative of reference), dazzles his 
Spartan paramour ; cf. i. 5. 13, quihus intemptata nites, 

26. iamosua hoapes: Paris; c/. i. 16. 1, pastor perfldus, 
domua perlura : an allusion to the broken promise of Laomedon, the 
taint of which clung to his descendants. 

28. Hectorela : the adjective takes the place of a possessive geni- 
tive ; c/. i. 3. 36, Herculeus labor, oplbua : for ope, 

29. noBtrls : viz, of all the gods. ductum = tractum^ pro- 
longed, aedltioiiibua : dissensions ; the gods had espoused differ- 
ent sides in the struggle between Troy and Greece. 

30. protinua : from this time forth. In the previous verse the 
implication is that the Trojan War has but just ended ; the poet^s 
imagination represents the death of Romulus as contemporaneous with 
that event. 

31. iraa et nepotem redonabo : zeugma ; with iras, redonabo 
has the force of * relinquish,' with nepotem, of * give up.' nepotem : 
Romulus, son of Mars, who was the son of Juno. 

32. Troica aacerdos : Rhea Silvia ; she is called Troica, because 
of Trojan descent, being the daughter of Numitor, who was descended 
from Aeneas. 

33. Marti : i,e, the goddess gives up Romulus to Mars, that the 
god may fulfil his own pleasure as regards his son. lucldaa sedea : 
the shining abodes of the gods. 

34. ducere: to quaff. nectaria aucos: the genitive is ap- 

35. adscxibl : a technical term for enrolling any one as citizen, 
soldier, colonist, etc. ; hence here of formal admittance to the company 
of the immortals. 

37. dum aaeviat, etc, : an allusion to the plan attributed to Julius 
Caesar of rebuilding Troy upon its ancient site ; Augustus is thought 
to have revived consideration of this project. 

40. buBto : i,e. the spot where the bodies of Paris and Priam were 
burned ; the case is dative. The severity of the conditions imposed by 
Juno is to be judged in the light of the great sanctity attached by the 
Romans to the places where the remains of the dead were deposited. 

42. oelent : sc. on the same spot. 

314 BOOK III. ODE 3. [Page 87 

43. fulgens: resplendent; in predicate relation to Capitolium. 
The Capitolium was the temple on the Capitoline Hill dedicated 
jointly to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. Its roof was richly decorated 
with gilded tiles. trinmphatiB Medis: triumpho, regularly in- 
transitive, is here used as transitive — conquered ; Medis for Parthis, 
as frequently in Horace ; c/. i. 2. 51. 

45. late : with horrenda, 

46. mediuB liquor : i.e, the Strait of Gibraltar. 

47. ab Afro : poetic variation for ab Africa. 

48. tumidua : viz. with its annual overflow. 

49. aunun inrepertum . . . fortior, etc. : lit. braver to spurn, 
etc. ; but the comparative idea belongs rather with the whole clause 
than with the quality contained in fortior itself, — conspicuous rather 
for spurning the gold which as yet is undiscovered, etc., than for 
gathering, etc, 

50. cum celat : cum causal with the indicative ; this was the 
regular construction in early Latin, and appears occasionally in the 
classical poets. spemere fortior : for the poetic use of the infini- 
tive with adjectives, cf. i. 1. 18, indocilis pauperiein pati. 

51. quam cogere, etc. : it had not always been Rome^s glory to 
live up to the lofty ideal proclaimed in these lines ; in the last decades 
of the Republic, Roman provincial governors had exhibited a shocking 
disregard of the rights of subject provinces, and had pursued a plan of 
systematic plundering. A better era began with the imperial regime. 
Horace, apparently, is pleading for a higher standard of official 
honesty. Kiister suggests that we have here an implicit reference to 
the disaster to Crassus at Carrhae in 53 b.c. It seems indisputable 
that Crassus undertook his eastern expedition with the hope of in- 
creasing his already enormous wealth. To this purpose, all else was 
apparently subordinated. The resulting demoralization of his troops 
made a Parthian victory over the Romans an easy matter. 

53. mundo obatitit: i.e. bounds the world; obstitit is the x>erfect 
of obsisto. 

55. debacchentur Ignea, nebulae : zeugma ; with ignes (the 
tropic heats), debacchentur has the force of rage; with nebulae, the 
notion of prevail. 

56. pluviique rorea : poetic for * dripping rain.* 

57. QuiritibuB : ordinarily applied to the Romans in their capacity 
as peaceful citizens, not, as here, in their capacity as warriors. 

58. hac lege : on these conditions. ne velint : viz. let them 

Page 88.] BOOK III. ODE 4. 315 

not cherish the desire ; an instance of the so-called '• stipulative sub- 
junctive,* a jussive development ; the clause is explanatory of hac 
lege. The reference is to the proposition, made about the time of 
this ode, for rebuilding Troy upon its ancient site ; see above on line 
37. Dimium pii: i,e. in an excess of devotion to the memory of 
their Trojan ancestors. 

61. Troiae renaBcens alite lugubrl : condensed for ' if the 
fortunes of Troy revive again (it shall be) under evil auspices*; 
renascens, though belonging grammatically with fortuna, logically 
limits Troiae ; alite is used poetically for auspiciis ; cf, i. 16. 6, mala avi. 

62. iterabitur : its subject is grammatically fortuna^ but fortuna 
in a different sense from that in which the word is employed with 
renascens; Horace means that its evil fortune or doom shall be 

64. coninge me lovis et Borore : c/. Virg. Aen, i. 46, ast ego, 
quae divom incedo regina lovisque et soror et coniunx. 

65. ter: emphatic by position. a§neu8: predicatively ; i.e, 
even should it be of bronze. 

66. auctore Pboebo: auctor in the sense of ^builder,* as in 
Virg. Oeorg. iii. 36, Troiae Cynthius (= Apollo) auctor. 

67. ArgiviB: dative of agency; c/. i. 1. 24, matribus detestata. 
The word Argivi is here chosen as a designation of the Greeks in 
general, since the worship of Juno was specially cherished among the 
Argives ; at Argos itself she had a magnificent temple, remains of 
which have been recently brought to light by excavations. 

69. iocosae lyrae : iocosa, as applying to Horace^s muse, must 
be accepted with reservations ; see Introd. § 21 f. non convenlet : 
i.e, if I continue in the present strain ; for the sentiment, cf. ii. 1. 37, 
sed ne relictis, Musa, procax iocis Ceae retractes munera neniae. 

70. pervicaz : c/. ii. 1. 37, procax. 

72. modis parvis : i.e, in lyric, as opposed to heroic verse. 


1. die age : in this interjectional use, age, agite ('come I '), more 
commonly precede the imperative with which they are connected, e.g. 
i. 32. 3, age die Latinum carmen; but, as here, ii. 11. 22, die age, 

2. regina Calliope: Calliope was properly the muse of epic 
poetry; here she is invoked rather as muse of poetry in general. 

316 BOOK III. ODE 4. [Page 88. 

Horace does not always conceive of the Muses as each confined to a 
single narrow province, but often invokes now one, now another, at 
random, — Polyhymnia, Calliope, Euterpe, Clio, Melpomene. Calliope 
is here called *• queen * (regina) as a presiding deity of song. 

3. sou voce mavis: i.e. vel voce, si mavis; cf. i. 2. 33, sive tu 
mavis = vel tu, si vis. acuta : i.e. clear, sweet. 

4. fidlbuB citharaque Pboebi : on the strings of Phoebus^ s lyre; 
cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 120, fretus cithara fldibusque eanoris. 

5. andltis: the poet addresses his companions; as ohject of 
auditis axid of audire (line 6), we are to supply in thought Musam. 
ludit amabilis iniiania : does some fond illusion mock me f 

6. pics luces : i.e. spots hallowed by the presence of the divini- 
ties ; lucus is properly a sacred grove ; for gloves as the favorite 
haunts of poets, cf. i. 1. 30, me gelidum nemus, etc. 

9. fabulosae palumbes : i.e. the doves of story and legend ; thus 
they were said to bring ambrosia to Zeus; to have suggested the 
founding of the oracle at Dodona ; to be attendants of Venus, etc. 
Volture in avio : on trackless Vultur ; Mt. Vultur (Horace here uses 
the earlier form Voltur) was near the poet^s birthplace, Venusia in 

10. nutricis Apuliae : for a country figuratively conceived as 
nutrix, cf. i. 22. 15, lubae tellus leonum arida nutrix. The ordinary 
quantity of the first syllable of Apuliae is here violated ; but such 
changes in proper names are not infrequent in poetry ; cf, e.g., i. 20. 7, 
Vdticani (elsewhere Vdtir). extra limen: Mt. Vultur was just 
beyond the Apulian border. 

11. ludo fatigatumque somno : worn out with play and over- 
come with drowsiness ; zeugma ; for the x>osition of -que, cf i. 30. 6 ; 
ii. 19. 28. 

12. fronde nova tezere : similar marvels were told of the youth 
of other famous poets; thus the Muses are said to have revealed 
themselves to the youthful Hesiod as he grazed his fiocks on the 
slopes of Helicon ; bees were said to have touched the lips of Pindar, 
as a presage of the sweetness of his song ; cf. also the legends of Arion, 
Stesicborus, and others. 

13. minim quod foret onmibus: that all might marvel; a 
relative clause of purpose. 

14. nidum Acberontiae : so called because it nestled high up 
among the rocks on a spur of Mt. Vultur ; cf. Macaulay, Horatius at 
the Bridge, 22 fl. : — 

Page d9.] BOOK Hi. ODE 4. 817 

From many a lonely hamlet, 

Which, hid by beech and pine, 
Like an eaglets nest, hangs on the crest 

Of purple Apennine. 

15. BantinoB : of Bantia, an old Oscan town. 

16. humilis Forenti : Forentum lay in the valley south of 

17. nt dormirem, ut premerer: indirect questions dependent 
upon mirum, — how I sl^t, how I was covered, atria : probably 
referring to the venom of the vipers ; cf. i. 37. 28, atrum venerium, 

18. aacra lauro . . . myrto : sacra agrees with both nouns ; 
the bay was sacred to Apollo, the myrtle to Bacchus and Venus ; the 
two shrubs, therefore, suggest the spheres of poetry in which Horace 
was destined to excel. 

19. coi4ataque myrto: for myrtoque conlata; cf, line 11, fatU 
gatumque somno, 

20. non aine dia : i.e. the gods must surely have always lent him 
their protection. animoaua : courageous^ fearless, 

21. veater, veater : emphasis is gained b}'^ initial position and 
repetition (c/. iii. 3. 18, Ilion, Ilion) ; lit. yours, yours, Muses, I 
ascend to my lofty Sabine farm, i.e. as the object of your care, and 
devoted to your service. in arduoa Sabinoa : for Sabini, the name 
of the people used to designate an estate, see ii. 18. 14, unicis Sabinis, 

22. tollor: with middle force ; I mount, aeu mihi, etc. : the 
expression is elliptical ; from the preceding context we must supply 
in thought some such sentiment as vester sum semper, frigidum 
Praeneate : Fraeneste, in Latium about twenty miles east of Rome, 
was situated on a high elevation some 2500 feet above the level of the 
sea ; it was a favorite resort in the summer season. 

23. Tibur aupinum : Tibur is so called because situated on a 
sloping hillside ; cf. Juvenal, iii. 192, proni Tiburis arce, 

24. liquidae Baiae: serene Baiae; the allusion is probably to 
the clear air of the region, which is still a noticeable climatic feature 
to-day ; for liquidus in this sense, cf. Virg. Oeorg. iv. 69, per aestatem 
liquidam, placuere: i.e. have temporarily drawn him thither. 

25. veatria : the emphasis of line 21 is continued. amicum : 
the adjective has causal force ; the poet^s devotion to the springs of 
the Muses and to the dancing bands of nymphs and satyrs that fre- 
quent them, is given as the cause of the protection vouchsafed him 
on land and sea. 

318 BOOK m. ODE 4. [Page 8ft 

26. Philippls versa ades : Horace had fought under Brutus 
against Octavian in the Battle of Fhilippi, 42 b.c. ; see Introd. § 3 ; 
Odes, ii. 7. 9, tecum Fhilippos et celerem fugam sensi; Philippis is 
ablative of separation with versa. In ii. 7, Horace with the poet^s 
license attributes his rescue to the interposition of Mercury. 

27. devota arbor : see ii. 13, Ille et nefasto te posuit die, etc. In 
ii. 17. 28, the poet^s rescue is attributed to Faunus ; in iii. 8 to Bac- 
chus ; here to the Muses. 

28. nee Sicula PalinuruB unda : Falinurus wajs a promontory on 
the western coast of Lucania, off which Horace seems at some time 
narrowly to have escaped death by drowning. The name was derived 
from that of Aeneas*s pilot, who is said to have been drowned oS this 
headland ; see Virg. Aen. v. 836 ff. 

29. utoumque: whenever; as in ii. 17. 11, utcumque praecedes. 

30. insanientem Bosphorum : c/. ii. 13. 14, navita Bosphorum 
Poenus perhorrescit. 

32. Utorls Assyril : of the Syrian strand ; Assyrius for Syriitsis 
not infrequent in the poets ; c/. ii. 11. 16. 

33. BritannoB bospitibus feros: Tacitus Ann. xiv. 30, tells us 
that the Britons were wont to sacrifice their captives to the gods. 

34. laetum . . . Concanum : the Concani were a Spanish tribe 
said to drink the blood of horses. 

35. GtolonoB : a Scythian tribe mentioned also in ii. 0. 23 ; 20. 10. 

36. Scythicum amnem : the Tanais, the modem Don. 

37. VOB : emphatic, like vester, above, in line 20, and vestris in line 
26. altum: noble, august, 

38. fessaB coborteB addidit oppldlB: after Actium, Augustus 
gave allotments of land to some 120,000 veteran soldiers ; later, other 
soldiers (300,000 in all) received similar allotments. 

39. finire quaerentem : the infinitive with quaero is poetic and 
(in prose) post- Augustan ; cf. i. 37. 22, perire quaerens. labores : 
viz. the efforts by dint of which he restored order to the Roman state. 

40. Pierlo recreatis antro: Augustus was himself sincerely and 
profoundly interested in literature, and even made some attempts at 
verse ; Pierio antro is simply figurative for cultivated retirement. 

41. lene consilium = moderationem et clementiam (Orelli), quali- 
ties for which Octavian was conspicuous after his defeat of Antony ; 
note that consilium is here trisyllabic, the second i becoming conso- 
nantal ; cf. iii. 6. 6, principium. et dato (sc, consilio) gaudetis : 
i.e. and give it gladly, because it is heeded. 

Page 90.] BOOK III. ODE 4. 319 

42. ut: how. 

43. TitanaB immanemque tnrbam : with the poet^s license, Hor- 
ace here and below represents as contemporaneous at least four differ- 
ent assaults made upon Jupiter and the Olympian gods : (1) the attack 
of the Titans ; (2) the attack of tlie giants ; (3) the attack of the two 
brothers, Otus and Ephialtes (the Aloidae) ; (4) the attack of TyphO- 
eus. The giants, the Aloi'dae, and TyphSeus, therefore, are all em- 
braced under immanem turbam. 

44. folmine cadnco : the epithet caducua occurs with fulmen only 

45. qui temperat : viz. Jupiter ; the antecedent of qui is the sub- 
ject of sustulerit. terram inertem : the lifeless earth ; cf. i. 34. 9, 
bruta tellus. 

46. regna tristia : the lower world. 

50. fidenB iuventuB : insolent crew ; fidens (as often confid^ns) is 
here used in malam partem, • horrida bracchiis : an allusion to the 
hundred hands of the Uranids : Aegaeon, Gyas, and Gotta. They were 
properly distinct from the giants, though often, as here, confounded 
with them. 

51. fratreB : Otus and Ephialtes, sons of Aloeus ; in their impious 
assault upon heaven they piled Mt. Ossa upon Olympus, and Felion 
upon Ossa, but were struck down by the bolts of Jupiter. 

53. Typhdeus: a hundred-headed fire-breathing monster, sub- 
dued by the bolts of Jove. The name is kindred with ru^cis, * whirl- 
wind.' Mimas, Porpbyrion, Rhoetus, Enceladus: various 

55. evolaifl tmnciB : ablative of means with iaculator^ which 
here takes the same construction as iaculari; cf. i. 2. 3, dextera 

57. Bonantem : i.e. with the missiles hurled against it. Palla- 
diB : as the goddess of wisdom, Fallas is significantly contrasted with 
the giants, whose only weapon is brute force. aegida : see on i. 
16. 11. 

58. poBsent : deliberative subjunctive. hinc, hinc : on this 
side, on that. aviduB : merely as the god of fire. 

60. poBiturus = depositurus ; so i. 3. 40, ponere fulmina. 

61. rore = aqua, CaBtaliae : a sacred spring on Mt. Parnas- 
sus, near Delphi. lavit : in the Odes, Horace prefers the forms of 
the third conjugation, which are mainly archaic. 

§3. L^ciae : an importaQt seat of the Apollo cult. 

320 BOOK in. ODE 5. [Paob 9a 

63. natalem silvam : viz, on Mt. Cyntbus, in the island of Delos. 

64. Patareui : a designation of the god derived from Patara, a 
town of Lycia, celebrated for its shrine and oracle of Apollo. Con- 
cerning the new importance lent to the worship of Apollo by Augus- 
tus, see the note on i. 2. 32. 

65 f. The central thought of the ode is contained in this strophe : 
Brute force comes to naught, but might wisely controlled is blessed of 
the gods. 

69. teatis mearum centiinanus Oyas, etc. : a pompous prosaic 
passage, unworthy of Horace ; hence some editors reject the entire 
strophe (lines 69-72). On GyciSy see ii. 17. 14. 

71. temptator Orion : Orion, having attempted to violate Diana, 
was slain by the arrows of the enraged goddess ; temptator is a word 
newly coined by Horace. 

72. virginea = virginis, viz. Dianae. 

73. iniecta monstrls Terra : according to the legend, the giants 
were buried under various volcanic mountains. 

74. partus : poetic plural. luridum : here, pale. 

75. nee peredit, nee rellqnit : i.e. the fire has not as yet eaten 
through ; and the vulture has not as yet once left ; the perfect is more 
effective than the present would have been. 

77. incontinentis Titsri: for his attempted rape of Latona, he 
was consigned to Tartarus ; cf. ii. 14. 8. 

78. ales: the vulture that gnawed continually at his liver, 
neqnitiae : abstract for the concrete ; = libidinoso. 

79. amatorem Pirithoum : Firithous, king of the Lapithae, had 
endeavored to steal Proserpina from Hades and bring her to the upper 
world ; foiled in this purpose, he was put in chains by Pluto. 

The conclusion is almost irresistible that under the allusion to the 
giants and other reckless monsters Horace intends to suggest Antony 
and his recent alliance with Cleopatra against the Roman state, while 
on the other hand Jupiter, Pallas, and the Olympian gods are meant 
to be typical of Augustus. 


1. caelo : to be taken grammatically with regnare, not with tonan- 
tern. As shown by its position, the word is emphatic, being strongly 
contrasted with praesens, i.e. 'we believe Jove to be lord in the sky, 
but Augustus shall be held to be a god on earth,^ tonantem : with 

Paob 92.] BOOK m. ODE 6. 321 

causal force, becattse of his thunders. credidlmiM : f.e. have long 
believed in the past and believe now. 

3. AugiutuB : at the time this ode was written, the title Augustus 
had been but just conferred. Horace's use of the new designation was 
intended to be complimentary. adiectlB Britannia, etc* : with 
causal force, balancing tonantem in line 1 ; Horace anticipates the 
subjugation of the Britons and Farthians as something already accom- 
plished. The project of invading Britain, though often mooted during 
Augustus's reign, was not carried out. For gravibus Persis, ef, i. 
2. 22. 

5. mileane Craaai, etc, : the mention of the Farthians suggests the 
various reverses to the Roman arms experienced in fighting that 
people, and so serves as a transition to the real theme of the ode, — the 
importance of courage in the Roman soldiery. The reference in the 
two succeeding stanzas is to the disgraceful defeat of Crassus by 
the Farthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 63 b.c. In this engagement 
the Roman troops had tamely surrendered, and many of them were 
said subsequently to have taken service under Farthian leaders and 
even to have wedded Farthian women. Miles is here used collectively. 
coninge barbara: ablative of association with marituSj 'wedded,' 
which here follows the analogy of the verb marito ; cf, Ovid, Heroides^ 
4. 134, fratre marita soror. See B. L. L, § 837. 

6. tnrpia : with adverbial force. maritua : in predicate relation 
to miles, hoatium aocerorum : hostile fathers-in-law; Smith 
suggests translating : in the service of the foe whose daughter he has 
wedded; for hostium with the force of an adjective, c/. i. 1. 1, aZaiiis 
re^{&tis, 'royal ancestors.' 

7. pro : the interjection. cuila : the Senate House ; here men- 
tioned as symbolic of Roman power and dominion. 

8. conaemiit : the disaster of Carrhae had occurred nearly thirty 
years before the time of this ode. 

9. rege Medo, Maraua et Apulna : Medo^ as frequently in Horace, 
is used for Partho ; the Marsians and Apulians were the flower of the 
Roman soldiery. By the juxtaposition of the words, Medo Marsus et 
Apulus^ Horace aims to emphasize the disgraceful conduct of the 
Roman legions. The effect is further heightened by the use of rege^ 
always a hated name to the free Roman. 

10. anciliorum : the sacred shields kept in the custody of the 
Salii. One was said to have fallen from heaven in the reign of Numa. 
To protect this from theft, Numa is said to have ordered eleven 

322 BOOK III. ODE 6. [Page 92. 

others to be made after the pattern of the original. nominis : viz. 
Bomanus. togae : the distinctive badge of Roman citizenship ; cf. 
Virg. Aen. i. 282, gentemque togatam. With the whole passage, cf. 
Floras, iv. ii. 3, ArUoniuSj patriae^ nominis, togae, fascium oblitus. 

12. love : i.e, the temple of Jupiter (Juno and Minerva) on the 
Capitol, the most important of all Roman temples, and typical of 
Rome^s greatness. 

13. hoc : i.e. the decay of martial courage as exemplified by the 
troops of Crassus. Regiili : hero of the First Funic War. The 
date of his capture was put in 255 b.c, that of his embassy in 251. 

14. condicionibuB, ezemplo: from the terms, and from a 
precedent. The condiciones were that the Romans who had sur- 
rendered should be ransomed from the Carthaginians. The words 
are in the dative with dissentientis, by a poetical construction. 
Introd. § 36. c. 

15. trahenti : entailing. 

16. veniens in aevom : for future ages. 

17. peiirfit : the original quantity of the final vowel is here re- 
tained. It was regularly short in Horace^s day. immiserabilia : 
unpitied ; used predicatively. 

18. signa : sc. nostra. ego : emphatic, — with my own eyes. 

19. adfiza : i.e. suspended upon the walls. 

21. vidl ego : emphatic chiastic repetition of the preceding ego 
vidi. civium : special stress rests upon this word ; the picture of a 
civis Bomanus with his arms pinioned behind his back was to the true 
Roman the climax of humiliation. 

22. Ubero : grammatically with tergo, but logically with civium, 
— ^ the arms of free citizens pinioned behind their backs.^ 

23. portas : sc. Carthaginis. non clausas : by litotes for aper- 
tas, — wide open, in token of confident security. 

24. Marte : by metonymy for bello. coli : i.e. again in a state 
of tillage. populata : here used as the passive of the rare populo ; 
ordinarily the verb is deponent (^populor), 

25. anro : there is scorn in the word ; Regulus revolts at the 
thought of ransoming men who had forfeited all claims to the name 
of Roman. scilicet: in bitter irony; -to be taken closely vnth 
acrior, which is used predicatively. 

26. flagitio additis damnnin : to disgrace you are adding loss. 
Regulus means that the proposed ransom would be thrown away, 
and gives his reason^ 

Page 93.] BOOK III. ODE 6. 323 

27. amlBBOi colores : viz, its pure white. 

28. refert: regains. 

30. curat reponi deterioribus : cares not to be restored to degen- 
erate (hearts) ; i,e, would not, even if it could. 

31. si pngnat, . . . erit, . . . proteret : a stronger form of ex- 
pression for nisi pugnat . . . non erit . . . non proteret. The deer 
of course does not fight, when freed from the toils. 

33. perfidlB se credldlt hostibuB: there is a grim sarcasm in 
the coinhination perfidis credidit; se credere, though not elsewhere 
found, suggests putting oneself with trustful confidence in the hands 
of some one else. To do this to a faithless foe, such as the Cartha- 
ginians were traditionally regarded (c/. the proverhial Punica fides), 
evokes the scorn of Regulus. 

36. senait tdmuitque : a hysteron-proteron ; the fearing was prior 
to feeling the thongs and was the cause of it, not subsequent and the 
result of it. 

37. hie: i,e, he and all who had basely surrendered. undo 
vitam sumeret inaciuB: lit. ignorant whence to take life, i.e, not 
knowing that the way to secure life was by his own right hand ; 
sumeret is a dependent deliberative. 

38. pacem duello miBcuit : confounded peace vMh war, i.e, 
thought war was peace, and acted accordingly. For the ablative of 
association, cf above, line 5, coniuge maritus. B. L, L. § 337. The 
form duello is archaic for bello. This archaic touch is especially appro- 
priate in the mouth of Kegulus. 

39. probrosiB altior Italiae ruinlB : the more exalted from the 
shame of Italia'' s downfall. The logical emphasis, as indicated by the 
context and word-order, is upon prohrosis ; minis is ablative of means. 

41. fextur : sc. Begulus. 

42. ut capitiB minor : as one bereft of civil rights. Caput is often 
used in the sense of one^s political rights or status ; on Horace's free 
use of the genitive with adjectives, cf. i. 22. 1, integer vitae. 

44. humi : in poetry the locative is sometimes used, as here, to 
denote not ^lace where, but the direction of motion. 

45. donee iirmaret, properaret: till he should strengthen, etc. 
consilio numquam aliaa dato: i.e. by advice such as had never 
before been given ; Regulus was urging a policy that involved his own 

46. auctor : lit. as advocate, i.e. by his influence. 
48. egregiuB ezBul : a fine oxymoron. 

824 BOOK in. ODE 6. [Paob oa 

49. quae albi toitor pararet : legend bad it that Regains retnmed 
to Carthage in accordance with the promise given his captors, and was 
put to death with shocking tortures. Modem historical scholars regard 
the story as apocryphal. 

51. obstantds : blocking his path, 

52. redltus : poetic plural morantem : with conative force. 

53. ollentum: poetic form for clientium, longa: long-con^' 
tinned^ tedious, 

55. VenafranoB In agroa : Venafrum, in Samnium near the bor- 
ders of Latium, famous for its olive-orchards. Laoedaemoninm 
Tarentum: Tarentum was a Spartan colony. Both Tarentum and 
Venafrum were holiday resorts in Horace's time. Their charm for 
him may be gathered from ii. 6. 


1. Dellcta maionun : the reference is probably to the civil war 
of Marius and Sulla, 88 b.c. 

2. Romane : the singular, for the plural, is more impressive ; 
similarly Virg. Aen, vi. 851, tu regere imperio populos, Eomane, 
memento, donee templa refaceris : as a result of the recent civil 
disturbances, the shrines of the gods had fallen into neglect. It was 
the policy of Augustus, here endorsed by Horace, to restore and 
rebuild them. 

4. foeda fumo : either as the result of neglect or of actual con- 

5. minorem : less than, and so dependent upon, quod : in that, 

6. hinc = a deis, principium : for the sententious omission 
of the verb, cf, such expressions as hinc illae lacrumae; lupus in 
fahula; principium is here trisyllabic; cf, iii. 4. 41, consilium, 
hue = ad deos. ezitum =^felicem exitum, * happy outcome,' 'sue- 

7. di neclacti: logically, the neglect of the gods; for the archaic 
form neclecti, cf i. 28 (2). 10. 

8. HoBperlae : poetic for Italiae, lactaosae : proleptic ; Italy 
was in sorrow as a result of her sufferings. These are explained in 
the following stanzas. 

9. lam blB MonaeaeB et Pacorl manuB: the Romans had in 
reality suffered three signal defeats at the hands of the Parthians: 
that of Crassus at Carrhae in 63 b.c. ; that of Decidius Saxa, a lieuten- 

Faob 96.] BOOK HL ODE 6. 825 

ant of Antony, in 40 b.c. ; and that of Antony himself in 86 b.c. It 
is probably the last two that Horace has here in mind« Pacorus, son 
of King Orodes, had inflicted the first of these two defeats ; Monaeses, 
a distinguished Parthian leader, the second. 

10. contadlt, renidet : the singular verb with a compound sub- 
ject is the rule in Horace. 

11. adiaciaae : the infinitive depends upon renidet, lit. * gleams,* 
here used in the transferred sense of beams i/oith Joy; hence the 
infinitive, after the analogy of gaudet, 

12. torqulbua eziguia : the Parthians wore golden neck-chains ; 
these are called exiguiSf as compared with the rich booty secured by 
the Partliians from the Romans. 

13. paene delevit Daous et Aethiopa : this statement is some- 
what exaggerated ; yet, at the time of the struggle between Antony 
and Octavian, the Dacians had allied themselves with the former and 
had for a time added a new element of danger ; cf. Sat, ii. 6. 63, num- 
quid de DacU audistif Aethiopa is here used poetically for Aegifptii, 
the [Objects of Cleopatra. The fact that peoples like the Dacians and 
Aegyptians had furnished a real menace to Rome, is intended to sug- 
gest the lamentable condition into which the Roman state had fallen. 
occnpatam aeditionibuB : the reference is to the strife between 
Antony and Octavian. 

15. hie claBse formidatiui : the Aegyptian fleet comprised two 
hundred sail. 

16. melior = praestantior, 

17. oulpae: fecundtia takes the genitive after the analogy of 
plentu, Baecnla : the times, 

18. genuB = progeniem. 

19. hoc fonte : viz. the decay of the home. oladea : in the 
general sense of * disaster.' 

20. in patzlam populumque flnxit : starting in the home, disas- 
ter has pervaded the entire country and nation. 

21. motoB loniooB: Ionic dances were characterized by their 

22. matora : prematurely ; cf, ii. 17. 6, maturior, fingitur 
artibuB : i.e. trains herself in the arts of coquetry ; fingitur is used as 
a middle ; artibus is ablative. 

23. iam nuno : i.e. while still young. 

24. de tenero ungui : * ijoith her whole soul ; a Latin translation 
of the Greek ii diraXidy dv^x^^ > ^* ^^ English * to her finger-tips.* 

326 BOOK IIL ODE 6. [Page 95. 

25. moz : vU. when married. limiores adulteroi : her young 
paramours ; iuniorea hardly has any special comparative force. 

26. inter marlti vina : the presence of women at the conviyial 
gatherings of men was in itself a serious lapse from the practice of 
earlier generations. eligit: she does not choose an object of her 
affection, but surrenders herself to the first comer. 

27. cni donet : not merely an indirect question, but also a delib- 
eratiye subjunctive ; in direct form, cui donem f raptim : hur- 

29. loBBa : at the bidding of her paramour. coram : %,e. in the 
presence of all ; to be joined with iussa, non sine conscio 
marito : with her husband's full complicity. 

30. institor, navis magister: so Canidia, in Epod, 17. 20, is 
scornfully characterized as beloved of pedlers and sailors, amata 
naiUis multum et institoribus, 

32. dedecorum : i.e, disgraceful pleasures. pretiosus : i.e. 
paying liberally for the favors he receives. 

Kiessling calls attention to the studied antitheses of the foregoing 
picture. The woman does not choose the objects of her favors (eligit) , 
but comes at call (iussa) of men of the lowest class, pedlers and 
sailors ; nor are her favors gifts (donet) ^ but she sells them for a price 
(emptor); she does not act stealthily (impermissa), but with the full 
knowledge and collusion of her husband (conscio marito) ; not hur- 
riedly (raptim), but rising deliberately for the purpose (surgit); not 
in the dark (luminibits remotis), but openly in the eyes of all (coram). 

33. non his parentibus : the emphasis of the sentence rests upon 
these words, — not such the parents of whom were born the men that 
dyed the sea with Punic blood. 

34. infecit . . . Punico : the reference is to the First Punic War, 
more particularly to Duilius's victory at Mylae, 260 b.c. 

35. Pyrrbum : defeated by M\ Curius in 276 b.c. cecidlt : 
overthrew ; here used as the causative of cado. 

36. Antiocbum, Hannibalem : the former, often called Anti- 
ochus the Great (c/. ingentem), was defeated at Magnesia in 190 b.c. ; 
Hannibal wa9 overthrown at Zama in 202 b.c. 

37. niaticorum maBcnla milituin proles : note the interlocked 
order (synchysis). maecula: as contrasted with the effeminacy of 
the later Romans. 

38. SabelliB = Sabinis ; the stern simplicity of the Sabines is 
often alluded to in Latin literature. docta = cissueUu 

Page 97.] BOOK III. ODE 7. 327 

40. reclBOB fuBtii : firewood. 

41. nbi mutaret : subjunctiye of iterative action ; the indicative 
is the regular mood for denoting iterative action in Ciceronian prose ; 
but the subjunctive begins to be found in the Augustan poets, and be- 
comes common in Livy and post-Augustan writers. 

42. mutaret umbras: shifted the shadows; strictly this might 
apply to any period of the day, but the reference is evidently to eve- 

43. amicum: welcome^ sc, bobus, 

44. agens = adducens, 

46. peior avis : compendiary comparison for aetate avorum peior. 

47. nequiores : sc, quamparentes, daturos = edituros. 

48. vitiosiorem : sc. quam nos. Four generations are aptly char- 
acterized in three successive lines. 


1. Quid flea Oygen : why weepest thou for Gyges f Aaterle : 
the name (from dar-^p) suggests * as radiant as the stars. ' can- 
dldl : i.e, bringing fair weather ; cf i. 7. 16, albus Notus, 

2. Favonil: the zephyrs are the harbingers of spring ; c/. i. 4. 1, 
mce veris et Favoni. 

3. Tbyna = Bithyna ; cf. i. 35. 7. beatum : enriched^ richly 

4. fide : genitive ; Julius Caesar, in his de Analogia, gave the 
preference to this form even in prose. 

5. NotiB actus ad Oricum : the stormy southeast winds have 
forced Gyges to abandon temporarily the voyage eastward and have 
led him to take refuge at Oricus, a harbor on the coast of Epirus. 

6. Insana Caprae sidera : the stoimy weather brought by the ris- 
ing of this constellation. The goat was a part of the same constella- 
tion as the kids {haedi; cf iii. 1. 28); its evening rising occurred 
about October 1st. The time is therefore autumn. 

9. atqui: and yet, i.e. despite Gyges's devotion to Asterie. 
sollicitae nuntius bospitae : the messenger of his enamoured hostess. 

10. Cbloen : the hospita. ^ tuis ignibus : thy lover, lit. thy 
flame ; cf. Ovid, Amores, iii. 9. 56, dum tuus ignis eram. 

13. ut : how. Proetum mulier perfida, etc. : according to 
Homer (Iliad, vi. 1551), the mulier perfida was An tea ; according 
to later accounts, Sthenoboea. Proetus was her husband. Stheno- 

828 BOOK III. ODE 7. [Page 97. 

boea had fallen in love with Bellerophon, who rejected her advances, 
whereupon she accused him to her husband of having made improper 
proposals to her. Proetus, unwilling to kill Bellerophon himself, 
despatched him to lobates, king of Lycia, with a letter requesting 
the latter to put him to death. lobates thought to comply by sending 
Bellerophon to fight the dreaded Chimaera. 

14. nlmis casto : i.e. too upright for his own safety. 

16. maturare : i.e. bring swiftly ; the infinitive with impello is 
a poetic usage. 

17. paena datum Pelea, etc. ; Hippolyte, wife of the Thessalian 
king Acastus, had fallen in love with Peleus. When her advances had 
been rejected, she brought accusations of improper conduct against 
Peleus, and endeavored, though without success, to compass his 

20. bistorlaa movet : suggests tales. 

21. Boopolls Burdlor : i.e. more deaf to her entreaties than the 
cliffs to the sound of the waves. Icari : Icaros, an islet near Samos; 
it wajs ordinarily known as Icaria. 

25. qnamvis consplcltar, denatat : riding and swimming are 
often alluded to as important athletic accomplishments, e.g, i. 8. 6, 
8 ; iii. 12. 10 f. ; for quamvis with the indicative, c/. i. 28 (1). 13, quam- 
vis concesserat, and see In trod. § 41. a. 

26. aequo: with sciens, gramlne Martio: on the grass of 
the Campus Martius. 

28. Tuaoo alveo : i.e. the Tiber's channel. The Tiber is often 
called * the Tuscan stream ' ; cf. i. 20. 5, paterni fluminis ripae. The 
ablative is one of ^the way by which.' 

29. neque : neque^ nee, instead of neve, are often used in the poets 
with the imperative and with the jussive and optative subjunctives ; 
c/. ii. 7. 19, necparce; Epod. 10. 9, necsidus amicum appareat, 

30. sub cantu : at (the sound of) the music; cantus may be the 
music either of voice or of instrument ; cf tibia canere. querulae : 
i.e. voicing the lover's plaint. 

31. vocanti : with adversative force, — though he call thee cruel ; 
the dative depends on difficilis; cf iii. 10. 11, Penelopen difficUem 

32. diiilciUs: unyielding. 

Page 98.] BOOK 111. ODE 8. 829 

ODE vin. 

1. Martlii caelebs, etc, : the first of March was the Matronalia, 
or Feast of Matrons, on which married women brought sacrifice to 
Juno, and their husbands offered prayers for a happy continuance of 
their wedlock. Hence, Maecenas might naturally wonder why the 
bachelor Horace should be making festival on that day. 

2. velint: mean, 

3. carbo : on which to bum incense. 

4. caespite vivo : vivus for virens (' green '), as in 1. 19. 13 ; the 
fresh turf serves as altar. 

5. docte Bennones utrlusque linguae: lit. taught the lore, 
t.e. learned in the lore of both tongues (Latin and Greek), familiar 
with the traditions and traditional observances of both peoples. 

6. voveram : t.e. prior to these preparations; hence the pluperfect. 
album capnun: white offerings were sacrificed to the gods of the 
upper world, black ones to those of the world below. 

7. Libero : Horace here by implication attributes his preservation 
to Bacchus, the patron god of poets ; in ii. 17. 28, with a poet's license, 
he attributes it to Faunus. funeratus: elsewhere the word regu- 
larly means ^ buried,' * interred.' 

8. arboria icta : see ii. 13. 

10. corticem adatrictum pice : the mouth of the wine jar wajs 
closed with a cork stopper and wajs sealed with pitch ; cortex, lit. 
^ bark,* is here used par excellence for the bark of the Spanish oak 
(suber), from which cork was, and still is, prepared. demovebit: 
de- here, as often, means from the place where anything properly 

11. fumom bibere inatitutae: wine jars were regularly set in an 
upper room, where they were exposed to the smoke from the fireplace 
below. The smoke was thought to favor an early * aging' of the 

12. conaule Tullo : there were two consuls of this name, to either 
of whom Horace may be here referring. The elder was consul in 
66 B.C., the younger in 33. Probably the latter is meant, as in that 
year Horace received the gift of the Sabine farm from Maecenas. 
By this interpretation, the poet is made to pay a graceful compliment 
to Maecenas. His first Sabine vintage is to be reserved for an appro- 
priate annual commemoration of the day. 

13. Bume : of course at Horace's house. amioi soapitia : i.e. 

330 BOOK IIL ODE 9. [Page 98. 

in commemoration of your friend^s preservation ; lit. of your friend 

14. centnm: hospitable exaggeration. The cyathus was one- 
twelfth of a pint. 

15. perfer= pa^ere. inlucem: till daybreak. procul om- 
nlB esto, etc. : not a command to Maecenas, but rather an assurance 
that there shall be no noisy guests, as often at convivial meetings. 

17. mitte : leave, dvills super urbe coraB : the expression 
is somewhat redundant, meaning only ' cares of state * ; super, in the 
sense of de, is poetic ; after Horace it appears also in prose. 

18. Daci CotisonlB : Cotiso, a Dacian leader, had been in league 
with Antony (see note in iii. 6. 13). Crassus defeated him over- 
whelmingly in 29 B.C., just before the time of this ode. 

19. MeduB : for Parthus, as often. aibi : with luctuosis. 

20. dlBBidet armiB : i.e. is engaged in armed dissensions. The 
reference is to the strife between Tiridates and Phraates for the 
Parthian throne, lasting from 31 to 27 b.c. 

21. servlt : used absolutely, — is our subject. 

22. Cantaber : the Cantabrians were defeated early in 29 b.€. by 
Statilius Taurus. They were not, however, completely subdued till 

19 B.C. 

23. Ek)ythae : the Geloni, a Scythian tribe, were subdued in the 
year 29 b.c. ; c/. ii. 9. 23. lazo: unstrung. 

24. camplB: the steppes of southwestern Russia. 

25. neclegens: agreeing with the subject of parce, and so sharing 
the imperative force ; hence equivalent to neclegens esto, *■ be free 
from care * ; neclegens here = securus ; for the spelling nee-, cf i. 28 (2). 
10. neqoa popolus laboret : lest the people suffer in any way ; the 
clause depends upon cavere. 

26. parce cavere : a choicer form of expression in place of the 
ordinary noli cavere ; cf i. 9. 13, fuge quaerere. prlvatua : like 
neclegens (above, line 25), privatus shares the imperative force of 
parce, i,e. ' be for the nonce a private citizen.* 


1. Donee : in this sense of ' while,* * as long as/ donee does not 
appear until the Augustan era ; so also i. 9. 17. 

2. quisquam: here used adjectively in the sense of ullus. 
potior : i.e. ' more favored rival.* 

Pagb 100.] BOOK III. ODE 9. 831 

3. cervicl : for cervicibua ; in best prose the word is regularly a 
plurale tantum. dabat = circumddbat, 

4. Peraarum rege : proverbial for great wealth and power ; c/. 
ii. 12. 21, dives Achaemenes, 

5. alia: with arsisti, ' to be inflamed with passion for ' ; e/. ii. 4.7, 
arsU Atrides virgine rapta. Similarly, tepere takes the ablative in 
i. 4. 19. 

6. erat Lydia = eram ego. post Chloen : i.e, in less esteem 
than Chloe. 

7. malti nominlB : genitive of quality, here appended directly to 
a proper name, at variance with ordinary usage, in which some such 
word as mulier would have been added. Lydia : in opposition with 
the subject of vigui. 

8. nia : the bride of Mars and mother of Romulus and Remus. 

9. me : note the emphasis. 

10. modoB = carmina. citharae : sciens takes the genitive 
after the analogy of peritu8 and similar adjectives ; so also 1. 15. 24, 
sdens pugnae, 

12. animae: i.e. the light of my life, my love. sapeiBtiti: 
proleptic, — and suffer her to live, 

13. me : as in line 9. 

14. Thurini : of Thurii in southern Italy. 

15. patiar mori: the construction of the simple infinitive vnth 
potior is poetic. In this use patior often has the force, not of ' endure,* 
but of 'be right willing' ; cf. i. 2. 43 (patiens vocari Caesaris wWor), 
and note. 

17 f. redit, coglt, etc. : in poetry the present indicative is often used 
instead of the future to give greater vividness. 

22. levior cortice : i.e. fickle. cortice: corA;; seenoteon iii. 
8. 10. improbo: tempestuous, 

24. vivere amem : for this poetic use of the infinitive, cf. i. 2. 60, 
hie ames did pater atque princeps. 

A special feature of the exquisite art that characterizes this ode is 
seen in the way Lydia outbids her lover in her successive responses. 
Thus she caps gratus eram in 1, with arsisti, ' madly infatuated,' in 6 ; 
so in 13, torret is much stronger than regit in 9 ; the lover speaks of 
Tliracian Chloe in 9, only to be met with an imposing Thurini Calais 
filius Ornyti in 14 ; while the non metuam mori of 11 is answered by 
the bis patiar mori of 15, in which the special force of patiar must be 
borne in mind. 

332 BOOK m. ODE lO. [Paob 101. 


1. Tanain : The Don, in Scythia. The word follows the Greek 
declension. si blberoB : the condition is, of course, unreal, i.e. if 
thou wert a Scythian woman instead of a Roman. Drinking the 
waters of a stream is a common poetic periphrasis for dwelling on its 
bank ; e/. ii. 20. 20, Bhodani potor, 

2. saevo nupta viro : wedded to some strict husband ; for the high 
standards of domestic virtue among these northern nomads, c/. liL 24. 
19 f. aaperaa : cruel; the doors are personified. 

3. porrectmn : the suppliant is conceived as lying at full length 
before the threshold, obicere : the infinitive depends upon plorares, 
a stronger nolles, — a bold poetic use. incolia Aquilonlbus : ue. 
your native blasts ; Scythia is conceived as the home of the north wind. 

5. lanoa : as verb supply in thought from remugiat some such word 
as crepet. quo (nemus) : sc. strepUu. 

6. inter tecta : the trees are planted in the inner courtyard of the 
house. aatum : for consitum. 

7. ventiB : ablative of cause. ut : how, 

8. pnro nomine: ^in cloudless majesty'' (Smith). luppiter: 
as god of the sky. 

9. pone : for depone^ as often both in prose and poetry; c/. i. 3. 40, 
ponere fulmina, 

10. ne cuirente retro fonie eat rota : lit. lest the rope run hack 
as the wheel revolves^ i.e, lest thou be suddenly checked in thy present 
course. The figure is evidently drawn from some familiar mechanical 
operation, in which a rope runs over a pulley ; control is lost, and the 
rope moves swiftly back in the wrong direction ; retro is best taken 
with eat only ; currente rota is ablative absolute. 

11. non te Penelopen, etc. : the negative extends not merely to 
the words te Penelopen, but also to Tyrrhenus genuit parens, ue. *• thou 
art no Penelope, nor did a Tuscan father beget thee.^ Penelope is 
often cited as a type of wifely constancy ; Tyrrhenus is equivalent to 
clarusy the Tuscans being noted for their wealth and luxury ; Penelo- 
pen is a predicate accusative. cUfflcilem procla : for difflcilis, 
* unyielding,^ with the dative, cf. iii. 7. 31, vocanti difficilis, 

13. quamvla curvat : for quamvis with the indicative, cf, L 28. (1) 
13 ; Introd. § 41. a. 

14. tinctus viola : the reference is to the yellow, not the purple, 

Paob 102.] BOOK III. ODE 11. 333 

15. nee vir Plerla paelice Baucius : nor the fact that thy husband 
is smitten vfith love for a Thessalian paramour ; he tries to influence 
Lyce by urging her husband's infidelity. Pieria^ lit. Pierian (Mt. 
Pieros in Thessaly), is here used for Thessala, 

16. curvat : lit. bends thee^ i.e. to pity. 

19. boc latiM : hoc = meum ; latus = corptis, as in ii. 7. 18 ; the 
lover is pictured as lying at Lyce's threshhold. aquae caeleetiB : 
the rain ; this reference to the rain is inconsistent with puro numine, 
line 8. Possibly the lover does not mean that it is raining now, but 
that he has often endured the rain before, while vainly waiting for 


1. nam { introducing the reason for the invocation. te docilie 
magiatro : equivalent Xo ate magistro doctus ; te magistro is ablative 
absolute ; the emphasis rests on te. 

2. moTlt Amphion lapides : the walls of Thebes are said to have 
risen to the music of Amphion^s lyre. canendo: of a musical 
instrument, as often. 

3. teatudo : Mercury was fabled to have attached strings to a 
tortoise-shell, thus inventing the lyre; cf. i. 10. 6, curvae lyrae 
parentem. resonare : for the infinitive, cf. i. 10. 7, callidus con- 
dere, and see Introd. § 41. c. 

4. nervia : ablative. 

5. neo olim : i.e. before the chords were strung to the shell by 
Mercury, loquax: here equivalent to canora, * tuneful.* grata: 
to gods or men. 

6. templia : the music of the lyre was a frequent accompaniment 
of religious ritual. 

7. qulbiis adplicet, etc. : to which Lyde shall lend her ears; a 
* jussive characterizing clause * ; its jussive nature is seen in the fact 
that it is equivalent to an independent ' and let Lyde lend * ; its char- 
acterizing force is seen in the fact that the clause as a whole is an 
adjective modifier of modos. This * jussive characterizing clause* 
is not to be confounded with the * clause of characteristic,* which is 
another variety of characterizing clause, being developed from the 
potential. obatinataa : i.e. stubborn as yet. 

10. ezBoltim : found only here. 

11. adhnc protervo cruda maxito : not ready as yet for an eager 

334 BOOK III. ODE 11. [Pagb 102. 

13. ta : sc, lyra. tlgris, Bilvas ducere, etc, : viz, in the hands 
of Orpheus ; c/. i. 12. 7. comiteB : in predicate relation to both 
tigris and silvas; for the position of -que, cf, i. 30. 6, Oratiae prope^ 
rentque Nymphae, for Qratiae Nymphaeque properent; so often in 
the poets. 

15. coBBit ianitor: Cerberos permitted Orpheus to bring back 
Eurydice to the upper world. tibi blandienti : i.e. to thy persuasive 

17. forlale : i.e, his head is conceived aa twined about with ser- 
pents, like those of the Furies. 

19. mAnet : from mano, 

20. ore trilingul : the description is inaccurate, as in ii. 19. 31 ; 
Cerberus was conceived as having three heads, not one head and three 

21. IzXon : Izlon, king of the Lapithae, attempted to ravish Juno, 
and was punished in Tartarus by being fastened to a revolving wheel. 
TityoB : for his crime and punishment, see note on ii. 14. 8. voltu 
rlait invito : smiled through their anguish; for the singular verb with 
compound subject, see Introd. § 30. 

22. uma: for umae (each maiden had one), the vessels of the 
Danaids, into which they were condemned perpetually to pour water. 

23. paeHam =filias, 

25 f. The reference to the Danaids serves as an excuse for the fol- 
lowing digression. audiat: i,e, let her hear and take timely warn- 
ing, notas : this limits scelus as well as poenas ; cf. i. 31. 6, non 
aurum aut ebur Indicum, 

26. virginum : the Danaids. inane lymphae : empty of water; 
inane takes the case of its opposite plenus, — a poetic construction ; 
Introd. § 37. a. 

27. fundo : ablative of the 'way by which.* pereuntia : here 
in the literal sense of ' going through,* ' flowing through.* 

28. seraque fata quae manent : i,e, though postponed, they are 
sure. Bub Oreo. Orcus is here the person, not the place. 

30. impiae, impiae : note the emphatic repetition. quid pota- 
ere maiua : what greater crime could they (^conceive) I 

31. BponsoB: the fifty sons of Aegyptus, to whom the fifty 
Danaids were wedded. potuere : they had the heart, duio 
ferro : with the ruthless steel, 

33. una: one only, viz, Hypermnestra. face nuptiali: by 
metonymy for nuptiis; torches were carried in the bridal procession. 

Page 104.] BOOK III. ODE 12. 335 

34. peritmim: Danaus had pretended to offer his daughters in 
good faith to the sons of Aegyptus. 

35. Bplendide mendaz: a striking oxymoron. virgo : in appv>- 
sition with una. 

37. iuveni marito : cf. i. 1. 1, atavis regibus. 

38. longuB BomnuB: sc, mortis, undo non tlmoB: i.e. from 
my father or sisters ; as antecedent of unde we may supply in thought 
ab eis. 

40. falle : elude, escape. 

42. lacerant : Hypermnestra conceives the murders to be now in 

45. me : emphatic, — ' as for me (I care not what befalls) ; let my 
father,* etc. 

47. vel: intensive, — even. Numldarum agroB: the country 
of savage beasts and poisonous serpents. 

48. classe : by ship, by sea ; we expect nave. 

49. pedoB quo te raplunt et aurae : i.e. by land and sea. 

51. nostri memorem : commemorative of me. Bopolcro : prob- 
ably a cenotaph. 

52. querellam : i,e. an epitaph. 


1. MiBerarum : strong emphasis rests upon this word, — ' hapless 
the maids who may not ... or (if they do) must live half dead with 
terror ' (jRTUinimari), etc. dare ludum = indulgere; cf. the English 
*give play.' 

2. lavere = eluere, ' drown.* 

3. patniae : for the traditionally cruel uncle, cf Sat. ii. 3. 88, ne 
sis patruus mihi. 

4. tibl: Neobule addresses herself. Csrthereae puer ales: 
Cupid. telaB: poetic plural. 

5. operoBae Mlnervae : Minerva was the goddess of weaving, 
spinning, etc. ; the epithet operosus is transferred from the crafts- 
women to Minerva herself. 

6. Liparaei : from Lipara, an island north of Sicily. 

7. Bimol = simul ac, as often in the poets. lavit : as subject 
understand Hebrus, For swimming and riding as typical forms of 
exercise among Roman youth, cf iii. 7. 25 f. 

8. Bellerophonte : the rider of Pegasus; note the -e ; Horace fol' 

336 BOOK III. ODE 13. [Page 104. 

lows the first declension. The nominative Bellerophon^ in fact, is 
unknown in Latin poetry. 

9. segni : with pugno as well aa with pede. 

10. agitato : 8C. a canibua, 

11. grege *. sc. cervorum. iacularl : for the infinitive with catus, 
see Introd. § 41. c. and cf. iii. 11. 3, reaonare callida. 

12. ezcipere : «c. venabulo; the infinitive as in 11 ; cf. i. 15. 18, 
celerem aequi. 

ODE xra. 

1. Bandtudae : probably some fountain near Yenusia, Horace's 
birthplace. A Greek town, Uawdwrtd, was not far distant The geni- 
tive is apparently api>ositional ; cf. ii. 6. 10, Galaesi flumen, splen- 
didior vitro : splendidus means * shining,* not ' transparent * ; Horace 
therefore is probably thinking of the iridescent Etruscan glass. 

2. non Bine = cum, floribus : at the festival of the Fontanalia 
it was customary to deck the springs with garlands. 

3. baedo : i.e. the sacrifice of a kid. 

4. Gtil : dative of reference, — whose brow just budding j etc, 

5. proelia : viz, with his rivals. destinat : foretokefu^ 

6. tibi : ethical dative. 

8. subolea gregia : the haedus of line 3. 

9. bora: season. 

10. neacit = non potest. Irigoa : the cool shade of the trees 
about the spring. 

13. nobilium f ontium : predicate 'genitive of the whole.' ta 
qnoqne : i,e. Bandusia shall rank with ArethiiBa and Hippocrene. 

14. me dioente : ablative absolute with causal force ; dico here, 
as often, means ' to sing/ * to celebrate.' 

15. Note the fine suiting of sound to sense in the repetition of Z in 
loquacesy lympJiae, desiliunt. 


1. Herculia ritu: i.e. just as Hercules had undergone toil and 
danger in the performance of his labors, one of which, the securing of 
Geryon's cattle, had taken him to Spain, the scene of Augustus's 
recent exploits. modo: i.e. in the recent past. Augustus had 
gone to Spain in 27 b.c. (nearly three years before the time of this 
ode) to direct in person the military operations against certain Spanish 

Pagb 107.] BOOK ni. ODE 14. 387 

2. morte venalem : Augustus had actually been ill in Spain, and 
even a rumor of his death had reached the city. launim = vio- 

3. Caeear: Augustus. 

4. ▼ictor : he had not permanently subjugated the Spanish penin- 
sula ; this was not effected until 10 b.c. 

5. unlco: lit. unique, unexampled, and so, peerless, muller: 
here for uxor, viz. Livia. 

6. luBtis divla : the justice of the gods is seen in their vouchsafing 
Augustuses safe return. 

7. Boror : Octavia. decorae : here for decoratae, 

8. Bupplice vitta : fillets were bound about the heads of persons 
engaging in any formal religious ceremonial. The present ceremonial 
is one of thanksgiving ; hence, with the fillet of thanksgiving. 

9. nuper : viz. by the successes of the Spanish campaign. 

10. BOBpitum = conservatorum. 

11. maleomlnatlB parclte verbla. refrain from ill-omened 
words; cf, iii. 1. 2,favete Unguis. 

13. hicdioB: the day of Augustus's return. vere: mthfestus. 

14. tnmaltum : used especially of civil disturbances. 

15. mori : the infinitive with metuam in this sense is unusual ; the 
regular construction would have been ne moriar ; such expressions as 
iii. 11. 10, metuit tangi, are not like the present passage ; in them, 
metuo is a stronger nolo. tenente Caeaare : for the sentiment, cf 
iv. 15. 17, custode rerum Caesare non furor civilis exiget otium. 

18. Marai duelli : the Social War of 01-80 b.c. For the form 
duelli(= belli), cf iii. 5. 38. 

19. Spartacum: leader of the slave insurrection of 73-71 b.c. 
His followers naturally plundered whatever they could lay hands upon. 
slqaa : if anywhere. vagantem : Spartacus's roving bands laid 
waste large parts of Italy. 

20. fallere : escape. testa = cadus. 

21. argutae Neaerae: clear-voiced Keaera, properet: sub- 
stantive clause developed from the jussive, used as object of die; ut is 
absent, as frequently in clauses of this type. 

22. murreum : probably chestnut. 

23. lanitorem: tn>.. of Neaera's house. 

24. abito: i.e. do not wait. 

25. animoB : my high spirit ; poetic plural. 

26. litium et xlzae cupldoB: i.e. formerly and naturally. In 

338 BOOK III. ODE 16. [Page 107. 

Epp, i. 20. 25, Horace speaks of himself as naturally hot tempered, 
— irasci celerem, 

27. non ego hoc ferrem: the imperfect for the pluperfect, 

28. console Planco : Munatius Plancus (see i. 7) was consul in 
42 B.C., the year of Philippi, when Horace was fighting with Brutus 
against Octavian ; Introd. § 3. In admitting his hot-headedness at 
that period, Horace probably designs indirectly to confess his error 
in opposing Octavian. 


1. pauperis Ibyci : the poverty of the husband suggests that her 
help is needed at home. 

2. nequitiae = libidini. fige : stronger than pone ; it implies 
fixing the end irrevocably. 

3. famosis: disreputable. laboribus: %.e, arte of coquetry; 
the word suggeste that the woman^s conduct involves an effort, and is 
not spontaneous. 

4. maturo : i.e. death would not be premature ; the creature is 
old enough already. propior : not really comparative ; merely an 
intensive positive. 

5. inter . . . virglnes: for the separation, c/. iii. 27. 51, inUr 
errem leones. 

6. nebnlam spargere : i.e, by thy presence. 

7. siquid : 8C. decet Pholo6n : daughter of Chloris. 

8. rectias: more fittingly. 

10. pulso tympano : the beating of tambourines was a regular 
accompaniment of the orgiastic worship of Bacchus. 

11. cogit : i.e. with PholoS the passion is real ; her feelings force 
her to engage in these mad frolics ; with her mother such conduct is a 
mere affectation. 

12. similem capreae : for ut capream ; cf, i. 23. 1. 

13. lanae: i.e. wool working, — spinning, weaving, and the like, 
nobllem Lucerlam : Lnceria was an Apulian town famous for the 
superior fieeces of ite sheep. 

16. vetolam : in apposition with te^ and giving the reason why 
wine and roses no longer befit Chloris. The separation of the word 
from te and ite reservation till the final line of the stanza produce a 

Paob 109.] BOOK ni. 0D£ 16. 389 


1. Dana6n : an oracle had declared to Acrisius that his daughter 
would bear a son who should kill his grandfather. To prevent the ful- 
filment of this prophecy, Acrisius immured Dana6 in a brazen tower. 

2. robuBtae : of oak (robur), 

3. trlstoB : strict, munlerant : more viyid than muniissent ; 
cf. ii. 17. 28, sustulerat nisi levaaaet^ with note. 

4. adolterlB : adventurers, 

7. liaiBsent : i.e. scorned, and so thwarted, his precautions ; *' Love 
laughs at locksmiths/^ fore : depending upon the idea of thinking 
or knowing implied in the context, — for they (Venus and Jupiter) 

8. converso in pretium : according to the myth, Jupiter visited 
DanaS in a shower of gold. Horace^s use of pretium suggests that he 
interpreted the shower of gold as pointing to the bribery of Danae's 
guards. deo : dative. 

9. aunim : converso in pretium, in line 8, naturally suggests some 
general reflections upon the power of gold. satelliteB : probably 

10. permmpere : for the poetic use of the infinitive with amo, cf 
ii. 3. 10, pinus albaque populus umbram consociare amant. saza : 
the walls of fortresses ; cf the story of Tarpeia. 

11. auguriB Argivi domuB : the augur Argivus is Amphiar3,us ; 
under promise of a golden necklace, his wife Eriph^le was persuaded 
by Polynices to induce her husbaud to share in the expedition of the 
Seven against Thebes, where in the midst of the fighting he was swal- 
lowed up in a chasm of the earth that suddenly opened. As a punish- 
ment for Eriphyle*s cupidity, her son Alcmaeon slew his mother, for 
which deed he was driven mad by the Furies. The whole household 
(domus) of Amphiaraus, therefore, was ruined by Eriphyle's covetous- 
ness (ob lucrum) ; demersa, though made by Horace to apply to the 
entire domus, seems suggested primarily by the special fate of Amphi- 
araus himself; for domus in the sense of * household,' * family,' cf. 
I. 6. 8, saevam Pelopis domum. 

13. diifidit urbium portaB vlr Macedo : the allusion is to Philip 
of Macedon ; among the cities that yielded to his bribery were Olyn- 
thus, Potidaea, Amphipolis. Philip was wont to say that any fortress 
could be taken into which an ass laden with gold could be led. (Cia 
ad AU. i. 16. 12) ; vir Macedo is meant to convey contempt. 

d40 Boos: UL ODE Id. [Paob loa 

14. aemoloB reges : e,g. PauBaniafl, Arrhybas. 

15. muneribiis ; munera: note the emphasis of the asyndetic 
repetition of the same word ; nnder munen&tM we must understand 
bribes paid to the generals of Philip^s rivals. navinm duces : cid- 

16. MtevoB = timendo9 : the word is in adversative relation to 
munera inlaqueant^ -^ despite the terror they inspire, they saccumb to 

17. cresoentem : in strongly adversative relation to sequitur, — 
'your hoard may grow; yet care follows and constant greed for 

18. maiomm : neuter, in the sense of maiorum qpum, lure 
perhormi : explicative asyndeton, — and so I have vsUh reason shrunk 
from, etc, 

19. conapicuom : in predicate relation to verticem, and with 
proleptic force. toUere : for the poetic use of the infinitive with 
perhorrui, cf, ii. 2. 7, pinna metuente solvi, and see Introd. § 41 e. 

20. Maecenas, eqtiltmn decus : Horace seems to refer to Maece- 
nases steadfast preference for remaining in the equestrian order, in- 
stead of aspiring to senatorial honors ; the poet also intimates that his 
own restraint receives sanction from Maecenas's modesty. 

21. For the sentiment, cf. ii. 2. 0, latins regnes avidum domando 
spiritum quam si Lihyam remotis Gadibus iungas. 

22. plura : the correlative tanto is lacking, but is easily supplied 
in thought. feret = accipiet 

23. castra, transfuga, partis : all military terms. 

24. partis : the party, the side. gestio : a strong word, — am 
eager, am anxiotis, 

25. contemptae rei : te, of the wealth that I scorn. 

26. quldquid arftt Apulus: i.e. the produce of all the broad 
acres of Apulia ; for the archaic reminiscence in ardt^ cf. ii. 6. 14, 

28. inops : needy, as I should really be in such case. 

29. purae rivos aquae : the Digentia, which flowed through Hor- 
ace's Sabine farm. 

31. fulgentem imperio, etc. : lit. {my brook and woods and trusty 
patch of ground) escape him shining with (= endowed with) the im- 
perium over fertile Africa as being happier (bringing more joy) than 
his allotment ; i.e. the governor of rich Africa fails to see tiiat my 
humble possessions bring more joy than his allotment. Africae limits 


Pagb 110.] BOOK III. ODE 17. 341 

imperiOf but is to be understood also with sorts; imperio is to be 
taken in its technical sense of the imperium, with which the pro- 
vincial governors (proconsuls, praetors) were formally invested ; 
sorte is also used in its technical meaning, — not ' lot * in general, 
but the regular assignment by lot of the provincial administrations ; 
heatior stands in predicate relation to the subjects of fallit; fallit 
in this sense is a Grecism corresponding to a \avddvei, 6\piuyr4pa od<ra. 
The Latin necessarily dispenses with the present participle of esse. 
For the singular verb with compound subject, see Introd. § 39. 

33. Calabrae apes : for the high repute of the Calabrian honey, 
c/. ii. 6. 14. 

34. LaeBtrygonla amphora : the reference is to Formian wine 
(for which see note on i. 20. 11). Formiae was identified with the 
Homeric Laestrygonia. Bacchus = vinum. 

35. languoBclt = mitescit, * is mellowing,* i.e. in the store-room 
(apotheca). pinguia: thick, heavy. Gallicla paacuia: i,e. in 
the pastures of cisalpine Gaul, particularly along the Po. 

38. tu: Maecenas. 

39. contracto porrigam : i,e. I lengthen my purse by shortening 
my desires. The antithesis between contracto and porrigam is artis- 
tically heightened by putting one word at the beginning, the other at 
the end, of the clause ; a similar antithesis is found in the English : 
''The nation that shortens its sword lengthens its boundaries.** 

41. Mygdoniis campis : i,e, Phrygia ; see ii. 12. 22 ; campis is prob- 
ably ablative of association with continuem, lit. 'make continuous 
with*. Introd. § 38. a ; B. App, § 337. regnum Alyattei : Lydia ; 
Alyattes was the father of Croesus. For the form of the genitive, c/. 
i. 6. 7, Ulixei; Epod. 17. 14, Achillei. multa petentibus deaunt 
multa : note the rhetorical effect of the chiasmus. The clause as a 
whole stands in adversative relation to what precedes, — yet they who 
seek much, etc. 

43. bene eat : sc. illi. 

44. quod aatlB eat: i.e. just enough and nothing more; cf. iii. 
1. 25, desiderantem quod satis est. 


1. Aeli : Aelius Lamia ; see i. 26. vetnato nobilia ab Lamo : 
illustrious scion of ancient Lamus ; this is a mock compliment, for 
Lamus was the cannibal king of the Laestrygonians. The Romans 

842 BOOK IIL ODE 18. [Page 110. 

of Horace's day were fond of referring their ancestry to Hie famous 
worthies of the heroic age ; thus Virg. Aen, v. 117 f. derives the Mem- 
mii from Mnestheus, the Sergii from Sergestus. Horace humorously 
satiiizes this tendency, at the expense of his friend. 

2. priores: i.e, the original, the early Lamiae. hinc : viz. ab 

4. per memcres fastos : i,e, through all recorded history ; note 
the gentle banter of this grandiloquence ; the fasti are here personi- 
fied, and characterized as themselves endowed with memory. 

5. auctore ab illo : from him as founder (of your house) ; for 
this meaning of auctor, cf. i. 2. 36. 

7. princeps = primus. innantem Maxicae litoribue Llriin : 
lit. the Liris flooding Maricd's shoresyi.e. the shores along the mouth 
of the Liris, near Mintumae. Marica was a nymph, the consort of 
Faunus, and mother of Latinus, according to Virgil, Aen. vii. 47. She 
had a sacred grove near the mouth of the Liris, which is characterized 
as innatans, because at its mouth it spread out over wide marshes. 
For the Liris, see note on i. 31. 7. 

9. late : tyrannus is virtually equivalent to regens ; hence the ad- 
verbial modifier ; cf Virg. Aen. 1. 21, populum late regem. nemas : 
i.e. the ground beneath the trees. 

11. demiBsa ab Euro : cf. Epodes, 16. 54. 

12. aquae: of rain. 

13. annosa : the longevity of the crow was proverbial ; Hesiod 
put its age at nine generations of men. dum potes : i.e. before the 

14. Genium: the presiding divinity of each man, conceived of 
as born and dying with him. 

15. curabiB: with imperative force. bimeiuitri: the young 
pigs were withdrawn from the mother at two months, and were then 
suitable for sacrificial purposes. 

16. opemm : from their tasks; for this use of the genitive (a 
Grecism), cf ii. 13. 38, laborum decipitur; ii. 0. 17, desine querellarum. 

ODE xvm. 

1. Faune : the god of shepherds and farmers. Nympharum 
amator : Faunus, originally an indigenous Italic divinity, ultimately 
took on in the popular mind many of the attributes of the Greek Pan ; 
thus he is here conceived as seeking the company of the nymphs, who 

Page 112.] BOOK III. ODE 19. 348 

take to flight to escape his advances. lugientum : for this poetic 
form of the genitive plural, c/. iii. 27. 10, imminentum, 

2. meoB finiB et nira : i.e, the Sabine farm: 

3. leniB incedaB abeaBque aequoB : the emphasis rests not upon 
the verbs, but upon the adjectives, i.e. ^be propitious at thj coming 
and thy going ! * Note the chiasmus. parvia alumniB : i,e. the 
young of the flocks. Alumnia depends only upon aequos, 

5. pleno anno: i.e. at the year's end, viz. at the Faunalia, on 
December 5th (Nonae Decembres, line 10) ; pleno is here used in the 
sense of exacto ; the construction is the ablative absolute. cadit : 
i.e. as a sacrifice. 

6. larga nee = nee larga. VenerlB Bodali : in apposition with 
craterae ; wine and love are natural companions. 

7. vetUB ara fiunat : asyndeton ; vetus suggests that Faunus's 
worship has long been maintained on the estate. 

9. berboBO campo : in central Italy the grass is still green in 
December. • 

10. nonae Decembres : the Lupercalia, the regular annual festi- 
val in honor of Faunus, fell on February 13th. The festival to which 
Horace here alludes is not elsewhere mentioned ; possibly it was a 
purely local celebration. 

11. festUB : i.e. in holiday garb and holiday spirits. 

12. paguB : i.e. the population of the district, Mandela by name. 

13. audacoB : the emphasis of the sentence rests upon this word, 
— ^ the lambs have no fear when the wolf roams among them.' Faunus 
was identical with Lupercus, * the wolf-repeller ' ; hence his presence 
gives courage to the flocks. 

14. Bpargit agreatlB irondea : its woodland foliage ; in Italy the 
deciduous trees lose their leaves in December. tibl : for thee, in 
thy honor. 

15. invlBam : since it is the occasion of his toil. pepnliBBe : 
for the perfect infinitive with gaudet, cf, i. 34. 16, posuiase gaudet. 

16. ter : i.e. in triple time. 


1. Quantum diatet . . . narras: i.e. you indulge in learned 
antiquarian discussion : quantum distet means * how far distant (in 
time) ' ; narro is used here, as often, of long and tedious description. 
Inacho : the earliest king of Argos. 

844 BOOK m. ODE 19. [Paob 112. 

2. Codms : the last king of Athens. An oracle had declared that 
the Dorians should be saccessful in their invasion of Attica, if the life 
of the Attic king were spared. Codrus thereupon determined to sacri- 
fice his life for his country. Entering the Dorian camp in disguise, 
he engag;ed in a brawl with some soldiers and was thus killed. 
timidas morl: for the infinitive, cf. i. 1. 18, indocilis pati; Introd. 
§ 41. c. 

3. gMiiui Aeaci : the line of Peleus, Achilles, Neoptolemus on one 
side, of Telamon and Ajax on the other. 

4. Micro nio : Homer^s 'IXcof Ip-ii. 

5. Chiuin cadum : i.e. cadum vini Chit 

6. mercemur, temperet, caream : the subjunctives are not only 
indirect questions, but are also dependent deliberatives. aqmun 
temperet : i.e, temper its coldness, and so warm it for brewing some 
cheering beverage, such as the calda, a kind of punch. 

7. quo praebente domnm : i.e. at whose house ? quota : «c. 
hora, — at what hour f 

8. PaeUgnis frigoribus : the district of the Paeligni lay among 
the highlands of the Apennines, and so was noticeably colder than 
most other portions of Italy; hence Paeligna frigora is proverbial for 
severe cold. Note the poetical plural in frigoribus. 

9. da lunae novae, noctis mediae, Mnrenae : i.e. a health to 
the day (the first of the month), to the hour (midnight), and to our 
host (Murena). The poet in fancy conceives the revel as already 
begun. The genitives depend upon some such word as cyathos^ to be 
supplied in thought; cf. iii. 8. 13, suiae^ Maecenas^ cyathos amici 
sospitis centum. 

10. puer : the attendant slave. auguris Mnrenae : apparently, 
the gathering is to celebrate Murena^s recent election to the augur- 
ship. Concerning Murena, see note on ii. 10. 1. 

11. tribus aut novem cyathls commodis : teith three or nine 
cyathif as may he fitting; commodis has adverbial force, and 
is explained by what follows. The cyathuA was one-twelfth of 
the seoctarius (a pint). Hence the three cyathi of wine are to be 
conceived as mixed with nine cyathi of water to make up the pocu- 
lum ; while similarly the nine cyathi of wine are mixed with three of 

14. temos ter : i.e. the nine Muses call for nine cyathi. atto 
nltus : rapt^ inspired. 

15. vates: poet, trie supra: by anastrophe for supra tris; 

Paob 114.] BOOK m. ODE 20. 845 

the three Graces forbid their votaries to exceed three cyathi, pro- 
hibet : here in the less usual sense of * forbid.* 

17. lancta sororibus : the Graces are regularly represented as 
inseparable ; see note on ili. 21. 22. The ablative is one of associ- 
ation; Introd. § 38. a; B. L, L. § 337. 

18. inBanlre : to join mad revel, Berecyntdae tibiae : t'.e. 
such flutes as were used in the wildly orgiastic worship of Cybele, as 
celebrated on Mt. Berecyntus in Phrygia. 

19. ceaaaiit : here, not cease, but wait 

20. tacit& : grammatically in agreement with lyra, but to be un- 
derstood in thought also with fistula. 

21. parcentls dezteras : i.e. hands slow to perform the various 
hospitable duties of the occasion. 

22. audiat invidus, etc. : i.e. let the din be so mad and loud that 
Lycus shall hear and envy. 

24. vicina : apparently either a young wife or some maiden whom 
Lycus courts. non habilis : not suited ; she is young, and Lycus old. 

26. puro vespero : lit. the cloudless evening-star, i.e. the evening- 
star in cloudless skies ; cf. iii. 10. 8, puro numine. 

27. tempestiva Rhode : ripe Bosa. Here we have the climax 
of the ode : Rosa is far better than archaeology (c/. line If.). 

28. lentos: i.e. slow, consuming. 


1. Non vides : non, for nonne, indicates a higher degree of emo- 
tion, moveas : disturb. 

2. catulos leaenae : Nearchus's jealous admirer is likened to a 
furious beast, and Nearchus is conceived as one of her whelps. The 
figure is maintained consistently to line 10, where it is abruptly 

3. inaudaz : newly coined by Horace, and not found later. 

4. raptor : Pyrrhus has stolen the youth away. 

5. obstantis iuvenum catervas : the bands of hunters (figura- 

6. inaignem = pulchrum. 

7. grande certamen : in loose apposition with the statement pre- 
ceding, cedat : sc. utrum. 

8. maior an ilia : understand git, — or whether she (Nearchus^s 
admirer) shall he victorious. 

346 BOOK 111. ODE 21. l^AQiL 114. 

10. haec dentes acuit: understand et. Horace inaccurately 
attributes to the lion a habit attributed by Homer to the boar and said 
to be peculiar to that animal. 

11. arbiter pugnae .* Nearchus ; he is called arbiter, because it 
lies in his power to settle the dispute by indicating his own preference. 
poBulBse sub pede : i.e. in scornful indifference. 

12. palmam : the token of victory. 

13. recreare : note the change of tense ; i.e. he is said to have 
trampled on the palm of victory, and now to be cooling his shoulders, 

15. Nlreus: characterized by Homer as the fairest of all the 
Greeks who came to Troy ; II. ii. 673. 

16. raptUB ab Ida : Ganymedes, the son of Tros, one of the early 
kings of Troy. Attracted by the surpassing beauty of the youth, Jove 
carried him away from Ida to Olympus to be his cup-bearer. 


1. nata : the jar is addressed as born in Manlius*s consulship ; t.e. 
the wine it contains was made in that year. Manlio : L. Manlius 
Torquatus was consul in 66 b.c, the year of the poet's birth. 

2. querellas: lovers' plaints. geris: lit. carriest, i.e. contain- 
est (potentially). iocos: mirth. 

3. rizam : between the revellers. 

4. iacilem: soft, sweet, as in ii. 11. 8. pia testa: thou goodly 
jar, as fulfilling the beneficent functions enumerated below (lines 

5. quocumque lectum nomine Masaicum : i.e. for whatever 
purpose (of those just mentioned) the Massic was gathered that thou 
boldest ; quocumque nomine is used here in the sense of quocumque 
causa ; lectum, strictly applicable to the grapes of which the wine was 
made, is here applied to the wine itself. 

6. moverl = demoveri, i.e. to be brought down from the store- 
room (^horreum) . In the poets and post-Augustan prose-writers, dignus 
\s often construed with the infinitive. 

7. descende : the store-room was usually in an upper story ; see 
note on iii. 8. 11. Corvino : M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, dis- 
tinguished as the patron of the poet TibuUus, was also a friend of 
Horace. Like Horace, he had supported the fortunes of Brutus and 
Cassius in the campaign of Philippi, and like him he had later given 

Pagb115.] book III. ODE 21. 347 

his support to the new r^me of Augustus. He was of noble birth, 
and was one of the ablest orators of his day. 

8. languidiora : i.e. mellower than usual ; cf, iii. 16. 35, langueacit, 

9. Socraticis: i.e. pertaining to philosophy. madet: so we 
speak of * being saturated' with a subject, or * steeped in' it. But 
the word is here nicely chosen by the poet to suggest that Corvinus is 
also not unwilling vino madere, 

10. BermonlbuB: lore, as in iii. 8. 6, docte sermones utriusque 
linguae. horridus: austerely. 

11. Cato is here characterized as habitually abstemious ; yet in the 
de Senectute (14. 46), Cicero represents him as describing with enthusi- 
asm the convivial delights which he enjoyed with his friend^nd neigh- 
bors on his Sabine estate. Catonis virtus : the virtuom^ato ; cf. 
Sat. ii. 1. 72, virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli, i.e^*'^yh heroic 
Scipio and the wise Laelius. The reference, as shown by^^ffeci, is to 
Cato the Censor (284-149 b.c). 

13. lene tormentum : * pleasant compulsion,' an evident imita- 
tion of Bacchylides's characterization of wine as a yXvKcZ' dvdyxa. Note 
the effective oxymoron. 

14. plerumque : usually; with duro, duro : dull; lit. hard, 
i.e. unresponsive. sapientlum . . . Lyaeo: in contrast with 
duro ; the witless are stimulated to thought ; the minds of the wise are 
unlocked, and they reveal their secret thoughts under the spell of the 
god (Lyaeo is ablative). 

17. aiudiB : distressed. 

18. comua : the horn in Roman, as in Hebrew, literature is the 
symbol of power and confidence ; cf. Psalms, cxlviii. 14, He exalteth 
the horn of his people ; Ovid, Ars Amat. i. 239, turn (after wine) pau- 
per comua sumit. 

19. post te : i.e. after enjoying thy beneficent infiuence. tre- 
menti : here transitive ; cf. ii. 12. 8, periculum contremuit. iratos 
regam apices : the epithet (by hypallage) agrees with apices instead 
of regum; for apices (= coronas), see note on i. 34. 14. 

21. et si laeta, etc.: i.e. *and Venus, if she lend her gracious 

22. segnes nodum solvere : i.e. who never break their bond ; 
for the description, cf iii. 19. 17, Gratia nudis iuncta sororibus. For 
the infinitive with solvere, cf. i. 1. 18, indocilis pauperiem pati ; nodum 
is, of course, the bond that unites the sisters, who are often represented 
in ancient works of art with their arms entwined about one another. 

848 BOOK III. ODE 22. [Paob 116i 

23. vivae luoemae : the burning lamp8 ; cf. iii. 8. 14, vigiles lucer^ 
nae. producent : the object is properly te (the testa) but is trans* 
ferred to the occasion itself. 

24. fngat: a more vivid picture than had Horace written /u^averit, 
which would have been the usual tense. 


2. laborantiB paellas : young mothers in travail. ter vocata : 
this triple repetition is a common feature of ancient rituals. 

3. audia : Diana, as well as Juno, was supposed to assist women 
in childbirth. 

4. dbjJf triformia : Diana on earth, Luna in heaven, and Hecate 
in the ^prd^ world. 

5. vihi^: the dwelling-house on the poet's Sabine farm. tua 
piniiB asto : thine be the pine ; the emphasis of the line rests on tua ; 
the poet prays that the tree may belong to the goddess, in the sense 
that it is to be under her protection. 

6. quam : referring to the tree, to which, as blest by the goddess, 
the poet proposes to sacrifice, instead of directly to the goddess herself. 
per eacactOB annos : t'.e. at each year's end ; per \a distributive. 

7. obllquom meditantlB Ictum : that practises sidelong thrusts, 
a characteristic of the boar. 

8. donem : subjunctive in a relative clause of purpose; the goddess 
is asked to bless the tree, that Horace may in turn make sacrifice for 
the favor. 


1. Caelo: heavenward; dative of direction of motion. aupi- 
nas : i,e. with palms upward, the customary way of holding the hands 
in Roman supplication ; cf, Virg. Aen, i. 93, duplices tendens ad sidera 
palmas, tuleria : for sustuleris, 

2. nascente luna : i,e. when the moon is new. A monthly sacri- 
fice at the time of the new moon was apparently customary ; cf, iii. 
19. 9, da lunae novae, Phidyle : evidently formed from the root 
of the Greek 4>€ldotuUf * spare ' ; hence * the £rugal one,' a fitting name 
for a country lass. 

3. placarls: for the long i', cf iv. 7. 20, 21, dederis, ocddens, 

5. Airicum : the sirocco, which withered vegetation. 

6. ipGvakdsL = fertUis, stexilem : here active, — blighting. 

Paob 117.] BOOK III. ODE 23. 849 

7. alumni : the young lambs, calves, and kids, bom the preceding 

8. grave tempus : the sickly season ; cf. Sat, ii. 6. 19, autumnva 
gravis. pomifero anno : ablative of time ; for annits in this sense 
('season'), c/. Epod, 2. 29, anmis hibernus, 'the winter season.' 

9. nam quae, etc. : nam introduces the justification of the general 
idea previously enunciated, viz, : for thee, a simple sacrifice suffices ; 
no costly victim is necessary. nlvall : snovH^apped, Algido : 
Mt. Algidus, on the eastern edge of the Alban Hills, some twenty 
miles southeast of Rome. 

10. devota: t'.e. destined for the altar. quercus inter: i,e, 
feeding on acorns; for the anastrophe of the preposition, cf, iii. 3. 11. 

11. Albanis in herbis : the pasturage in the vicinity of Mt. Alba. 

12. victima: used regularly of some larger and costly animal, 
such as a steer, or a full-grown sheep. pontificum Becuxis tin- 
guet : the emphasis is on pontificum ; i,e. is destined for the imposing 
ceremonial of the priests. 

13. cervice: here used for sanguine, te: as contrasted with 
the pontifices, 

14. temptare: to importune; as object understand deos from 
parvos deos, the object of coronantem, bidentium : according to 
Hyginus, a bidens is a victim having two teeth more prominent than 
the rest, which indicate that the animal has reached maturity. 

15. coronantem : with conditional force, — * it is not necessary for 
you to offer costly victims if you only garland,' etc. ; i,e, *it is not 
necessary . . . and it suffices to garland.' parvos deos : the small 
images of the gods. 

16. fragili : brittle, not flexible like the willow, for instance. 

17. immunis : here in the sense (not elsewhere authenticated) of 
pura, ' innocent.' The word is emphatic and contains the climax of 
the ode. 

18. non Bumptaosa blandior hostia : not (made) more persua- 
sive by a costly sacrifice ; blandior agrees with manus, 

19. mollivit: it (sc, ea, the hand) has appeased, aversos: 
estranged, Penatis: cf, line 4, Lares, Any original distinction 
that may have existed between these two words had long since disap- 
peared in Horace's day ; he uses them interchangeably. 

20. farre et mica = salted meal, a regular accompaniment of sacri- 
fices, aaliente : lit. dancing, i.e, crackling. The greater the crackling 
when the salted meal was cast upon the flame, the better the omen. 

850 BOOK tit. ODi: 24. [Paob iia 

ODE xxrv. 

In general character and spirit, this ode closely resembles the first 
three odes of this book. 

1. intactis : i.e. as yet untouched by the Romans ; c/. i. 29. 1, 
Icci^ beatis nunc Arabum invides gazis. opalentior thesanzis 
Arabum : poetically free for quam Arabea intactU thesauris. 

2. divitis Indiae : India was a proverbially rich land ; it furnished 
spices, precious stones, ivory, metals, metal work, ceramic wares, etc. 

3. caementiB : i.e. with buildings ; c/. iii. 1. 33 ff. licet : though, 

4. Tyrrhenum omne et mare Apulicum : i.e, all the western and 
eastern coast of Italy. As a matter of fact, there was little or no 
building on the eastern coast, of the sort mentioned in iii. 1. 33 ff. 
Horace, with the characteristic of a poet, merely states a hypothetical 
case. For the quantity Apulicum^ cf. iii. 4. 10, Apuliae. 

5. fig^t : the long i is not here a reminiscence of an earlier quan- 
tity, as in i. 3. 36, perruplt, or in ii. 6. 14, ridet, but is probably an 
analogical extension after such models. On the present with future 
force, cf. i. 1. 36, inserts. 

6. Buxnmis verticibuB : thy topmost roof; the case is ablative. 

7. clavoB : cf. i. 35. 18, where cuneiy unci, and liquidum plumbum 
are also mentioned as symbols of the might of Necessitas, 

9. campeBtreB 8c3rthae : the Scythians who dwell on the vast 
steppes of the North. meliuB : i.e. better than we Romans with our 
effeminate luxury and false ideals of life. 

10. quorum : with domos. vagaB domoB : the Scythians were 
nomads. rite : a« is their custom. 

11. rigldi : stern^ strict. Gtetae : they dwelt to the north of the 
Danube, near the Black Sea. 

12. liberaB : i.e. not the property of any master, but belonging in 
common to the tribe. 

14. nee cultura longlor annuft : Caesar, B. G, iv. 1, gives a simi- 
lar account of the German Suebi. 

15. defunctumque : having finished; -que has adversative force. 

16. aequali Borte: i.e. the successor (^vicariua) is likewise to till 
the assigned plot for a single season and is then to relinquish it to some 
one else ; sorte is an ablative of quality. recreat : relieves, 

17. iUic : i.e. among these simple northern tribes. 

18. mulier: not the traditional Roman noverca, temperat: 
spares, imiocenB : in predicate construction with adverbial force, 

Page 110.] BOOK III. ODE 24. 851 

— vjithout harming them. Note the retention of the primitive force of 
in-nocens; so also in i. 17. 21, innocerUis Lesbiu 

19. dotata conlunz: at Home, the richly dowered wife often 
indulged in the greatest liberty of conduct ; hence she is spoken of as 
* ruling her husband,* instead of yielding a becoming obedience to his 
authority. For the decay of social purity in contemporary Roman 
society, c/. iii. 6. 17 f. 

20. nltido adultero : the dashing paramour. 

21. dOB : viz. among the Scythians and Getae. magna : with 


22. metnena : tfuxt 8hrink8 from ; for the genitive, cf. iii. 10. 16, 
rixarum metuens. alterius : another (than her husband) ; alius 
is practically unknown in Latin. 

23. certo ioedere : of steadfast devotion ; ablative of quality. 

24. aut : or (if the sin is committed). pretium: the penalty. 

The foregoing idealization of the northern races is thoroughly char- 
acteristic of ancient literature. Tacitus, in his Oermania, depicts the 
Germans in similar fashion. Cf. also the note on ii. 20. 16, Hyper- 

25. qulaqulB volet, etc. : a complimentary allusion to the endeavors 
of Octavian to improve the standards of social life. 

26. rablem dvicam : the frenzy of civil strife. On civicam, cf 
ii. 1. 1 and note. 

27. quaeret subscribl : for quaeret with the infinitive, cf i. 37. 
22, perire quaerens. * pater urbiuxn ' : subject of subscribi. 

28. subscribi : i.e. inscribed on the base (sub) of the statue. 

29. reirenare licentiam : in iv. 15. 9 f., Horace credits Augustus 
with accomplishing this very object, ordinem rectum evaganti frena 
licentiae iniecit, 

30. dams : i.e. destined to be glorious. postgenltis : in the 
eyes of posterity ; dative of * the person judging,^ a variety of the dative 
of reference ; B. 188. 2. c. quatenus : inasmuch as, introducing 
the reason why the true patriot must look to posterity for appreciation. 

31. virtutem incolumem odimus : i.e. we show despite for true 
worth while its possessor is still alive. 

32. invidi : through envy ; with both odimus and quaerimus. 

33. quid: sc. proflciunt, — of what avail f querimoniae : la- 
ments over our present evil plight. 

35. sine moribus : i.e. without morals ; the phrase is to be joined 
closely with vanae. For the thought, cf the strikingly similar pa^ 

852 BOOK UL ODE 24. [Paob lid 

sage in Tacitus, Qermania, 10, pltis ihi boni mores vcUent quam tjUibi 
bonae leges. 

36. lervldiB pars Indiua caloiibiis : the totrid zone. 

38. latua : reffion, as in i. 22. 10. 

39. daxatae solo : i.e, lying frozen on the ground. 

40. morcatorem ablgnnt : t.e. prevent the trader from seeking 
gain. The restless spirit of greed, according to Horace, is the ulti- 
mate cause of the existing social demoralization. 

41. vinount, iubet : note the effect of the asyndeton. 

42. magnum opprobrium: (in apposition with pauperies) i.e. 
interpreted as a reproach; lot pauperies^ 'narrow means,' not 'pov- 
erty,' c/. i. 1. 10. 

43. quidvla : with facere^ * any crime whatsoever ' ; with pati, 

* any disgrace ' ; as subject of the infinitives, nos is to be understood. 

44. deserlt : an abrupt change of construction ; we should have 
expected deserere dependent upon iubet. arduae: in agreement 
with virtutis, instead of viam; hypallage. 

45. in Capitollum vel la mare : i. e. either let us offer to the gods, 
or throw into the sea, the cause of our offending (summi materiem 
mali), Capitolium suggests the altar of the Capitoline temple. 

46. quo clamor vocat, etc* : lit. whither the shouts now summon 
us ; but logically the clause refers to an attendant circumstance of the 
proposed act, * to the plaudits of the shouting crowd,' as though in a 
triumphal procession ; faventium illustrates the substantive use of the 
present participle as a noun of agency (here, fautor) ; faveo often has 
this meaning of * applaud,' i.6. show favor by applause ; note the hen- 
diadys in clamor et turba. 

47. mare proximum : t'.6. the nearer, the better, for the act can- 
not be too quickly consummated. 

48. lapldes : i.e. precious stones ; anonymous with gemmas. 
Inutile : here, not useless^ but baneful^ by a kind of litotes (properly, 

* softening ' of the expression). 

49. smmnl mall : in English (with change of figure) we should 
naturally say, * our deep depravity.' 

50. mlttamns : zeugma ; the word is strictly appropriate only with 
in mare prozimum, not with in Capitolium, which calls torferamus, oi 
some such word. bene: t'.6. sincerely. 

52. elementa : the seeds, the causes, 

53. asperlorlbuB stadils : sterner pursuits, e,g. swimming, run- 
ning, leaping, boxing, etc, ; c/. i, 8. 

Pagb120.] book III. ODE 25. 868 

54. nescit, timet : he lacks both the skill and coura^ that should 
characterize a manly lad. equo haerere : he cannot even keep his 
seat, — much less ride with skill and grace. 

55. ingenuos : for the nominative ingenuoSf see Introd. § 34. 

56. ludere doctlor : the infinitive dependent upon an adjective, 
asi. 1. 18, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

57. seu . . . Bou = vel si , . . vel si, Giaeoo trocho : there 
is scorn in the word Graeco ; the young num is so lost to sentiments 
of patriotism that he seeks amusement in foreign sports. The better 
sentiment among the Romans, particularly in the earlier and nobler 
days of their history, steadfastly opposed the introduction of all foreign 
ways and ideas. The trochiAs was a hoop, to the circumference of 
which were attached rings that rattled as the hoop was trundled. 
lubeas, malls : subjunctive, because of the indefinite second singular 
in a subordinate clause. 

58. vetlta leglbuB alea : gambling was always a serious vice 
among the Romans, and severe penalties were prescribed against it. 

59. cum lallat et properet: the cum-clause is circumstantial 
rather than strictly temporal, — while his father^ s perfidy^ etc, 
periura fides = perfidia, 

60. oomK>rtem sodnm : his business partner. hospitea : to 
violate the obligations of guest-friendship was impious. 

61. indigno heredi : the effeminate son just described. 

62. properet : i,e. hurriedly amass ; cf, ii. 7. 24, deproperare coro- 
nas. Improbae divitiae : ill-gotten wealth ; the epithet is trans- 
ferred from the owner to his riches. 

63. tamen curtae nesdo quid, etc. : i.e, despite his accumula- 
tions, the man feels that his possessions are scanty (curtae) and some- 
thing is ever lacking to make up the desired fortune. Thus Horace 
returns to the sentiment enunciated earlier in the ode : Insatiable greed 
is the root of all our misery. Note that in nescio guu, when used 
as an indefinite pronoun, the o is always short. 


1. tnl plemim : cf. ii. 10. 6, plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 

2. nemora : like specus governed by in. 

3. mente nova : iv my fresh inspiration, 

5. meditans, etc, : lit. planning, i,e, engaged in composing the 
verses that shall immortalise his £^ory. 

354 BOOK III. ODE 26. [Pagb 120. 

6. BtelliB inaexexe, etc. : ue, to immortalize ; c/. iii. 3. 10, arcis 
attigit igneas, 

7. Inaigne : a glorious deed; the reference is apparently to some 
great achievement, most probably the victory of Actium. 

9. ezBomnia : i.e. tireless in celebrating the orgies of the god. 

10. nive candidam : the allusion is probably to the snow-capped 
mountains of Thrace. 

11. pede barbaro lustratam : i.e. traversed by the feet of Thrar 
cian Bacchanals. 

12. Rhodopen . a lofty mountain of Thrace. ut : than ; ac 
would have been the usual conjunction after secus. 

13. vacuom : for the spelling, see Introd. § 34. 

14. potens: lord. 

15. valentium . . . frazinos : i.e. in their inspired frenzy. ver- 
tere = evertere, * to tear up by the roots ' ; for the infinitive with valere, 
\f. i. 34. 12, valet ima summis mutare. 

18. nil mortale : i.e. nothing common or usual ; ^ my song shall 
be divine.' loquar = dicam. 

19. Lenaee : lit. thou (jgod) of the wine-press ; one of the many 
names of Bacchus. 

20. cingentem : agreeing with the subject of sequi (me)y not with 


1. duellis = hellis^ i.e. the lists of love ; for the form, see the note 
on iii. 6. 38. 

2. militavi : often thus used of campaigns in Love's service. 

3. arma : the weapons of Love, as enumerated in line 7. 

4. hie paries : a niche in the wall of Yenus's shrine. 

5. marinae Veneris: i.e. Venus, who sprang from the sea; her 
statue, of course, is meant. For a rationalizing interpretation of the 
legend of Venus's birth from the sea, see note on i. 4. 6. 

6. ponite : i.e. lay as votive offerings ; the words are addressed to 
the poet's attendants, who are conceived as bearing the offerings. 

7 funalia, vectes, areas: the equipment of the lover ip his 
nocturnal roamings ; the funalia light his way ; the vectes are used in 
forcing the doors of his reluctant mistress ; arcus is obscure and doubt- 
less corrupt; ascias (i.e. ascyaSy by * hardening'), 'axes,' has been 
suggested as the true reading. 

8. opposiUs : i.e. barred against the lover's entrance, fori- 

Page 123. j BOOK III. ODE 27. 365 

bus : dative with minacis. minacls : i,e, threatening to destroy 
them. , 

9. beatam : rich. diva reglna : O queenly goddess ; for the 
adjective force of regina, cf. i. 1. 1, atavis regibus with note. 
Cyprum : concerning this seat of Yenus^s worship, see note on i. 3. 1. 

10. Memphin : in Egypt. Slthonia = Thracia ; the Sithonii 
were a Thracian tribe. 

11. sabllmi: uplifted, 

12. Chloen : mentioned also in i. 28. 1, and repeatedly in Book iil. 
Bemel : with tange ; just once ; a single blow of the goddesses lash 
will suffice to break the maiden^s pride. 


1. ImpioB ducat, rumpat : though standing prominently at the 
op<3ning' of the poem, these clauses are logically subordinate to prece 
suscitabo ; Le, * I shall entreat the gods to bestow good omens on my 
friends, while willing that evil omens may befall the wicked.' 

2. praegnas : collateral form of praegnans, 

4. feta : that has just brought forth. 

5. rumpat = interrumpat. 

6. si : here in the temporal sense of lohen^ a meaning of si found 
occasionally throughout the entire period of the language. per 
obliquom : athwart their path ; dependent upon the idea of motion 
involved in similis sagittae. aimilis sagittae: i.e. with a sudden 
darting movement. 

7. ego ooi timebo : the evident antithesis between this phrase and 
impios shows that by ego cui timebo Horace means the good. 

9. Btantis repetat paludes : this was said to prognosticate rain. 

10. imbrium divina : prophetic of showers ; the raven {corvus^ 
comix) by its croaking was thought to foretell the coming rain ; cf. lii. 
17. 12. For the genitive with divinus, cf. Ars Poet. 218, divina futuri, 

11. OBclnem : i.e. giving auguries by its notes. prece suaci- 
tabo : i.e. will invoke. 

12. BoUa ab ortu : with the ancients, favorable omens came from 
the East. 

13. sis licet leliz : it seems best, following Page, to take licet as 
parenthetical and to regard sis, like vivas, as an optative subjunctive ; 
licet then has the force of * so far as I am concerned,' i.e. the poet will 
interpose no obstacle to Galatea's departure, if she is bent on going. 

856 BOOK in. ODE 27. [Paob 123. 


15. laevos picas : the Romans faced the south when they sacri- 
ficed or took the auspices; hence omens appearing on their left 
(toward the east) were favorable. But with the Greeks, who faced 
Uie north in their ceremonial observances, the left side was unfavor- 
able, and we occasionally find the poets, as here, following the Greek 

16. vaga : i.e, flying to water (the starUes paludea of line 9), and 
so giving prophecy of rain. 

17. sod vides : introducing a caution against setting out at pres- 
ent ; for though the omens are favorable, the season is unpropitious. 

18. pronus Orion : setting Orion ; this constellation set early in 
November. ego : emphatic, — from my own experience I know, 
quid sit : I'.e. what mischief it can bring. 

19. Hadriae : appositional genitive ; the sinva is the Hadria 
itself. albas : i.e. even though clear ; c/. i. 7. 16, cUbua Notus. 

23. trementis verbere : quivering with the shock, 

24. ripas : for litora, as in ii. 18. 22. 

25. sic : with the same courage as thou now. But remember her 
fate ! et : too. Borope : according to the common tradition, 
daughter of Agenor, king of Phoenicia. doloso tanro : Jove, in 
the guise of a bull, had mingled with a herd of cattle grazing near 
the spot where Europa and her attendants were engaged in sport. 
Attracted by the gentleness of the animal, Europa ventured to mount 
its back, whereupon it rushed into the sea and carried her to Crete. 

27. mediBAixtLVLidiBm I the dangers of mid sea. For the aocusative 
with palluU, cf iii. 21. 10, iratos trementi apices, 

28. aadax : i,e, she who just now had so boldly trusted the bull. 

29. naper: but now; to be construed with studiosa. 

31. astra praeter : for the anastrophe, cf iii. 23. 10, quercus inter, 

32. vidit : i.e. while being borne on the bulPs back. 

33. simoi = simul atque, centam potentem oppidis : the 
Homeric iKaTdfiToXis. . 

35. lUiae : appositional genitive with nomen, 

36. victa: with pietas, 

37. unde qao veni : i,e. what a contrast between the home I left 
and the spot to which I have come. levis : i.e. too slight a i)enalty. 
ana mors : a single death ; Europa means that a girl should die many 
times in order fitly to atone for such a fault. 

38. vigilans : the emphasis of the first member rests on this word. 
41. porta ebama : cf Virg. Aen, vi. 894, sunt geminae Somni 

Paob 126.] BOOK III. ODE 27. 857 

portae, qttarum altera fertur cornea, qua verU facilU datur exitus 
umbris, altera candenti perfecta nitena elepharuto, sed falsa ad caelum 
mittunt insomnia Manes, 

46. iratae : in my anger, 

47. modo : but now, multum = magnopere. amatd : Eoropa 
had garlanded its horns with flowers and stroked it with her hands. 

49. impudens, impudena : the repetition and position lend special 
emphasis, — ' shameless my abandonment of home, shameless my con- 
tinued existence. ' patrios Penates : with the poet^s license, Horace 
attributes a purely Roman conception to the Phoenician Europa. 

54. malas : here for genas, suciis : i,e, my fresh lifers blood. 

55. pistedBLe = mihi ; she conceives herself the destined prey of 
some wild beast. speclosa : while still beautiful, 

56. pascere : for the infinitive, of. iii. 24. 27, si quaeret subscribi, 

58. hac (ab orno): i,e, the first at hand. 

59. pendulum laedere collum : lit. destroy your hanging neck, 
i.e. hang thyself. zona : by the girdle, bene secuta : which has 
happily followed thee, i.e, which thou hast fortunately brought with 
thee (for the purpose). 

61. acuta leto : lit. sharp for death, i.e, with a sharpness suited 
for death or that invites to death. 

62. age : purely interjectional, — come ! 

63. exile carpere pensum : carpere pensum is properly *• to card 
the wool,' a menial task, as it involved little skill ; erilis is to be con- 
ceived as derived from era, not erus. 

65. regluB sanguis : a king^s daughter. dominae tradi bar- 
barae paelez : i.e. the master's wife will wreak vengeance on his 

67. perfidum xidens : the smile was perfidious, since the goddess, 
while feigning sympathy for the wronged maiden, secretly delighted in 
what had happened. remisso : inasmuch the bow's work was 

68. iilius: Cupid. 

69. nbl : for the i, cf ii. 6. 17. lusit : the subject is Venus 

70. Irarum : from wrath. For this Grecism, see In trod. § 87. &. 

73. esse nescis : thou knowest not that thou art ; a Grecism for 
te esse nescis. 

74. mitte : cease ! abandon ! bene : as becomes the wife of 
the king of gods. 

358 BOOK III. ODE 28. [Page 125. 

75. BeotUB orblB : viz, Europe. 

76. nomina : for this striking poetic plural, cf. iv. 2. 3, daturua 
nomina ponto (of Icarus). ducet = (iceipiet 


I. quid potiuB: i.e. what rather than what I now suggest (viz, 
prome Caecubum). die Neptoni : i.e, of the Neptunalia, which 
fell on the 23d of July. 

3. Btrenua : with adverbial force. 

4. munitae adhibe vim sapientiae: i.e, a truce to serious 
thoughts ! 

5. inolinare : i.e, toward the west ; ordinarily, the expression is 
dies (not meridiea) inclinare, 

6. Btet : stood still, 

7. parcis: hesitate; for the infinitive, cf, i. 28 (2). 3. derl- 
pere : the verb suggests haste. horreo : see note on iii. 8. 11. 

8. cesfliantem : i.e. the jar lingers too long ; it ought already to be 
here. Bibuli conaulis amphoram : Bibulus was the colleague of 
Julius Caesar in 60 b.c. 

9. noB : here for ego, as shown by the contrasted tu, lavicem : 
i.e. on my part. 

10. viridiB comaB : the hair of the Nereids is often described as 
ccieruleiLs or viridis^ like the color of the sea. 

II. carva : see note on i. 10. 6. recineB : i.e, thou shalt sing 
in response to my song of Neptune and the Nereids. 

12. C3rntliiae : Diana ; so called from Mt. Cynthus, her birthplace, 
on the isle of Delos. 

13. Bummo = extremo. quae Cnidon, etc. : Venus. 

14. fulgentlB : i.e. whence the shining marble comes ; cf. i. 14. 10, 
nitentis Cycladas ; so Virg. Aen. iii. 126, calls Paros niveau, in conse- 
quence of the snow-white marble quarried there. 

16. merita : since Night favors lovers. nenia : here not ' dirge,* 
but simply lay^ song. 


1. Tyrrhena regam progenieB: cf. i. 1. 1, atavis edite regibus; 
Tyrrhena by hypallage for Tyrrhenorum, tibi : for thee ; depend- 
ent upon est. 

2. non verso : lit. not turned, tipped, and so untouched, cado : 
ablative of place. 

Page 127.] BOOK III. ODE 29. 359 

4. balanuB : the nut of an Arabian plant from which a fragrant 
oil was expressed. 

6. semper: with contempleris. udum Tibur: c/. i. 7. 13. 
Aefolae : a town in Latium near Fraeneste. 

7. contempleris : i.e. do not be content with continual contempla- 
tion of these spots from your lofty city palace, but come visit them I 
All the places mentioned are visible from the highest point of the city. 

8. Telegonl iuga : Tusculum, founded by Telegonus, the son of 
Ulysses and Circe. parrlcidae : Telegonus, sent by Circe to find 
his father, came to Ithaca and unwittingly slew Ulysses. 

9. fastldiosam : that brings weariness and satiety. 

10. molem . . . arduis: exaggerated description of Maecenas's 
palace on the Esquiline. 

11. beatae : wealthy, 

13. plerumque: many a time. vices: i.e. from luxury to 

14. lare = tecto ; hence sub. 

16. ezplicuere : aorist, like i. 84. 16, sustulit. 

17. clarus : bright. occultum : i.e. till recently. pater : 

18. ostendit ignem : used of the rising of the constellation. As 
a matter of fact, this constellation is always visible in the latitude of 
Rome. Possibly Horace was following the calendar of the Alexan- 
drian astronomers, in whose latitude the evening rising of the constel- 
lation fell, according to Kiessling, on the 23d of July. 

19. vesani : so called, because of the intense heat accompanying 
its rising. 

20. dies siccos : the dog-days of midsummer. referente : i.e. 
bringing around in its annual course. 

21. iam : viz. in the summer. 

23. caret ripa, etc. : a picture of the profound stillness of mid- 

25. tu curas : i.e. instead of giving yourself up to the demands of 
the season and the delights of the country. Maecenas had lent Octa- 
vian much assistance in establishing public order at the close of civil 
strife, and seems to have continued his sense of responsibility even 
after permanent tranquillity was assured. 

27. SerSs, Bactra, Tanais : all far distant from Rome. Horace 
means to urge the needlessness of Maecenases concern for what is hap- 
pening in these remote quarters. Serfy follows the Greek inflection ; 

360 BOOK III. ODE 29. [Page 127. 

c/. i. 12. 56, 8er&9. Bactra is for Parthi; cf, i. 2. 22 and note, 
regnata : once ruled ; for this transitive use of the word, cf, ii. 6. 11, 
regnata rura. Cirro : Cyrus the Elder is meant ; the case is dative ; 
cf. ii. 6. 11, regnata Phalantho. 

28. parent: i.e. are planning. Tanais disoora : the Tanais is 
the River Don ; by Tanais diacorSf Horace means the Scythians living 
on the banks of the Tanais, who were agitated by constant dissensions. 

29. pradana: t'. 6. purposely. futurl tampoiia : mth exUum. 

30. pramit: veils. 

31. ultra faa trapldat : i.e. is unduly anxious. 

32. quod adaat mamanto oomponara aequoa: i.e. to adjust 
the present with composed spirit ; aequos (nominative) is equivalent 
to aequo animo; for memento with the infinitive, cf. ii. 3. 1, aequam 
memento rebus in arduis servare mentem. 

33. flwQiiiia rltu : like a river. 

35. Btmaoum : the final syllable is elided before the initial vowel 
of the following line ; cf. ii. 3. 27. 

36. adaaoa: polished^ smooth. 

37. atlrpaa raptaa : trunks of trees torn from the banks by the 
torrent. -qua, at, at : note the emphasis of the polysyndeton. 

38. una = secum. 

40. qulatoa : i.e. ordinarily peaceful. 

41. potanaaul: master of himself 

42. in diam : day by day ; at each day's end. 

43. vizi : i.e. ^l have truly lived.* 

44. patar = Juppiter. 

46. . quodcumqua ratro aat : i.e. whatever of good has been thus 
far enjoyed. 

47. diffingat Infactumque reddat : ^ alter and undo ' (Bryce) ; 
not greatly different from the idea contained in irritum efflcietj 
^render vain.^ 

48. vazit = advexit. 

50. ludum ludara : ludum is cognate accusative; on ludere, cf. 
i. 1. 19, indocilis paupeHem pati. 

53. manentam: while she stays. oalaria quatlt ptnnaa : i.e. 
preparatory to taking her flight. 

55. virtnte : as though a garment. 

56. Pauparlam : personified. quaaro : sc. uxorem (' as a 

57. non aat maum : His not my wont. 

Pagb 129.] BOOK III. ODE 30. 361 

59. dacomre : to have recourse, 

GO. ne addant : a substantive clause used as the object of pacisei. 
Cypriae Tyriaeque mercea : the cargo of the ship. 

61. addant divitias : i.e. by the loss of the vesseL 

62. turn : in token of the god^s approval of his attitude. blra- 
mis Bcaphae : my two^ared skiff- 

63. Aegaeoa : i.e, of the Aegean Sea. 

64. aura: i.e. the favoring breeze. geminus Pollux : i.e. Cas- 
tor and Pollux, the patron gods of mariners ; c/. i. 3. 2. 


1. monumentum : Books i.-iii. of the Odes, published in 23 b.g. 
aere : the word suggests either bronze tablets containing inscriptions} 
or bronze statues. 

2. regali aitu : majestic pile ; this meaning of situs is not else- 
where found, but seems necessary here. 

3. impotena : i.e. impotens etii, and so ungovernable. 

4. posait : subjunctive of characteristic. 

5. fuga temporum : flight of the seasons, 

6. omnia : entirely. multaque : -que is adversative. 

7. Libitinam : the death goddess, and so death, usque : on 
and on, continuously ; the word modifies crescam, poatera laude : 
i.e. the glory that posterity shall bestow ; the words are to be closely 
joined with recens (* fresh'). 

8. dum . . . pontifex : an allusion to a ceremony of prayer for 
the welfare of the state, said to have been celebrated annually on the 
Ides of March. Capitolium : here the hill on the summit of which 
was the temple of the same name. 

9. tacita virgine : probably a priestess, who, keeping a reverent 
silence, joined the priest in the ceremony above referred to. 

10. dicar-: I shall be celebrated. qua obstrepit, etc. ; the gua- 
clauses limit dicar; Horace means that his fame shall flourish in his 
native Apulia. Similar sentiments are found in other Roman poets. 
violana: rare and poetical for violentus. Aufidua: a river of 

11. pauper aquae Daunua: lit. Daunus poor in water, i.e. 
Daunus, king of a parched land. The expression is almost incredibly 
bold, however, and extremely unlike Horace. Daunus was an early 

*1Eing of Apulia. For the genitive with pauper, see Introd. § 37. a. 


362 BOOK IV. ODE 1. [Paob 129. 

12. regnavit : t.e. once ruled. popalomm : the genitive is a 
Grecism; c/. iii. 27. 69, ahstineto irarum. ex humili potena: 
exalted from low estate, i.e. by the fame of my song. 

13. princeps dediudsse : as the jirsfwho adapted ; deduxisse is 
governed directly by dicar; princeps is nearly equivalent to primus in 
the sense of *■ the first who ' ; it involves, however, the notion of leader- 
ship, which primus lacks. Horace's statement is not strictly accurate. 
Catullus, some years before Horace, had introduced the Sapphic and 
Glyconic metres. Aeolium carmen : i.e. the forms of the Aeolian 
poetry of Sappho and Alcaeus. Italos : the I is here long. 

14. deduziase = transtulisse. modoa : measures, poetry. 
aume auperbiam : apparently, take the proud honor, 

15. quaeaitam : lit. sought, but here with the implication of toon. 
mihl : ethical dative. Delpbica : the bay was sacred to Apollo, 
the god of Delphi. 

16. volena : graciously, Melpomene : strictly the Muse of 
tragedy, but here, in accordance with Horace^s usage, muse in general ; 
see note on iii. 4. 2, Calliope. 

The proud confidence in his literary immortality to which Horace 
here gives expression is paralleled not merely by the concluding ode 
of Book II., but by many similar utterances of Latin poets from 
Ennius to Martial. To Roman taste such prophecies apparently gave 
no offence. 


2. precor, precor : for the repetition, cf. ii. 17. 10, ihimus, ihimus, 
with note. 

3. non aum qualia eram : i.e. not so capable of responding to the 
behests of the goddess. bonae Cinarae : kindly - Cinara. In 
£pist. i. 14. 33, Horace speaks of her unselfish devotion. 

4. dulcium . . . Cupidinum : imperious mother of sweet Cupids ; 
for the conception of several Cupids attendant upon the goddess, see 
note on i. 19. 1, where this same line occurs. 

6. circa luatra decern : the prepositional phrase serves as an 
adjective modifier of the omitted object of flectere ; this object is gram- 


1 On Book iv., see Introd. § 9. 

Paob 131.] BOOK IV. ODE 1. 363 

matically indefinite (^ one '), but refers to Horace ; durum also agrees 
with it. If this ode falls in the year 13 b.c, as is probable, Horace 
had already exceeded his ten lustra by more than a year. molli- 
bus iam durum imperilB : already unresponsive to thy soft com- 
mands; for this use of mollis^ cf, the English ^soft impeachment.* 

8. revocsmt = vocant. 

9. tempeativius : sc. than to my abode. in domum comisaa- 
bere : ^^haste in joyous revelry to the home * ; the Latin comissari is 
from the Greek KWfjui^eiv, which, in turn, is derived from icw/uoj, * band 
of revellers ' ; here the conception is of Venus with her train of 
Cupids hastening to the house of Faulus. 

10. Pauli Mazlmi: Paulus Fabius Maximus, bom in 43 b.c, 
and consul in 11 b.c., two years after the date of this ode. He was a 
friend of Ovid and was connected by marriage with Augustus. pur- 
purels aloB oloribus : on thy winged chariot of purple swans ; lit. 
winged with purple swans ; purpureus is used here, as often elsewhere, 
not in its literal sense, but merely as a poetic word for pulcher, 

12. torrere quaeris : for the infinitive with quaero, cf. i. 37. 22, 
perire quaerens. lecur : on the liver as the seat of the emotions, 
cf. i. 13. 4. 

13. et, et, et, et : note the cumulative effect of the polysyndeton. 

14. sbllicitiB rels : cf. ii. 1. 13, maestis reis. non tacitus : i.e. 
an eloquent defender. 

15. puer : the word is loosely used. Paulus was already thirty. 
artium : accomplishments. 

16. militiae : Horace reverts to the figure with which the ode 

17. quandoque = quando, as in iv. 2. 34 ; Ars Poet. 359. po- 
tentior muneribua aemuli : i.e. triumphing over some free-handed 
rival ; munerihus is ablative of comparison. Faulus, too, is wealthy 
(c/. lines 19, 20), but his birth and figure and eloquence, along with 
his other accomplishments, are to assure his triumph in the lists of 
love, without recourse to gifts. 

18. riserit : i.e. in triumph. 

19. Albanos lacus: besides the Alban Lake itself, there were 
three other smaller lakes lying near it. Paulus probably had a country 
seat in the neighborhood, which is still one of the most attractive 
localities of all Italy. te marmoream ponet : shall set up thy marble 

20. sub trabe dtrea: i.e. under the roof of a chapel or temple 

364 BOOK IV. ODE 2. [Pao« 131. 

built of citron wood ; trabe for trabibtu. The citrus was the African 
cedar, the fragrant wood of which was much sought and very costly. 

21. narlbua dooes: shall inhale, 

22. Berecyntiae : see on i. 18. 13. 

24. carmiiiibiis : here in the sense of * strains.' flatola: the 
shepherd^s pipe. 

25. bis die : at morning and evening. 

26. tuom : for the spellmg, see Introd. § 34. 

28. morem Salium : see on i. 36. 12. ter : as in iii. 18. 16. 

29. me : in strong contrast with Paulus. femina, puar, spee : 
subjects of iuvat 

30. epee animl credula mutui : trustful hope of requited (Affec- 
tion; note the interlocked order (synchysis). 

31. certaxe mero, vincire tempore : i.e. the pleasures of drinking- 

33. aed cur heu, Ugurine, etc. : one of the few notes of genuine 
passion to be found in Horace's lyrics ; see Introd. §§ 26, 33. 

34. rara: ^now and then^ (Bryce). Though he endeavors to 
repress the tears, they now and then steal forth. 

35. facunda : with lingua. parum decoro : unbecoming. The 
line is an hypermeter, the final o of decoro suffering elision before 
the initial vowel of the following line ; cf. iii. 29. 35. 

36. cadit lingua : (why) does my tongue falter 9 

37. noctnmie . . . teneo : now in visions of the night I hold thee 

38. iam . . . iam = modo . . . modo. volucrem: Le. flying 
before me. 

40. dure : thou hard of heart. 


1. Pindarum : the greatest of the Greek lyric poets (ca. 622-442 b.c). 
Of the various kinds of poetry here mentioned by Horace (dithyrambs, 
hymns, odes, and elegies), the triumphal odes alone have come down 
to us. aemulari : rival, emulate. In this sense the verb governs 
the accusative. In the meaning ' be envious of ' it governs the dative. 

2. lule : Julus, a dissyllabic form of the Yirgilian lulus. oera- 
tie . . . pinnie : i.e. he is likely to meet the fate of Icarus. The ex- 
pression, of course, is purely figurative. Ceratis, lit. tDoxed. hera 
means fastened wUh wax. 

Page 133.] BOOK IV. ODE 2. 865 

3. dAtnnis nomlna : destined to give his namey just as the Icarian 
Sea was named from Icarus. For this free use of the future parti- 
ciple, see note on ii. 3. 4. For the poetic plural in nomina, cf, iii. 27. 76. 

5. monte decurrena velut : for the post-position of velut, see note 
on i. 2. 5, grave ne rediret, 

6. notas ripaa : its wonted banks, aluere : have raised, the 
original meaning of alo ; cf, altus^ 'high,* originally * raised up.' 

7. fervet, mit : the seething and dashing of the torrent are figu- 
ratively applied to Pindar's impassioned utterance. immensaa : i.e. 
brooking no restraint. This use of the word is almost Pindarically 
bold, as is the whole figure of which it forms a part. Note the feminine 
C8Bsura of this verse ; Introd. § 44. profando ore : tioith sonoroits 
voice, — an abrupt abandonment of the figure begun in line 5 and 
continued as far as mit, 

9. laurea: sc. fronde or corona; the badge of excellence. do- 
nandua : worthy to be crowned, Apollinaxl : i.e. sacred to Apollo ; 
cf, iii. 30. 16, Delphica lauro, 

10. andacia dithyramboa: the dithyramb was an impassioned 
hymn in honor of Bacchus, suggesting, in its wild freedom, the license 
of the Bacchic orgies. Samples of the type may be seen in Horace, 
ii. 19 and iii. 26. These, however, probably fall far short of Pindar's 
dithyrambs in their freedom. The name is derived from an epithet of 
the god. nova verba : words newly coined, — often bold compounds. 

11. devolvit, etc. : Horace returns to the figure of the rushing 
stream. numerla . . . aolutla : the untrammelled metrical struc- 
ture was another feature of the bold license characteristic of the Greek 

13. deoa regeave canit: an allusion to Pindar's hymns and 
paeans. By reges, as shown by the following context, we are to under- 
stand the kings of the heroic age, such as Theseus, Peleus, Pirithous. 

14. aanguinem : as in ii. 20. 6. ceddere, cecldit : were over- 
thrown ; used as the passive of caedo, as in ii. 4. 9. iuata morte : 
one of the Centaurs had carried of( Hippodamla, the bride of Pirithous. 

15. tremendae flamma Chimaerae : i,e, the Chimaera vnth its 
dread fire. Concerning the Chimaera, see note on i. 27. 23. 

17. aive quoa Blea, etc, : the victors in the games at Olympia in 
Elis, the most celebrated of all the Greek games. With the sentiment 
of this passage, cf. i. 1. 6, palmaque nobilis terrarum dominos evehit 
ad deos, Horace here refers to those celebrated in Pindar^s triumphal 

366 BOOK IV. ODE 2. [Page 133. 

18. caeloBtis : in predicate relation to quost — leads home exalted 
to the skies. pugllem, equom : boxing and chariot racing, as 
the most important events in the Greek festivals, are here cited as 
typical of the others, such as the foot-race, hurling the discus, etc. 
Equom naturally suggests the victorious owner, as well as the horse. 

19. didt : sings, celebrates, as often. aignis : statues ; the 
ablative of comparison is here peculiar; we should have expected 
quam with the ablative. 

20. mnnere : viz, the ode composed in honor of the victor. 

21. fleblll sponaae iuvanemve : -ve (introducing plorat) is equiv- 
alent to sive, and is here boldly postponed to a relatively remote point 
of the sentence. For such postponement in general, see note on 1. 2. 5. 
Flebilis, * weeping, tearful,' is here used actively ; c/. Ars Poet. 123, ^e- 
hilis Ino ; ii. 9. 9, flehilibus modis, Sponsae is dative of separation ; 
the word is here used in the sense of ^ bride,' ^wife.' iuvenem 
raptiim plorat : an allusion to Pindar's elegies or dirges (^Opyyot), 

22. viris animomque moresque: for the cumulative effect of 
the polysyndeton, c/. iii. 29. 37 ; iv. 1. 13. The verse is hypermetric. 

23. aureoB : i.e. pure as gold and as worthy of admiration. ni- 
groque : -que la elided, as at the end of the preceding verse, thus 
giving us two successive hypermetric lines. 

24. invldet Oreo : i,e. he begrudges Orcus the possession of the 
dead hero's noble qualities, and so endeavors to rescue them from 
oblivion and to make them immortal in his verse. 

25. multa aura : a strong breeze : figuratively for the genius of 
Pindar. Dircaeum cycnum : Pindar. For the swan as typical of 
poets, cf. ii. 20. Pindar is called Dircaean ('Theban') from the 
fountain of Dirce situated near Thebes. 

26. in altos tractua : typical of the lofty flights of his song. 

27. ego : in strong contrast with Pindar, just mentioned, and (by 
anticipation) with Antonius, mentioned later (33 ff.). apia Mati- 
nae : the mons Matinus was a spur of Mt. Garg&nus on the eastern 
coast of Apulia. Southern Italy was famous for its bees and honey ; 
cf. iii. 16. 33. 

29. per laborem plurlmum : industriously. 

30. uvidl Tlbuxia : cf. i. 7. 13 ; iii 29. 6, udum Tibur. 

31. rlpaa : of the Anio. operosa : the emphasis of the clause 
rests upon this word. Horace (inconsistently with his utterances else- 
where) disclaims any signal gifts of song, and insists that his verse is 
but the product of plodding industry, like the honey gathered by the 

Page 134.] BOOK IV. ODE 2. 367 

toiling bee. Cumulative effect is given to the assertion by the imme- 
diate addition of parvos, which is designed to emphasize the slightness 
of his poetic inspiration. parvos: nominative, — a humble hard, 
i.e, of small gifts. 

33. maiore poeta plectro : poeta is in apposition with the 
omitted subject of concines, viz. tu, referring to Antonius ; plectro is 
ablative of quality. On plectrum as the equivalent of carmen, cf, 
i. 26. 11. 

34. quandoque : in the sense of quando, as in iv. 1. 17. tra- 
het : i.e, in triumphal procession. ferocis : in iv. 14. 61, the Sy- 
gambri are characterized as caede gaudent^s. 

35. per sacrum clivom : the Sacer Clivus was the name given to 
that part of the Sacred Way which extended from the vicinity of the 
later Arch of Titus down towards the Forum. decorus: in the 
sense of decoratu8, as in iii. 14. 7. 

36. fronde : viz. of laurel, the badge of victory. Sygambros : 
see * Occasion of the Poem.' 

39. Inaurum: i.e. to the Golden Age. 

41. -que» et : poetical for et . . . et. 

42. publicum ludum : imposing spectacles, such as gladiatorial 
and other contests, were regular accompaniments of triumphal cele- 
brations, super : in celebration of. impetrato : suggesting that 
the return of the Emperor was vouchsafed by the gods in answer to 
the prayers of his people. 

43. forum litibus orbum : on festal occasions all public business, 
especially that of the courts, was regularly suspended ; orbum is here 
for vacuum. 

45. meae . . . pars: i.e. Horace promises to add some slight 
composition of his own to the larger performance of Antonius. si- 
quid loquar, etc. : i.e. ^ if I have any fitting inspiration \; loquar for 

46. bona : here for magna. Sol = dies. 

49. tu : tuis the triumphal procession, here addressed as though a 
person ; cf. Epodes, 9. 21, lo triumphe, tu moraria aureos currus. 
51. civitas : in apposition with the subject of dicemus. 

53. te : Horace abruptly returns from his apostrophe of the tri- 
umph to Antonius. tauri, vitulus : Antonius is to offer a costly 
sacrifice, Horace a humble one, proportionate to his means ; cf. ii. 17. 
30 ff. 

54. solvet : i.e. shall release me from my vow ; he had vowed the 

368 BOOK IV. ODE 3. [Page 134. 

bullock when praying for the safe return of Augustus. relipta 
matre : i.e, the bullock is only just weaned. 

56. In mea vota : for thefulJilmerU of my vows; i.e, to enable me 
to fulfil them by sacrifice. 

57. fronte : i.e. with its budding horns. imitatnB : the perfect 
participle here denotes contemporary action ; cf, i. 7. 24, (idfatua, 
onnratpa ignis, etc, : te. the crescent moon when entering upon its 
third day, the first occasion on which the new moon is visible. 

59. qua doxit, etc, : where it ha$ (got) a mark ; the clause limits 
niveu8, notam .* sc. albam, nivena videri : for the infinitive 
with niveus^ see Introd. § 41. c. 

GO. oetera : te, elsewhere ; synecdochical (or Greek) accusative. 

ODE m. 

1. Melpomene : strictly the muse of tragedy, but invoked here 
simply as muse in general ; so often in Horace ; cf iii. 4. 2, Calliope; 
Melpomene^ as here, iii. 30. 16. 

2. placido lumina : with serene (i.e. kindly) gaze. 

3. labor lathmiua : i.e. exertion in the contests of the Isthmian 

4. olarabit pugllem : i.e. ' shall make a famous boxer * ; pugilem 
is predicate accusative. As in the previous ode (2. 18), boxing and 
chariot racing are mentioned as typical of all the contests embraced in 
the Greek national games. 

5. cnrm ducet: i.e. in the race. Achaico: best taken as 
referring generally to all the Greek games. After the capture of 
Corinth in 146 b.c, the name Achaia was given to the province into 
which Greece was erected ; hence Achaic^is = ^ Greek.* 

6. res bellioa : some martial deed. Deliia foltta : the ^ Delian 
leaves ' are the leaves of the bay or laurel, sacred to Apollo, the god 
bom at Delos. 

8. quod oontuderit : for having crushed; contuderit is subjunc- 
tive, and gives the reason supposed to be present in the minds of the 
Romans when celebrating the triumph. 

9. oatendet Capitolio : an allusion to a triumphal procession ; 
see note on iv. 2. 36. 

10. Tibur : see on i. 7. 13. aquae, comae : on springs and 
groves as lending inspiration to the poet, see i. 1. 30. praefluont; 

Paob 136.] BOOK IV. ODE 4. 869 

here for prcteteirfiuonti as not infrequently even in prose. On the ter- 
mination -ofU, see Introd. § 34. 

12. fingent = reddent, ' 

13. princlpla urbium : queen of cities. 

14. dignatur : deems it fitting. amabillB : since poets are dear 
to all. 

16. iam minus: i.e. less than formerly. dente mordeor 
Invido : / am gnawed by Envy^s tooth. In Sat. i. 6. 45 f., Horace 
speaks of himself as envied because of Maecenases friendship for him. 

17. testadiois aureae : see on i. 10. 6. 

18. dulcem quae atrepitom, etc. : that modulatest the sioeet 
tones, etc. ; strepitus for sonitus, as in Epp. i. 2. 31. Fieri : Greek 
vocative of Pieris, * maid of Pieria,' * muse ' ; cf. i. 26. 9, Pimplei, 
where also there is a similar separation of the vocative from its inter- 
jection (0). 

19. quoqne : even, a sense of the word already beginning to 
appear in Horace, and becoming common later. Another instance in 
Horace is Epp. ii. 2. 36. 

20. donatura: that wouldst lend; for the free use of the future 
participle in Horace, see on ii. 3. 4. cycni Bonum : for the mis- 
conception of the ancients concerning the music of the swan, see note 
on ii. 20. 15. 

21. totum muneria, etc. : this is all thy gift, lit. of thy gift 
(predicate genitive). 

22. quod monatror fidicen, etc.: that I am pointed out as tfie 
minstrel of the Boman lyre; explanatory of hoc. For the sentiment, 
cf iii. 30. 13. 

24. apiro : i.e. * am inspired with the gift of song.' ai plaoeo : 
i,e. * if I really do.' tuom : Introd. § 34. 


On this ode in general, see Introd. § 9, end. 

1. Qualem, etc.: like the lightning*s winged servant, to whom, 
etc. The correlative of qualem is talem^ to be supplied in thought 
with videre Drusum in line 18. miniatrum lulminia alltom : the 
eagle, which was conceived as guarding the bolts of Jove and supplying 
them to the god when needed. Horace's characterization suggests the 
eagle in general, but, as lines 5 ff. clearly show, he is really thinking 

370 BOOK IV. ODE 4. [Pagb 136. 

of a single yoang eagle. Note that ministrum, the appositive of 
alitem, precedes it. This order is found occasionally in the poets. 

2. regimm in avis : dominion over the birds. 

3. ezpertus fidelem in QanymSde : having found it faithful in 
the case of Ganymedes. The eagle had carried Ganymedes to the 
skies to be the cup-bearer of Zeus (Jupiter). 

5 ft. ollm, iam, mox, nunc : introducing the different stages in 
the growing powers of the young eagle ; olim here means, at first. 
iuventas: poetic for inventus^ as in ii. 11. 6. 

7. veml . . . venti : Horace's description does not tally exactly 
with the facts. The young eagles were not ready to fly till summer ; 
but see on i. 2. 10, columbis. 

9. paventem : i.e. timid at first. 

10. hostem : predicatively, — as a foe, 

11. dracones = serpentes. 

13. qualemve laetis caprea, etc. : or like a lion just weaned 
of which a roe has caught a glimpse, etc. We should have expected an 
earlier introduction of the word leonem ; but the initial picture of the 
roe peacefully grazing in abundant pasturage gives greater emphasis 
to the prowess of the young lion. Pascuis is dative, dependent upon 

14. ubere : rich; here used as an adjective* limiting lacte. 

16. dente novo : i.e. his teeth are as yet unused to the prey ; the 
roe is his first victim. peritura : destined to die ; see on ii. 3. 4. 

17. vldere, etc. : such was Drusus, as the Vindelici beheld him^ 
etc. See note on line 1, qualem. Raetis: here used as an adjec- 
tive for Baeticis; cf.'i.l. 28, Marsus, for Marsicus. 

18. Vindelici : they lived in the modem Tyrol. qnibus mos 
unde, etc. : but whence was derived their custom of shielding the right 
arm, etc. ; quibus is the relative and is the dative of reference ; unde, 
interrogative, limiting deductus, introduces the indirect question. 

The whole parenthesis is quite in the manner of Pindar's triumphal 
odes. Yet the effect is extremely awkward, and aptly illustrates what 
Horace himself says in iv. 2. 1 ff. of the dangers that beset those who 
strive to imitate Pindar's style. 

19. mos: Horace boldly represents the custom as arming these 
northern warriors with the Amazonian axe. 

20. Amazonia aecurl : represented in ancient works of art sus a 
two-edged axe. 

21. obarmet : a word newly coined by Horace. quaerere 

Page 137.] BOOK IV. ODE 4. 371 

dlstuli : / have forborne to seek ; the infinitiye with differo is poeti- 
cal, but is found also in Livy. 

22. nee fas eat: nor is it vouchsafed, as in i. 11. 1. sed: i.e. 
*■ but, liowever that may be.* din victrices : though long victorious. 

23. late: ^onmanyafleld^(^BTYce). catervae: hordes; used 
contemptuously of barbarians. 

24. luvenis : viz. Drusus. revictae : re- implies that the 
hordes were vanquished in return for the defeats they had inflicted 
upon the Romans. 

25. sensere : i.e. were made to see and feel. mena, indoles : 
hsad, heart. rite : with nutrita ; the hyperbaton lends emphasis. 

26. nutrita : with mens as well as indoles. faustis sub pene- 
tralibus: ''beneath an auspicious roof^ (Page). Both faustis and 
penetralibus are ceremonial terms, and as such are designedly chosen 
to magnify the influence of the imperial household ; penetralia is used 
in the transferred sense of the whole dwelling ; hence sub. 

27. patemus : fatherly. Augustus is credited with caring for his 
step-sons as though they were his own children. 

28. pueros Nerones : the youthful Neros, Drusus and his 
brother. Tiberius. For the substantive with adjective force, cf i. 1. 1, 
atavis regibus. Drusus was the son of T. Claudius Nero and Livia, 
who, after being divorced from her husband, became the wife of 

29. fortes creantur fortibus et bonis : the chief emphasis of the 
clause rests upon the last three words, — His only from the sturdy and 
the good that sturdy youths are born. The reference is to Drusus^s 
ancestors; the Nero family of the Claud ian gens was highly distin- 
guished in Roman annals ; see below, line 37 ff. 

30. patnun virtus : the merits of their sires. 

31. imbellem feroces : the juxtaposition heightens the antithesis ; 
cf. i. 6. 9, tenues grandia. 

33 ff. The strophe emphasizes the indebtedness of Drusus and his 
brother to the wise and fostering care of Augustus. Their inherited 
worth might easily have come to naught, implies the poet, had it not 
been for Augustus's careful nurture. 

33. doctrina sed : doctrina here means training; for the post- 
position of sed, see on i. 2. 6. vim 1nBlt,ani : inborn worth* 
promovet : increases, lit. advances. 

35. utcumque : whenever, as in ii. 17. 11. 

36. bene nata : i.e. even good endowments. 

872 BOOK IV. ODE 4. [Paob 138. 

37 If. Horace here returns to the glory of the Nero family, an^ 
devotes the remainder of the ode to a celebration of its iUnstriouB 

38. testis: 8C, est Metaumm flumen: i,e. the battle of the 
Metaurus (207 b.c), in which Hasdnibal was defeated and slain. C. 
Claudius Nero, one of the consuls, though not in chief command, ren- 
dered important service in the engagement. The Metaurus was a 
small stream in Umbria, flowing into the Adriatic. The word is here 
used adjectively, limiting flumen ; cf. Ars Poet. 18, flumen Bfiennm, 
Hasdrubal devictus : the utter defeat of Hasdrubal ; cf ii. 4. 10, 
ademptus Hector ; for the special force of de in composition, see note 
on i. 3. 13, decertantem, 

39. palcher : glorious. 

40. ille dies : the day of the Metaurus. Latio : probably best 
taken as ablative with fugatis. tenebris : i.e. the gloom resulting 
from their previous disasters, particularly the defeat at Cannae. 

41. qui primus, etc.: that was the flrst to smile. adorea: 
probably not from ador (* spelt'), as stated in Harper's Dictionary, 
but from adoro (* address'); hence 1) <an address to victorious 
troops ' ; 2) as here, * victory.' 

42. dims Afer nt: to be joined closely with primus risit, — t?i€ 
flrst to smile since the dire Carthaginian; for ut in this sense, cf. 
Epodes^ 7. 19, ut fluxit; for the late postponement of ut in the sen- 
tence, cf. iv. 2. 21, iuvenemve. The dirus Afer is Hannibal. 

43. taedas : i.e. a forest of pines. 

44. equitavit: i.e. began to ride on his hostile raids; for this 
meaning of equitare, cf. i. 2. 51. The verb is here used by zeugma 
with flamma and Eurus, with which we may understd.nd in thought 
some such verb as furit. 

45. post hoc : i.e. after the battle of the Metaurus. usque : 
continuously ; to be taken with secundis. 

46. pubes: i.e. young warriors. crevit: viz. in courage and 

47. tumultu : havoc ; designedly used as a stronger word than 

48. deos : i.e. the statues of the gods. rectos : set up again ; 
the simple verb is here used for the compound, erigo; rectos is in 
predicate relation to deos. 

49. perfidus : the standing epithet of Hannibal in Roman writers, 
though the name probably does him great injustice. 

Paob 139.] BfOOK IV. ODE 4. 873 

50. lupomm : the word is doubtless intended to suggest that the 
wolf^s brood (Romulus and Remus) transmitted the wolf spirit to 
their posterity. 

51. ultro : i.e. gratuitously, and so, needlessly. opimus trium- 
phus : boldly modelled on the familiar «poZia opima, 

53. cremato fortia ab Ilio : sturdy {still) after Ilium^s destruC' 

54. sacra : the images of their gods. 

57. ut flex tonaa : i,e, like an oak. shorn of its boughs and 
leaves. Such oaks often put forth new shoots; similarly with the 
defeated Romans. 

58. nlgrae feraci frondia : rich in dark leafage ; for the genitive, 
see Introd. § 37. a. Algldo : a mountain on the eastern edge of the 
Alban hills. 

GO. duclt opes animumque : draws help and heart 
61. non hydra, etc, : not the hydra, when its body was hewn, grew 
mightier against Hercules, unwilling to submit; firmior is used predi- 
catively. The reference is to Hercules's contest with the Lemaean 
hydra, one of the famous twelve labors. 

63. monstrumve : the reference is to the earth-bom heroes who 
sprang from the dragon^s teeth sown by Jason at Colchis and by Cad- 
mus at Thebes. submisere : sent up, Colcbi : the name of the 
people instead of the name of the place. 

64. Echionaeve Thebae : Thebes is called Echionian from Echlon, 
one of those who sprang from the dragon^s teeth sown by Cadmus, king 
of Thebes. 

65. meraea, luctere : jussives, with the force of protases, — drown 
it in the depths, it comes forth fairer ; wrestle with it, etc, 

66. integrum victorem: i,e, a fresh antagonist, flushed with 

68. conluglbua: dative of agency. loquenda: to be sung, 

69. iam : limiting the combined ideas contained in non mittam, 
nuntios superbos : such as had been sent to Carthage after Cannae. 

70. ocddit, ocddit, etc. : perished, perished all our hope, etc. ; 
for the sententious repetition, cf, ii. 17. 10, 11, ibimus, ibimus, 

73. nil Claudiae non, etc. : there is nothing the Claudian might 
shall not achieve, 

75. curae aagaces : viz, of Augustus. 

76. ezpediont : guide, acuta : the crises. 

374 BOOK IV. ODE 6. [Pagb 139. 


1. Dlvis orte bonis : sprung from the blessed gods. For the con- 
ception, cf, Carm. Saec. 60, where Augustus is spoken of as Veneris 
sanguis, Romulae: for Bomuleae^ as in Carm, Saec, 47. 

2. abes : thou art absent, 

3. patmm : i,e. the senators. 

4. aancto concilio : with pollicitus. This complimentary desig- 
nation of the senate could hardly have failed to evoke the appreciation 
of. Augustus, since he had recently made earnest endeavors to reform 
that body by purging it of unworthy members, and to restore the 
ancient respect in which the people at large had held it. 

5. lucem : figuratively for hope and confidence. dux bone : 
with reference to Augustuses present function as commander of the 
Roman armies in the field. 

6. taoB : nominative ; Introd. § 34. 

7. it: passes, 

8. melius nltent : i.e. shine with a kindlier radiance. 

9. iuvenem : for fllium. Notus : the south wind prevents a 
voyage to the westward. 

10. Carpathii maris : that part of the Aegean which was near the 
island of Carpathos, off the southwest coast of Asia Minor. ae- 
quora : here in the original sense of * level surface.' 

11. longluB : for diutius^ as in ii. 20. 4. 

13. ominibus : i,e, consulting the omens. With votis ominibus- 
que et precibus, cf, the close of Livy's Preface to Book i., cum bonis 
potius ominibus votisque et precationibus deorum dearumque libentius 

15. desideriis : poetic plural. 

16. quaerit: here in the sense of requirit, yearn for, Cae- 
sarem : emphatic variation instead of te, 

17 ff. Kiessling calls attention to the fact that in Horace's enumer- 
ation of the blessings of Augustus's rule we have an asyndetic series 
of clauses, each occupying a single line. 

17. tutus bos, etc, : i,e, all these blessings are the result of thy 
rule. In the first clause the emphasis rests upon tutus, which here 
has adverbial force. rura, mra : designedly repeated, to emphasize 
the prosperity of the peasants under Augustus's I'^ime. After the 
desolation of the civil wars, Augustus had displayed the liveliest inter- 
est in reviving prosperous agricultural conditions throughout Italy. 

Page 140.] BOOK IV. ODE 6. 375 

18. nutrit : i.e. makes them fertile. Faustitaa = Felicitas ; the 
word is newly coined by Horace, and is not elsewhere found. It natu- 
rally partakes of the solemn ceremonial connotation of faustus ; see 
on iv. 4. 26. 

19. pacatum: the emphatic word oi: the clause. The reference 
is to the extermination of the pirates that had formerly infested the 
Mediterranean. Suetonius, in his life of Augustus, 98, tells us that as 
the emperor was once sailing past Puteoli the passengers and crew of 
an Alexandrian ship hailed him as the source of their freedom and 
prosperity. In the Monumentum Ancyranum (the famous account 
of Augustuses reign prepared by himself), he says mare pacavi a prae- 
donibus (Tablet iii. 2. 6). 

20. culpari metuit fides : i.e. shrinks from incurring blame. For 
this meaning and construction of metuo, cf. ii. 2. 7, penna metuente 
aolvi. Under fides Horace probably means to suggest commercial 
honor ; cf. his previous lament concerning its decay in iii. 24. 59, 
periura fides consortem socium fallit. 

21 if. One of Augustus's most cherished purposes was the eleva- 
tion of social morality ; cf. iii. 6. Yet the reforms indicated in this 
stanza represent pious hopes rather than actual achievements. 

22. moB et lez : cf. iii. 24. 35, quid leges sine moribus vanae pro- 
ficiunt f Under lex Horace refers to the legislation of 18 b.c, known 
as the lex lulia de adulteriis. edomuit : hcis thoroughly overcome. 

23. Bimili : i.e. like the lawful husband of the mother ; cf. Catul- 
lus's exquisite lines, 61. 217 ff. : — 

* Sit suo similis patri 
Manlio et facile insciis 
Noscitetur ab omnibus 
Et pudicitiam suae 
Matris indicet ore.' 

24. comes: emphatically placed at the end of the clause and 
verse ; punishment for wrong-doing is instant. 

25. Parthum : the Roman standards captured by the Parthians 
from Crassus at Carrhae (53 b.c.) had been returned to the Romans 
in 20 B.C., seven years before the time of this ode. gelidum Scy- 
then : cf. iii. 8. 23. The Scythians are thus characterized since they 
dwelt in the. distant North, the home of the wintry blasts ; cf. iii. 10. 3. 

26. Gkermania horrida : Germany rough (with woods) ; cf, Taci' 
tus, Oermaniat 5, silvis horrida. 

876 BOOK IV. ODE 6. [Pao« 140. 

27. Inooloml Caesare : with paveat. ferae Iberiae : probably 
alluding to the successive uprisings of the Cantabri, to the savage Con- 
cani, who delighted in drinking horses* blood, etc, 

28. curet : i.e, feels concern. 

29. condlt: disposes, passes, 

30. viduas ad arbores : to the waiting trees, such as elms, pop- 
lars, etc, ; cf. Epodes, 2. 9, adulta vitinm propagine alias maritat popu- 
los, and, on the other hand, ii. 16. 4, platanusque caelebs, with note, 
ducit: trains, 

31. alteris menais : the dessert, ordinarily called mensae secun- 
dae. Between the main meal and the dessert it was customary to 
make offerings to the house gods, or Lares. 

32. te adhibet detun : after the return of Augustus from Egypt 
in 20, the senate ordained that offerings should be made to him not 
only at public banquets, but also at private meals. 

33. proaeqaitnr : lit. attends, and so honors, mero dafoao 
pateria : i,e, in sacrifice. 

34. Larlbua : compendiary for numine Lamm ; cf, i. 1. 23, litiu> 
tubae permixtus sonittis, 

35. Graecia : for GraecL 

36. memor : i.e. calling them to mind by sacrifices in their honor. 

37. o utinam : for the hiatus, see on i. 1. 2, o et. foriaa: Au- 
gustus's reign of peace and prosperity is conceived as one long holiday. 

39. aicci, avidl : when our lips are dry, when flushed with wine. 


1. magnae vindicem liii{;uae: Niobe, proud of her twelve 
children, had boasted herself superior to Latona, who had only two. 
In punishment of this arrogance, Apollo and Diana had slain all of 
Niobe's offspring with their arrows, and had turned the mother into 
stone ; vindicem is predicate accusative ; magnae linguae is the equiv- 
alent of magniloquentiae, 

2. Tityoa raptor : see on iii. 4. 77. 

3. aenait : with the same force as sensere, in iv. 4. 25. prope 
victor : when almost victorious, viz. as a result of Hector's death. 

4. Phthiua : the Myrmidons, Achilles's followers, dwelt in Phthio- 
tis, a district of Thessaly. Achillea : said to have been slain by an 
arrow shot by Paris, but directed by Apollo. 

6. filiua Thetidia, etc. : the appositive shares the adversative force 

Pack 142.] BOOK IV. ODE 6. 877 

of the quamvia clause, — although he was the son of sea-born Thetia 
and made Troy tremble, etc, 

8. cuspide : with quateret only. 

13. non : the negative goes with both inclttsus and falleret, i,e. he 
would not have hidden, nor would he have stooped to such deceit. 
indiMus : with reflexive force. eqno : sc. the wooden horse. 
Minenrae: dative with mentito, 

14. lacra mentito : the Greeks pretended that the horse was an 
offering for their safe return ; Virg. Aen, ii. 17. mentito, feriatos : 
both participles here denote contemporary, not prior, action ; c/. i. 7. 
24, adfattts, male feriatos : keeping ill-timed holiday. The allu- 
sion is to the festal celebrations in which the Trojans indulged when, 
thinking the Greeks had returned home, they drew the wooden horse 
into the city ; c/. Virg. Aen, ii. 248 ff. 

15. choreis : with laetam, 

16. falleret ; ureret (19) : imperfect for pluperfect ; the action 
is brought back to the present for greater vividness ; falleret here 
means, would {not) have stealthily entered, lit. would {not) have 

17. palam : the emphasis of the clause rests upon this word, which 
is strongly contrasted with falleret. captls gravis : cruel to his 

18. nescioa farl : lisping, 

19. latentem: sc, puerum, i.e, the child as yet unborn. 

21. tois: emphatic. gratae: winsome. 

22. diyom : genitive plural. 

23.. rebus: fortunes. potiore doctos allte muros: walls 
built under better auspices, i.e. better than the walls of Troy, which, 
being built by fraud (iii. 3. 21 ff.), were doomed to destruction. For 
the ablative of attendant circumstance in potiore alite, cf i, 15. 5, 
mala avi. 

25. argntae : melodious, Thallae : see on iii. 4. 2, Calliope. 

26. Xantho : a river, of Lycia ; on its banks was Patara, one of 
the chief seats of Apollo's worship. 

27. Dauniae Camenae : for meae Musae ; Venusia, Horace's 
birthplace, was in Apulia, poetically called Daunia. 

28. leris Agyien: beardless Agyieus; Agyieus, as an epithet of 
Apollo, primarily designated the god who sends his light into the 
narrow streets or lanes. The word is derived from the Greek dyvid, 
* lane.* In the Latin transcription, yi is diphthongal, representing vi 

378 BOOK IV. ODE 7. [Paob 142. 

of the Greek 'A7v(€t^t ; the combination is to be pronounced like ui in 
huic, cui ; levis (literally smoothy and -so beardless) is applied to Apollo 
as being always young. 

29. spiritum : as in ii. 16. 38, spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae. 
Phoebus, Phoebus : cf. ii. 17. 10, for the repetition. 

31. virginum primae puerique : the boys and maidens who sang 
the Carmen Saeculare. See Carm. Saec.j 'Occasion of the Hymn,' 
p. 168. 

33. Deliae deae : Diana. tutela : i.e. objects of care. The 
word is in apposition with primae and pueri. iugacis : for the 
force, see on ii. 13. 40, timidos lyncas. 

34. cohibentis : with deae. 

35. Iiesbium pedem: i.e. the Sapphic and Adonic metre, in 
which the Carmen Saeculare was composed. 

36. pollicis ictum : the beat of my finger, 

37. rite : duly, with proper ceremony. 

38. crescentem face : of the waxing moon. 

39. prosperam frugum: ^ripener of crops* (Bryce); for the 
genitive, see Introd. § 37. a. celerem volvere .* Introd. § 41. c; cf. 
i. 15. 18, celerem sequi. pronos: i.e. swiftly passing. 

41. lam : with nupta. dls amicum : dear to the gods; for this 
force of amicus, cf. i. 26. 1, Musis amicus. 

42. saeculo : see Carm. Saec, ^ Occasion of the Hymn,' p. 158. 
luces = dies ; the celebration of the secular games lasted three days 
and three nights. 

43. reddidi: rendered, i.e. performed. docilis modorum: 
trained in the measures; Introd. § 37. a. 

44. yatis : for the force of the word, see on i. 1. 36. 

ODE vn. 

1. gramina campis arboribusque comae : chiastic arrangement. 

2. comae: foliage, by a common figure ; cf. i. 21. 5. 

3. mutat terra vices : Earth is going through her changes ; vices 
is accusative of * result produced. ' decrescentia : the emphasis of 
the clause rests on this word. Horace means, * the rivers are now sub- 
siding in their channels as they flow past their banks ' ; hitherto, 
swollen by the melting of the winter snow upon the mountains, they 
had overflowed their banks ; cf the picture in iv. 12. 3, nee fluvii 
strepunt hiberna nive turgidi. 

Pagb144.] book IV. ODE 7. 379 

5. Gratia cum gfemlDds sororibus : see on ill. 21. 22. 

7. immortalia ne speres : the clause is object of monet ; immor- 
talia is here equivalent to immortalitatem, i.e. immortal life here on 

9. if. Note the variety with virhich the advent of the different 
seasons is described. zephyris : i.e. under their influence. 

10. Bimul = simul atque. 

12. iners : i.e. unproductive ; cf. the similar force of piger in 
i. 22. 17, pigris campis. 

13. damna caelestia : their losses in the sky. celeres lunae : 
the swiftly changing moons. 

14. noB : as contrasted with lunae. 

15. TulluB dives : the special significance of dives as applied to 
Tullus is obscure. Many scholars regard it as corrupt. 

17. an: whether; for this use of an, cf. ii. 4. 13, nescias an. 
hodiernae Bummae : to to-day^ s sum, i.e. to the number of days that 
thou now countest. 

19. amico animo : to thy own soul or self; amicus here seems an 
imitation of the Greek 0^Xos, lit. *■ dear/ but often used as a possessive 

20. dederlB, occideriB (21) : the quantity of the i is unusual. In 
the perfect subjunctive the i of the 2d singular was originally long ; 
hence the occasional reminiscence of the i would occasion us no sur- 
prise in subjunctive forms. But dederis and occideris are here future 
perfects, in which the i of the termination was historically short. We 
can only say that the future perfect here (as occasionally elsewhere) 
follows the analogy of the perfect subjunctive. 

21. Bplendida arbitria : his imposing verdict ; arhitria for iudicia 
(poetic plural). MinoB : traditionally represented as a judge of 
shades in the lower world. 

23. Torqu&te: apparently the same person who is addressed in 
Epist. i. 5, where, as here, allusion is made to his eminence as an 
orator. genua : the Manlii Torquati were a famous family, and the 
Torquatus here mentioned may have belonged to the Manlian gens. 

25. Diana: the virgin goddess would naturally favor the chaste 
Hippolytus. pudicom Hippolytum: his refusal of the advances 
of his step-mother, Phaedra, wife of Theseus, cost him his death. 
According to one account, he was restored to life by Aesculapius. 
Horace, following the more ancient tradition, represents him as per- 
manently confined to the underworld. 

880 BOOK IV. ODE 8. [Page 144 

26. libemt: release. 

27. Lethaea vlncula = vincula mortis, caro Pirithoo : the 

friendship of Theseus and Firithous was proverbial. For Firithous^s 
crime, see on iii. 4. 79, where, as here, Horace follows the tradition 
that Pirithous^s imprisonment in the lower world was perpetual. An- 
other account represents Firithous as released by Hercules. Pirithoo 
is dative of reference. 

ODE vin. 

1. Donaram : apodosis of the contrary-to-fact condition contained 
in divUe me (line 5), which is equivalent to si essem dives. paterae, 
aera, tripodas : an apparent reminiscence of a passage in Findar's 
Isthmian Odes, i. 18, where bowls, bronze vessels, and tripods are 
enumerated as prizes in the Greek games ; the paterae were made of 
gold or other precious metals ; the tripods usually of bronze. com- 
modua : vrillingly, generously. 

2. Cenaoilne : C. Marcius Censorinus, consul in 8 b.c. 

4. neqae peaanma: nor the meanest; litotes for * the choicest.' 

5. ferrea : shouldst thou receive. dlvlte me acilicet artium : 
that is, of course {scilicet), if I were rich in works of art; for the 
genitive with divite, see Introd. § 37. a. 

6. Parrhaaiua, Scopaa: Farrhasius (flourished 400 b.c.) was 
the most famous painter of his time. In his contest with Zeuxis, 
*^the picture of Zeuxis represented a bunch of grapes, so naturally 
painted that the birds flew at the picture to eat the fruit ; upon which 
the artist, confident in this proof of his success, called upon his rival no 
longer to delay to draw aside the curtain and show his picture ; but 
the picture of Farrhasius was the curtain itself, which Zeuxis had 
mistaken for real drapery. On discovering his error, Zeuxis yielded 
the palm to Farrhasius, saying that he himself had deceived birds, but 
Farrhasius an artist*^ (Smith's Classical Dictionary). Scopas, of 
Faros (flourished 305-360 b.c.), was a distinguished sculptor. Among 
his best-known works was the group representing the destruction of 
Niobe's children. protalit : produced. 

7. hio : Scopas. aaxo = marmore. Ule : Farrhasius. 

8. ponere : to execute. 

9. haeo via : this store, viz. of treasures. 

10. res : estate. eat egena = eget. 

11. gaudea carmlnibua, camiina poaanmaa, etc. : effective 
chiasmus, designed to emphasize the notion contained in carminibus. 

Page 146.] BOOK IV. ODE 8. 381 

12. pretium dicere muneri: to tell the value of the gifty i.e. to 
set forth the transcendent glory of the poet^s gift ; mutieri is dative of 

13. Inoiaa, etc.: i.e. marble tablets engraved with inscriptions 
commemorating famous achievements. publicis : i.e, added by the 
state at public expense. 

15. celeres fngae Hanniballs : HannibaVa swift flight, after 
Zama ; the plural is poetic. 

16. reiectae : i.e. hurled back upon his own head. 

17. non Incendia, etc, : either the text is here corrupt or Horace 
has blundered, for the poet represents the destruction of Carthage as 
consummated by the Scipio who won the name Jfricanu$ from his 
defeat of the Carthaginians at Zama in 202 b.c. It was the younger 
Scipio that destroyed Carthage. Most probably the verse is an 
interpolation, as Horace can hardly be supposed to have been 
ignorant of the common facts of Roman history. impiae : in view 
of the traditional perfidia of the Carthaginians. 

18. eiu8: with laudea, 

20. Caiabrae Pierldes: i.e. the Annals of Ennius, here referred 
to as inspired by the Calabrian muses, since Ennius's birthplace was 
Rudiae in Calabria. The Annals was an historical poem dealing with 
the history of Rome from the earliest times to Ennius's own day. 
The work naturally glorified the achievements of the elder Scipio, with 
whom Ennius lived on terms of intimate friendship. 

21. chartae : i.e. poets in their writings. sileant : here transi- 
tive ; as object, understand t(2, antecedent of quod. 

22. tulerls : conclusion of the condition, — would you receive. 
foret, obstar^t : foret refers to the present, obstaret to the past. 
Iliae MavortiBque puer : Romulus ; Mavors^ for Mars^ is poetical. 

25. eroptum Stygiis fluctibtiB : i.e. rescued from oblivion in the 
same sense as iv. 2. 23, nigro invidet Oreo. Aeaciim : son of Jupiter 
and grandfather of Achilles. He was king of Aegina and was famed 
for his justice and goodness. 

26. virtus: i.e. endowment. potentiiiin: gifted. 

27. divititbua imnills : here apparently in the sense of the * Isles 
of the Blest,' the abode of heroes after death. 

28. Muaa : the emphasis of the sentence rests upon this word ; 'tis 
the Muse, and the Muse only, that lends immortal glory. 

29. Bio : viz, as a result of the poet's song. 

31. clarum aldus : in apposition with Tyndaridae. For the iyii« 

S82 BOOK IV. Ot)E d. {i?AQE 146. 

daridae (Castor and Pollux) as the patron deities of mariners, see on 
i. 3. 2. 

33. ornatuB: decking; with middle force and denoting contem- 
porary, not prior, action ; c/. i. 7. 24, adfatus. The line seems a 
gratuitous and even embarrassing addition ; many editors reject it as 
an interpolation, modelled upon iii. 25. 20. 

34. Liber : Bacchus, a mortal raised to the gods for his services to 
humanity ; iii. 3. 13. 

As printed, this ode has thirty -four lines. In the other odes of 
Horace the number of lines is some multiple of 4. Probably in this 
ode, as written by Horace, the number of lines was also a multiple 
of 4. Inasmuch as verse 17 is a palpable interpolation, and verse 33 
almost as certainly fSo, it seems most natural to assume that the ode 
consisted originally of 32 lines. 


1. Ne credas : a clause of purpose, introducing the reason for the 
statements made in lines 5 ft. 

2. longe Bonantem : i.e. its roar is heard afar. natnB ad 
Aulidum : at Venusia : In trod. § 1 ; c/. iii. 30. 10. 

3. non . . . artiB: litotes for Mn new forms of verse.' The 
reference is to the new lyric metres of Aeolic origin which Horace 
made current ; cf. iii. 30. 13. 

4. Boclanda chordiB: to be wedded to the lyre; cf. ii. 12. 4, 
aptari citharae modis. The implication that the ode is written for 
singing to musical accompaniment is probably a traditional fiction of 
poets. Greek lyric poetry was composed primarily for musical per- 
formance ; but there is nothing to indicate that this was true of 
Horace's lyric verse. Chordis is ablative of association ; Introd. § 38. a. 

5. si = etsi^ as often when following a negative statement. pri- 
orea BedeB : i.e. the place of honor, lit. the first seats, a figure dravni 
from the theatre. MaeoniuB : i.e. Lydian ; see on i. 6. 2. 

6. HomeruB : note that the real comparison is not between indi- 
viduals, but between two types of poetry, the epic and the lyric. 
latent : are unknown. Pindaricae : on Pindar as a lyric poet, 
see iv. 2. 1 . 

7. Ceae : i.e, of Simonides of Ceos (an island of the Cyclades); he 
flourished about 500 b.c, and was especially successful as a writer of 
elegies and epigrams. Alcaei minaceB : the allusion is to Alcaeus's 

Paob 147.] BOOK IV. ODE 9. 383 

energetic invectives against Pittacus and Myrsilus (or Myrtilus), 
tyrants of Mitylene. 

8. Stesichori graves Camenae : Stesichorus, of Himera in Sicily, 
flourished about 600 b.c. ; he was successful in the treatment of lofty 

9. luslt Anacreon : ludere is used to refer to the light, sportive 
lyrics of Anacreon (650 b.c), the chief themes of which were love and 

11. vivont; for the spelling, see Introd. §34. calores: 

12. Aeollae puellae : Sappho ; see on ii. 13. 24 ; puellae is genitive. 

13. arsit: became inflamed; from ardesco (not ardeo), adul- 
ter! : a paramour. 

14. crinis: this and the following accusatives are the object of 
mirata. aurum vestibuB illitum: gold-bespangled raiment, lit. 
gold spread upon his raiment. 

15. regalia cultua : regal splendor. 

17. prlmuBve, etc. : i.e. the first to gain fame as an archer. The 
negative of line 13 extends also to this sentence. On Teucer, see i. 7. 
21, note. Cydonio: Cretan; from Cydoma, a Cretan city. The 
Cretans were famous archers; hence * Cretan darts,' * Cretan bows,' 
etc. ; cf. i. 16. 17, calami spicula Cnosii. 

18. non semel IUob, etc.: i.e. ^ other Troys have been besieged 
and captured.' 

20. Idomeneua : a Cretan, and one of the bravest leaders on the 
side of the Greeks. Sthenelua : the charioteer of Diomedes. 

21. dicenda : deserving of celebration. 

22. acer Deiphobus : one of the most valiant of the Trojan war- 
riors. He married Helen after the death of Paris. 

24. primua : emphasized by its position at the end of the verse. 

26. inlacrimabilea : i.e. unwept and unsung. 

27. urgentur : are overwhelmed. longa nocte : sc. mortis. 

28. sacro : cf. iii. 1. 3, sacerdos Musarum. 

29. paulnm aepultae, etc. : the emphasis rests upon sepultae, 
— in the tomb, hidden worth differs but little from cowardice ; for 
the dative with distat, cf. Sat. i. 4. 48, differt sermoni. 

30. non . . . ailebo : i.e. ^ I will not leave you unmentioned and 
unhonored ' ; for silere with the accusative, cf. i. 12. 21. 

31. chartiB: i.e. in my poems. 

32. labQrea: achievements. 

884 BOOK IV. ODE 10. [Pao» 14a 

33. Lolli : Marcus LoUius, consul in 21 b.c. In 16 b.c., while goy- 
emor of Germany, he suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the 
Sygambri and their allies. LoUius stood high in the favor of Augustus, 
but the Roman historians describe him as avaricious, treacherous, and 
hypocritical. There is no reason, however, to doubt the sincerity of 
Horace's praise. Possibly LoUius had not yet developed the evil 
qualities mentioned ; possibly they were unknown to the poet. car- 
pere, i.e. to belittle. lividas : envious, 

35. rerum pmdens: versed in affairs, que . . . et: cor- 

36. chibila : here in the sense of adversis, rectoa : well poised. 
We may have here some allusion to LoUius^s steadfastness at the time 
of his defeat by the Sygambri. 

37. vlndez fraudls: i,e, of dishonesty on the part of his subor- 

38. ducentis ad ae ouncta : that draws all to itself, pecuniae : 
from money ^ i.e. love of money, greed ; for the genitive with dbstinens, 
cf iii. 27. 69. 

39. conaul : in apposition with animus (line 35) by a somewhat 
bold metaphor. non uniua azmi: i.e. a consul for all time, ever 
to be honored. 

40. aed quotiena : in strong antithesis to non unius anni, — not 
for one year hut as long as (Ut. as often as). 

41. index: in its capacity as judge; iudex is in apposition with is 
understood, referring to animus, praetnlit, relecit, ezplicnit : an 
asyndetic series. 

42. alto yoltn : vnth lofty gazcy i.e, with glance of lofty disdain. 
dona : bribes, nocentium : the guilty. 

43. obatantia caterraa : the opposing hosts of evU. 

44. ezplicnit arma : has carried its arms, viz. of honesty and 

46. recte : with vocaveHs. oconpat : i.e, wins, deserves. 

48. nti, pati : the infinitive with callere is poetical. 

51. non ille : the one that is not (afraid), 

52. timidna pexire : cf, iii. 19. 2, Codrus non timidus mori, 


1. Veneria muneribua : i.e. beauty of face and figure. 

2. inaperata : unexpectedly. pluma : i.e. the downy beard 
that shall take away thy blooming cheeks. anperbiae : dative. 

Page 160.] BOOK IV. ODE 11. 885 

3. quae . . . involitant: boys wore the hair long. decide- 
rint : i.e. shall be shorn. 

4. nunc et : for the postponement of et, see on i. 2. 5. prior : 

5. mutatas verterit: lit. changed shall turn; a redundant 
expression. Ligurlne : mentioned also in iv. 1. 33. verterit : 
here intransitive, as not infrequently. 

6. speoulo : ablatiye of means. alterum : altered^ in predicate 

7. mens : i.e. spirit of compliance. paero : sc. mihi (dative of 

8. his animlB : i.e. my present repentant spirit. 


2. Albani : sc. vini. The Alban was one of the better wines. 

3. nectendis coronis : for weaving garlands. 

4. vis : abundance, store, as in iv. 8. 9. 

5. qua : with fulges. orinis religata : sc. in nodum ; religata 
is used as middle; crinis is direct object. fulges: i.e. Uhou art 
wont to look so resplendent.* 

6. ridet argento : sparkles with silver, i.e. with silver vessels. 

7. verbenis: see on i. 19. 14. They are designated as castae, 
since dedicated to religious purposes. 

8. spargier: archaic and poetical for spargi. Horace does not 
elsewhere in the Odes use such infinitive forms. 

10. pueriB puellae : the attendant slaves. 

11. Bordldum : sooty. flammae : on the hearth, trepidant : 
of the dancing motion of the flames. 

12. vertioe : in wreaths; with rotantes. 

14. agendae : i.e. to be celebrated. 

15. mensem Veneris, Aprilem : April is called ^ the month of 
Venus,' since she was believed in that month to have sprung from the 
sea. marinae : sea-horn, as in iii. 26. 6. 

16. fLamt = dimdit. 

18. proprio = meo. 

19. luce : for die. adfluentls : the years are thought of as 
flowing onward like a stream. 

20. ordlnat: t'.e. counts. 

21. occupavlt : i.e. has already won. 

386 BOOK IV. ODE 12. [Pagb 160. 

22. non tuae sortlB: i.e. above thy station ; sortU is genitive of 
quality with iuvenem, which is in apposition with Telephum. 

23. grata : with compede, as in i. 33. 14 ; oxymoron. 

25 if. Illustrations of the disaster that follows too lofty aspirations. 

25. ambiistiu Phaethoh : i.e. the destruction of Phaethon, who 
was burned by driving the chariot of Phoebus too near the sun. 
avaras : here in the sense of avidaSy — too eager, too lofty. 

26. grave : i.e. significant, one to be heeded. 

27. gravatUB Bellerophontem : i.e. having refused to bear him. 
After slaying the Chimaera with the assistance of Pegasus, Bellero- 
phon endeavored to fly to heaven upon his back, but Pegasus threw off 
his rider, who fell to the earth. 

29. ut aequare et vites : the substantive t<^-clauses depend upon 
the notion of warning contained in exemplum pi'aebet. te dlgna : 
what b^8 thee. ultra quam licet, etc. : by thinking it vrrong to 
hope for more than is lawful. 

31. dlsparem : one ill-suited to thee. 

33. alia calebo femina : for the ablative, cf. i. 4. 19, quo tepebunt. 

34. condisce : i.e. learn with care. amanda = amabili. 

35. quoB reddas : to sing, lit. to render, as in iv. 6. 43. The sub- 
junctive is one of purpose. atrae curae : referring to her regrets 
for Telephus. 


1. mare temperant: i.e. the mild spring breezes smooth the sur- 
face of the sea, ruffled by the boisterous blasts of winter. 

2. impellunt : strictly applicable only to the ships, but here applied 
to the sails. lintea : sc. vela, sails. animae Thraciae : breezes 
from the North ; animae is in apposition with comites. For the con- 
ception of a wind as the companion of a season, cf. i. 25. 19, hiemis 
sodali Euro. 

5 if. The advent of the swallow is described in terms of the 
Procne legend. According to the commoner account, Procne, daughter 
of Pandion, king of Attica, had married Tereus, king of Thrace, and 
by him became the mother of Itys. Tereus then dismissed Procne 
and miarried her sister Philomela. In revenge Procne killed Itys and 
served up the flesh of the child to his father. She then fled with 
Philomela. Tereus followed them, whereupon Procne was changed 
into a swallow^ Philomela into a nightingale, 

Page 162.] BOOK IV. ODE 12. 387 

6. infeliz avis : the swallow. Cecropiae : for Atticae ; Cecrops 
was the first king of Attica. 

7. aetemom opprobrium : connected hj etto infelix. quod : 
in the sense of propterea quod. male : i.e. too savagely, viz, in 
sacrificing her own son. 

8. regum llbldlnes : generalizing plurals. 

9. dicont : here for canunt, play^ as in iii. 4. 1, die age tibia, 

10. fistula : the pipe of Pan. 

11. cui pecuB, etc, : Pan (the Roman Faunas) was the patron 
deity of the Arcadian shepherd folk; see i. 17. 2. nigri colles: 
the reference is to the dark evergreen trees that covered the Arcadian 
mountains ; cf. i. 21. 7, nigris Erymanthi silvi8. 

13. adduzere . . . tempora : the season has brought thirst ; in 
Italy, even the early spring is warm. Verglli : not the poet Virgil, 
but, as the context seems to show, some merchant. Nothing definite 
is known about him. 

14. presBum CalibuB = Calenum ; see on i. 20. 9. Idberam : 
for mnum. 

15. iuvenum nobilium : who the noble patrons were, is not known. 

17. parvoB onyz : some tiny receptacle made of onyx. 

18. SulpiciiB horreiB : a public storehouse on the Aventine, 
which later came into the possession of the Emperor Sulpicius Galba. 
The scholiast Porphyrio (shortly after 200 a.d.) remarks: hodieque 
Galbae horrea vino et oleo et similibus aliis referta sunt. On Sul- 

piciis for Sulpicianis^ cf. iv. 5. 1, Bomulae (for Bomuleae) gentis. 

19. donare, eluere: Introd. §41. c. largus: rich in promise. 
amara curarum : the bitterness of care; for this use of the neuter 
plural, see on ii. 1. 23, cuncta terrarum, 

20. eluere : to drown, as lavere in iii. 12. 2. 

22. merce : viz. the nard. non ego, etc. : I^m not the man, etc, 

23. immunem : i.e. without contributing thy share. tingere: 
*«o steep ^ (Page). 

24. plena: well-stocked. 

26. nigrorum Ignium : viz, of the funeral pyre. Death and all its 
associations are characterized by the poets as black; cf. 11. 3. 16. 
dnm licet : with misce. 

27. conailiiB : i.e. plans for amassing wealth by trade ; the case is 
ablative (Introd. § 38. a). 

28. desipere : i.e. to cast serious thoughts aside. In loco : at 
the fitting time. 

888 BOOK IV. ODE 13. [Paos 162. 

ODE xni. 

1. Aadiy«re dl, dl audlvero: the gods have heard, aye heard 
they have; for the repetition (here combined with chiasmus), cf. ii. 
17. 10, ibimus, ibimus, mea yota : apparently a reference to the 
sentiments of iii. 10, where Lyce is represented as refusing to recipro- 
cate the poet's devotion. In the present passage, the implication is 
that he had prayed that Lyce might be punished for her cruelty by 
growing old while stiU longing to seem as beautiful as in youth. 

4. ladls : te. as though still a young girl ; c/. iii. 15. 4, desine inter 
ludere virgines, bibis impndens : such indulgence might befit a 
younger person, but in Lyce it is out of place. 

5. oanta tremulo : the maudlin singing of a drunken person ; 
eantu is ablative of means with sollidtas, 

6. lentom .* the sluggard, solllcitaB : conative, — 'try to rotise. 

7. Chlae : here a proper name, like Lesbia, Delia, etc, ; originally 
* maid of Chios/ 

8. ezoubat : keeps watch ; the word is nicely chosen in view of 
the technical meaning Q stand guard') which it inevitably suggests. 
The implication is that the god goes to sleep in Lyce's presence. 

9. Importunus : disdainfully, transvolat : the god is winged. 
arldaa quercus : figurative for faded women. So in 1. 26. 19, Lydia 
is likened to aridae frondes, 

12. capitis niyoB : gray hair. 

13. Coae porpurae : the purple silks made at the island of Cos, 
much worn by the Roman demi-monde. 

14. cari lapides : precious stones, aemel: once for all. 

15. notis fastis : in the public records ; fastis is ablative, dependent 
upon both condita and inclttsit ; notis suggests that the records, which 
are open to all, bear clear testimony to Lyce's age. condita 
indusit: has laid away and locked up, 

17. Venus : here for venustas, * graceful beauty.' 

18. illiuB, illius : of her, of her^ I ask; note the short penult; 
for the repetition, cf, line 1 above. 

20. surpaerat : for surripuerat; the form is colloquial. 

21. feliz : viz, on account of my tributes to thy charms. post 
Cinaram: i,e, after her death; for Cinara, see on iv. 1. 3ff. 
notaque et artium, etc. : a well-known beauty and of winning ways; 
que . . . et are correlative. 

24. servatnra : the future participle here denotes purpose ; on its 

Page 166.] BOOK IV. ODE 14. 889 

free use in Horace, see on ii. 3. 4. parom : to equal ; in predicate 
relation to Lycen, 

25. comicis vetulae temporlbus : for the proverbial longevity of 
the raven, cf. iii. 17. 13, annosa comiXy with note. 

28. ^apsam in cinerea faoem : the comparison is intended to 
suggest that Lyce is no longer a torch to fire the heart of youth ; her 
flune has burnt out. 

ODE xrv. 

1. patanm, Quirlttuin : i.e: sencUus populusque Bomanus, 

2. plenla honorum monerlbua : with full meed of honors; hono- 
rum is appositional genitive. 

3. in aevom = in omne aevom, for ever; a pleonastic modifier of 

4. tittuloB: inscriptions. memorea f aataa : commemorative 
records; for the force of memores, see on iii. 17. 4 ; note that for poetic 
effect Horace here uses the rare form fastOs (fourth declension) ; 
ordinarily the word is of the second declension. 

5. aeternet: deliberative subjunctive. habitabilia : here, in- 

6. oraa : regions, 

7. quern : prolepsis. legia ezpertea Latlnae : free (as yet) 
from Roman rule, 

8. Vindelici : see iv. 4. didicere : cf, iv. 4. 25, sensere, 

9. Marte : for bello, as often. tao : the emphatic word, — thine 
were the troops, 

10. Gkenaonoa, Breunoa : they dwelt in the valley of the Inn in 
the Tyrol. 

11. veloda : i.e, swift in their movements of attack and retreat. 
arbea : strongholds, 

12. AlpibuB tremendia : awe-inspiring with their glaciers and 
towering peaks. 

13. deiecit : i.e. hurled down from their heights. plua vice 
aimplici : i.e, with a vengeance that more than made amends for the 
previous devastation wrought by these barbarians ; plus here does not 
infiuence the construction. 

14. maior Neronum : Tiberius, who was four years older than his 
brother Dnisus ; cf, iv. 4. 28. 

15. immanta Raetoa : for the Raeti, see on iv. 4, ' Occasion of the 

390 BOOK IV. ODE 14. [Page 15& 

Foein.^ Strabo tells us that, whenever they captured a town, they 
slaughtered all the male inhabitants, even to the children. 

17. spectandus quantis fatigaret, etc, : a wonder to behold for 
the havoc with which he overcame^ etc. ; fatigaret is subjunctive of 
indirect question. The ordinary caesura of the verse is neglected, as 
in i. 37. 14 ; Introd. § 43. 

18. devota morti pectora liberae : their hearts sacrificed to the 
death of freemen ; this observation is intended to heighten Tiberius's 
glory by indicating the obstacles with which he had to cope. 

21. ezercet : lashes, Auater : ^ the boisterous master of the 
Adriatic * ; iii. 3. 5 ; i. 3. 14 f . Pleiadum choro, etc, : the reference 
is to the autumn setting of the Pleiades, which was attended by 

24. per ignes : i,e, through the fierce tumult of the fight. 

25. taurlformia Auiidus : rivers were often represented as bulls, 
a conception doubtless drawn from the roaring stream. 

26. Dauni : a mythical king of Apulia. praeiluit : for praeter- 
fluU, as in iv. 3. 10. 

29. Claudius : Tiberius (Claudius Nero). 

30. ferrata : i.e. with iron weapons, or defended by iron mail. 

32. Btravit humum: i,e. with the slain. sine clade: viz. to 
his own troops. 

33. te, te, tuos : emphatic repetition ; the reference is to Augus> 
tus ; tuos is here used in the sense of propitios. 

34. quo die = eo die^ qiM, viz. August 29, 30 b.g. 

36. vacuam aulam : Antony and Cleopatra had withdrawn from 
the palace to the Mausoleum, where they committed suicide. 

37. lustro tertio : i.e. fifteen years later. 

38. reddidit = rursus dedit. 

39. peractis imperiia : the ^ordera execuftd' are those given to 
Drusus and Tiberius by Augustus. The case is dative. 

40. adrogavit: i,e, has won. 

41. Cantaber : the Cantabrians had long been a menace to Rome, 
and though temporarily subdued had risen in repeated revolts. They 
were finally subjugated by Agrippa in 19 b.c. 

42. Medua: for Farthus^ as often. A compact of friendship 
between Rome and Parthia had been entered into in 20 b.c, by which 
the Parthian king, Phraates, restored the Roman standards captured 
from Crassus at the disaster of Carrhae in 53 b.c. Indus, profuguB 
Scythes : Suetonius {Aug. 21) tells us that Augustus made treaties 

Page 156. J BOOK IV. ODE 16. 391 

of friendship with the Indians and Scythians. On profugus Scythes^ 
cf. iii. 24. 9. 

43. tutela praesena : mighty guardian ; tutelar properly abstract, 
is here used concretely ; praesens as in i. 35. 2. 

44. dominae : cf. iv. 3. 13, Bomae principis urbium. 

46. NiluB, Hister, Tigris : note the artistic change from the names 
of peoples to the streams near whose banks the people dwelt. The Nile 
suggests the Aethiopians, who, after previous hostilities against the 
Romans, in 20 b.c. sent ambassadors to sue for peace. The Hister sug- 
gests the refractory Dacians ; the Tigris the Armenians, subjugated by 
Tiberius in 20 b.c. 

47. beluosus Oceanua : the waters about Britain were fabled to 
breed monsters unknown in other seas. In representing the British 
Ocean as heeding Augustus's mandates, Horace probably refers to the 
embassy sent to Rome by certain British kings, — at what time is 

48. obstrepit : roars around ; lit. roars at, 

49. non paventia funera Galliae : the firm faith of the Gauls in 
the immortality of the soul and in happiness after death enabled them 
to face destruction with resolution ; Galliae is genitive. For the poetic 
plural in funera, cf, i. 8. 15. 

50. durae Hiberiae : cf. iv. 5. 27, ferae Hiberiae ; as the Canta- 
brians have already been alluded to above, Horace is here probably 
thinking of other wild tribes of the Spanish peninsula. audit: 

51. caede gaudentes Sygambri : see on iv. 2. 34. 

52. compoaitia armia : ''xoith weapons laid to resf* (Page). 


1. proelia: i,e. of Augustus's martial achievements. loyqui = 
canere^ as iv. 2. 45. 

2. lyra ; with increpuit, — * rebuked me by striking his lyrfe.' The 
same god gives the warning who had endowed him with the gift of 
song ; see iv. 6. 29, mihi Phoebus artem carminis dedit. 

3. no darem : {bidding me) not to spread; a substantive clause, 
depending upon the idea of ordering involved in increpuit. parva 
Tyrrhenum, etc. : * my tiny sails of lyric song on the vast sea of 
Augustus's glory.' 

4. tua Caeaar, aetaa, etc. : forbidden to sing of martial deeds, 

392 BOOK IV. ODE 16. [Page 157. 

thcr poet proceecU to rehearse Augostug's triumphs in the field of 

5. imgwi . . . uberea : agriculture had been well-nigh ruined by 
the protracted civil wars. 

6. Note the impressive polysyndeton (et . , , et . , . et, etc,) con- 
tinued till line 16. slgna, etc. : a poet's exaggeration of the facts, for 
which see on iv. 14. 42. noatro lovi : note the emphatic position 
of noatro, — our temples, as opposed to those of the Parthians. lovi 
( = templo Iovi8) is used generically for Rome ; the standards were 
actually deposited in the temple of Mars. 

7. Buperbia : splendid, 

8. poattbus : dative of separation with der^pta, vacuoin duel- 
Ua: free from toars; prolepsis. On the form of vacuom, see Introd. 
§ d4. For the form of duellis^ see on iii. 6. 88. 

9. lannm Qolrliil claualt : the temple or arcade of Janus was 
closed when no wars were In progress. Till the reign of Augustus this 
had happened only twice in Roman history. Instead of Ianu8 Quirini, 
we elsewhere find lanus Quirinus, Horace here seems to use lanum 
to indicate the temple, Quirini to designate the god. ordlnem: 
object of evaganti. 

10. frena licentiae inlecit : put a curb on license ; for the condi- 
tions complained of, see especially iii. 6 and iii. 24. 

12. veterea artls: the old virtues that had made Rome great, 
frugalitas^ fortitudo, iustitia, temperantia, patientia, fides, castUizs. 
See especially Book iii., Odes 1-6. 

13. Latintim nomen, Italae virea, lama Imperi : the three stages 
in the extension of Roman dominion. 

14. impexi : with both fama and maiestas, 

15. ortaa : a striking instance of the poetic plural. 

17. cuatode rerum : c/. iii. 14. 15, tenente Caesare terras. 
19. ira : sc, bellica, 

21. qui Danuviom bibunt : the recently defeated Vindelici and 
other Alpine tribes referred to in iv. 2 ; iv. 14. Danuvius is the name 
of the upper Danube. For this means ol indicating a nationality, cf, 
ii. 20. 20, Rhodani potor. 

22. edlcta lolia: the conditions of peace and alliance which 
Augustus (whose adoptive gentile name was Julius) had imposed upon 
foreign nations. Gtotae : see on iii. 24. 11. 

23. Serea : see on i. 12. 56. iniidi Peraae : cf. Epist. 11. 1. 112, 
Parthis mendacior. 

Page 160.] CARMEN SAECULARE. 398 

24. Tanain prope orti : the Scythians ; see on iv. 14. 42 ; note the 
anastrophe of the dissyllabic preposition. 

25. profestis lucibus: on working days; Ittx for dies, as fre- 

28. rite : in due form, adprecatl : first used by Horace, and 
not again found till Apuleius, two centuries later. 

29. virtute functoa: 'who had wrought deeds of valor* (^^the 
heroic dead,^ Page). more patrum : with canemus. Cicero, in 
Tu8C. Disp. i. 2, alludes to the custom here mentioned. 

30. Lydia remizto, etc, : with song mingled with the music of 
Lydian pipes; tihiis is ablative (In trod. § 38. a). Plato mentions the 
Lydian style of music as soft and adapted to banquets. 

31. Troiam, Anchlsen, progeniem Veneria : the source and 
founders of the Roman race ; under progeniem Veneris, we are to 
understand not only Aeneas, but his illustrious descendants, Julius 
and Augustus. 


1. ailvarum potena : so Venus, in Odes, i. 3. 1, is called diva 
patens Cypri. On Diana as goddess of woods and groves, cf Odes, 
iii. 22. 1, montium custos nemorumque; Catullus, 34. 9, domina siU 
varum virentium. 

2. decua : in apposition with both Phoebe and Diana. 

3. aemper : with both colendi and culti. 

5. quo : with dicere. Sibyllini veraua : see ' Occasion of the 
Hymn. ' 

6. lectaa, caatoa: grammatically lectas limits virgines, and 
castos limits pueros, yet logically both adjectives belong to each 

7. aeptem placuere coUea : in that the sanctuaries of the gods 
appear on the hills. 

9. alme Sol : frequently identified with Apollo. 

10. promia : usher in. et idem : and yet the same. 

13. rite : duly. aperire : dependent on lenis ; cf. Odes, i. 24. 
17, (of Mercury) non lenis precibus fata recludere. 

14. lenia : the imperative force extends also to lenis, — be gentle, 
etc. Ilithsrla : a Greek goddess {ElXeLdvia) who presided over the 
birth of children ; she is here identified with Diana ; cf iii. 22. 2. As 
the name was unfamiliar to Roman ears, Horace adds two simple 

894 CABM£N SABCULARB. [Pagb 160. 

Boman designations, Lucina, properly an epithet of Juno in the 
capacity of helper in child-birth, and Oenitalis, newly coined by the 
poet. In llithyia^ yi is diphthongal, with the sound of Greek vi ; cf. 
OdeSi iv. 6. 28, Agyieu, 

17. producas : rear, train up, as in Odea, ii. 13. 3. patrum 
decreta, etc. : Horace alludes to the lex lulia de maiHtandU ordinibus, 
proclaimed by Augustus in 18 b.c. (the year before the saecular celebra- 
tion), by virtue of the tribunician power with which he had been invested. 
The measure is here spoken of as the patrum decreta, — probably because 
Augustus had issued the edict after consulting with the Senate and 
receiving the sanction of that body. This edict was intended not only 
to increase the number of marriages, but also to encourage the birth 
of children by promising certain honors and immunities to fathers of 
large families, while on the other hand certain penalties were imposed 
upon the unmarried and upon childless married people. 

18. super iugandls feminlB : i.e. concerning the encouragement 
of marriage. 

19. prollB novae feraci : t'.e. that give promise of being fruitful 
in new offspring ; the genitive with ferax, as in Odes, iv. 4. 68. 

20. lege marita : lit. the married law ; but here apparently in the 
sense of marriage rites. 

21. certua undenoa, etc. : that the fixed circuit of ten times 
eleven years may bring again, etc. For the late postponement of ut, 
cf. Odes, iv. 2. 21, iuvenemve. 

22. cantuB referatque ludos: for cantus ludosque referat; see 
on Odes, i. 30. 6. 

23. ter . . . frequentis : i.e. thronged for three days and nights, 
the period set for the celebration. 

25. veracea cecinisse: truthful in your past predictions; cf. 
Odes, ii. 16. 39, Parca non mendax. The perfect tense here has its 
full force. 

26. quod aemel dictum, etc. : as has been once ordained, and so 
may the fixed course of events maintain it; quod serves both as sub- 
ject of dictum est and as object of servet, — to our feeling a somewhat 
awkward construction. 

27. iam peractia : sc. bonis fatis ; the reference is to the saecu' 
lum just closed. 

29. fertilis frugum: rich in crops; for the genitive, see In trod. 
§ 36. a ; fertilis is in predicative relation to tellus, — may the earth be 
rich and bless Ceres, etc. 

Page 161.] CARMEN SAECULARE. 395 

31. fetus : the crops, aquae : the rains, Balubres, IovIb : 

with both aquae and aurae. 

33. condito : sc. in pharetra, telo : viz. the arrow. 

37. Roma si veatrum, etc, : the context clearly implies that 
Rome is the work of the gods. Hence the passage virtually means, 
* in the name of your own work and our Trojan origin.' Special em- 
phasis rests on vestrum and Iliae. 

38. lituB EtruBCum, i,e. the coast of the Mare Tuscum, on which 
Aeneas and his followers landed. 

39* para: the remnant; in apposition with turmae. The refer- 
ence is to the Trojans who accompanied Aeneas after the fall of Troy. 

41. Bine fraude : without harm ; for this meaning of fraus, see 
on ii. 19. 19. 

42. castuB: used apparently in the same sense as the Virgilian 

43. munivit iter: viam munire is the technical expression for 
building or paving a road ; so here munivit iter has nearly the force 
of our ^ paved a way,* in its figurative sense. daturuB plixra 
relictis : destined to give his followers larger things (Rome) than 
they had left behind (Troy). 

45. di : the gods in general. 

47. Romulae genti : Bomulae for Bomuleae, as in Odes, iv. 5. 1. 
rem : prosperity. prolemque : a hypermetric verse, appropriate 
in view of the fulness of blessings here entreated. 

49. quae vob veneratur : what he prays of you ; veneror here 
takes two accusatives. bobuB albis: i.e. in connection with the 
sacrifice of white steers. 

50. claruB sanguis : Augustus. On sanguis * descendant,' c/. iii. 
27. 66. 

51. bellante prior, etc. : the wish in impetret extends also to 
hellante prior ^ — * may he prove superior to the foe that disputes his 
power, just as he is ever generous to the fallen ' ; cf. Virg. Aen, vi. 863, 
parcere subiectis et debellare superbos. 

53. mari terraque : with potentis, manus : sc. Bomanorum, 

54. Medus : see on Odes, iv. 14. 42. Albanas : a poetic varia- 
tion for Bomanas, since the Romans were sprung from Alba. 

55. Scythae responsa petunt, Indi : see on Odes, iv. 14. 42. 
superbi : with Scythae. 

61. augur, etc. : we have here the four phases under which Apollo 
was commonly conceived: (1) as augur; (2) as archer, *the far 

396 EPODB I. [PAOBiei. 

darter* ; (3) as the god of music and leader of the Muses ; (4) as the 
god of healing. 

€3. fesaoB : for aegros, 

65. Palatinaa aras : at which the present hymn is helng sung, 
videt aequoB : gazes upon tmth favor. 

66. rem Romanam : the Roman state. feUx : with LaUvm, 

67. altenim in luatram meliuaque semper aevom: to lustra 
ever new, and ages ever better; semper is to be taken with both phrases. 

69. quaeque: and Diana who; Diana is joint subject (with 
Apollo) of proroget. AvenUnom tenet Algidumque: Diana had 
long had a famous temple on the Aventine, founded by Servius Tul- 
lius ; she was also worshipped on Mt. Algidus (in Latium, southeast, 
of Rome). 

70. quindecim virorum : ordinarily one word ; the separation is 
poetical. For the quindecimviri, see ' Occasion of the Hymn.* 

71. paerorum : including both sexes. 

73. haec: viz. what we have entreated. aentire: purpose; 
the infinitive depends upon spem, which here takes the construction 
of spero. 

75. doctuB : viz, by Horace, the author of the hymn ; cf. Odes, 
iv. 6. 43, docilis modorum vatis Horatt Phoebi et Dianae : de- 
pendent upon laudes. 



1. LlbnmlB : see on i. 37. 30. inter alta propugnacnla : viz. 
of Antony's Egyptian ships, which were constructed with high towers. 

4. tuo : sc. periculo. 

5. quid noB : sc. facturi sumus. quibuB te si superstite, etc. : 
to whom life is sweet if (/ have it) toith thee alive. The ellipsis with 
si seems somewhat harsh. 

7. utrumne : redundant for utrum. iuBsi : sc. a te, 

9. hunc laborem : sc. militiae. laturi : sc. sumtts. decet 
qua : for qua decet. 

10. nonmoUes: litotes for fortes. 

12. inhoBpitalem Caucasum : cf. i. 22. 6. 

13. occidentia . . . ainum: the remotest corner of the West. 
15. rogea : would you ask f The question is virtually equivalent 

to a protasis, si roges, — should you ask. tuom : sc. laborem ; for 

Paob164.] EPODE I. 397 

the form, see Introd. § 34. quid iuvem : what help I should lend ; 
potential subjunctive in indirect question. 

16. firmuB parum : referring to the poet's health, which was not 

17. comoB : 08 comrade ; with conditional force, — * if I am with 

18. qui maior, etc. : maior has predicative force ; habet ^ occupaty 
— lays hold with greater power on tfiose who are absent (from the 
friends they love). 

19. adsidenB avis : a brooding (mother) bird, implomibiu 
pallia : for her unfledged nestlings; dative of interest with timet. 

21. rellctia : if left behind ; with pullis. non at adait, etc. : 
non latura stands in adversative relation to timet, and ut adsit in turn 
stands in adversative relation to non latura^ — though not likely to lend 
more help despite her presence (lit. though she be present), 

22. praeaentibaa : superfluous repetition of the idea contained in 
ut adsit. 

23. militabitar : sc. a me. 

24. tuae apem gratiae : according to Kiessling, not * hope of thy 
favor,' but ' hope of giving thee pleasure.' 

25. non at iavencia inligata, etc. : * not that more straining oxen 
may be yoked to my ploughs ' ; lit. not that my ploughs may strain, 
fastened to more oxen. 

27. pecaave . . . paacuia : or that my flock may seek Lucanian 
pastures for Calabrian, Only rich men would be able to send their 
flocks away from Calabria to the cooler Lucania in the sultry season ; 
on the heat of Calabria, see Odes, i. 31. 5, aestuosae Calabriae. On 
the force of mutare, see note on Odes, i. 17. 2 ; pasctds is ablative of 
association ; Introd. § 38. a. ante aidua fervidum : i.e. before the 
heat of the blazing dog-star. 

29. neque ut aapemi, etc. : * nor that I may possess a villa of 
shining marble near lofty Tusculum.' Tusculum, high up in the Latin 
hills, was a favorite summer resort in Horace's day. Tuacali Cir- 
caea moenia : Tusculum, according to legend, was founded by Tele- 
gonus, son of Circe and Ulysses. 

30. tangat : i.e. be near ; the villas were on the hillside just below 
Tusculum itself. 

31. aatia . . . ditavit : an allusion to the Sabine farm given to 
Horace by Maecenas in 33 b.c, two years before the date of this 

898 EPODE II. [Page 164. 

32. baud paravero i IHl not lay up (ricfies). The future-perfect 
is but a stronger future. 

33. quod premam: to bury, avama: with the subject of 
premam. at Chremea : Chremes (a character borrowed from At- 
tic Comedy) is typical for a miser. 

34. disclnctiiB : dissolute, reckless; ut \& to he understood with 


1. procul: here used as a preposition, governing the ablative 

2. at priaca gena : apparently a reference to the Golden Age. 

3. exercet: works, tills. aaia: like paterna, suis points out 
that the man is tilling his own estate ; he is not merely a tenant farmer. 

4. aolatoa omni faenore : i.e. freed from the many worries of 
money lending. The speaker (Alfius) naturally thinks of the hard- 
ships of his own vocation. 

5. ezcitator : sc, ex somno. milea : as a soldier, 

6. horret: shudders at; here used transitively. 

7. aaperba . . . limina: an allusion to the morning salutatio 
paid by clientes to their patronus, 

9. ergo: i.e. since he is exempt from the various annoyances just 
enumerated. adalta propagiae . . . popaloa : the training of the 
vme on the poplar is here spoken of as wedding the poplar with the 
vine ; see note on Odes, iv. 5. 30. The ablative is one of association ; 
Introd. § 38. a. 

11. redacta valle: sequestered valley. magientiam : sc, 
bourn ; cf. the use of latrantes for canes ; balantes for oves, etc, 

13. Inatiliaqae, etc, : the poet passes to the mention of fruit trees 
and their care. 

14. fellciorea: i.e, more fruitful. 

16. infirmaa: defenceless, 

17. decoram: crowned. 

18. Aatomnoa : here personified, agria : in the fields, 

19. at: exclamatory, — how! gaudet decerpena : i.e, delights 
to pluck, a Greek form of expression. 

20. certantem parparae : vying with the purple ; another Gre- 
cism ; cf. ii. 6. 15, viridi certat Venafro ; Introd. § 36. c. 

21. qua muneretur te : with which to honor thee ; i,e. in order 
that he may honor thee with them. Logically qua refers to pira as 

Page 166.] EPODE II. 899 

well as to uvam. The first fruits were regularly offered to the gods. 
Pri&pe : the god of gardens and vineyards. pater : a common epi- 
thet of all deities. 

24. tenaci: i.e. thick; lit. that holds (together). 

25. altia ripia : ue. between their high banks. Interim : as he 
lies there. 

26. quenintur : warble, 

27. fontea obattepunt : i.e. the fountains with their plashing 
waters vie with the music of the warbling birds. 

28. somnoB levla : soft slumbers, as in Odes, ii. 16. 15. quod 
invltet : relative clause of result, — ^ a sound so sweet that it lulls to 

29. tonantls : merely a standing epithet of the god, and so with- 
out special significance here. annua hibemua = hiems ; cf. Odes, 
iii. 23. 8, pomifero anno, ' autumn.' 

31. trudit : a stronger agit. multa cane : poetic for multis 
canibus ; cf. Odes, i. 15. 6, multo milUe, 

32. obatantis : i.e. placed in their path. 

33. lev! : smooth, polished, rara retia : wide-meshed nets ; 
i.e. as compared with the nets used by fishermen. 

34. doloB : in apposition with retia. 

35. pavidumque leporem *. note the fine suiting of the metre to 
the sense of the Ime. The anapaest ( pavidum) followed by the tri- 
brach (-que lepO') suggests the quick darting of the frightened hare ; 
a second anapaest in laqueo helps to maintain the movement of the 
verse. advenam gruem : i.e. the migratory crane, which came to 
Italy from the North in the winter season, and was highly esteemed 
as a table delicacy ; advenam has adjective force ; cf. Odes, i. 1.1, 
atavis regibus. 

37. quae amor curaa habet : incorporation of the antecedent in 
the relative clause. habet : i.e. involves, occasions. 

38. haec inter : for the anastrophe, cf, iii. 3. 11. 

39. in partem: i.e, performing her share. iuvet: i,e. help 

41. Sabina qualia : for the Sabine mother as the type of house- 
wifely virtues, see Odes, iii. 6. 37 fi. peruata aolibua : sun-burnt. 

42. pernicia Apuli : for the industry of the Apulians, cf. Odes, 
iii. 16. 26. 

43. sacrum : the hearth is called sacred as being the centre of 
family worship and the place near which the statues of the gods were 

400 EPODE III. [Page 166. 

often set up. vetastiB: te. well seasoned. extmat, siccet, 
adparet : continuing the protasis begun in qttodsi iuvet, 

44. Bub adventum : against the coming, i.e, in anticipation of 
his return. 

45. teztiB crattbuB : a sheep-fold made of wicker work. 

47. dulci : grammatically with dolio, logically with vina. 

48. Inemptaa : i.e. simple. 

49. Lucxina conchylia : the oysters of the Lucrine Lake near 
Naples were highly prized. iuverint: sc, magis; iuverint intro- 
duces the apodosis of the conditional sentence begun in line 39. 

50. magiBve : sc. iuverint, rhombuB, Bcari : turbot, scar; 
both fish were highly prized. 

51. BiquoB, etc, : if winter , thundering on the eastern waves, should 
turn any to our coasts, i,e, if Winter^s storms should divert any of these 
tish from the eastern Mediterranean to Italian waters ; on intonata, 
here with active force, c/. cenatus * having dined * ; pransus, ' having 
lunched,' etc, 

53. Afra avia, attagen lonlcuB : evidently special delicacies. 
55. pingniBfiimiB : the epithet is transferred from the fruit to the 

58. malvae aalubrea : the wholesome mallows are mentioned 
also in Odes, i. 31. 16, leves malvae, 

59. TerminalibuB : this festival fell on the 23d of February. 
61. ut : exclamatory, as above, line 19. 

65. poBtoB: ranged (around); by syncope toi positos; cf. Virg. 
Aen. i. 249, compostus pace quiescit. 

66. renidentlB : i,e. sparkling in the firelight. 

67. locutua : sc, est. 

68. iam iam fntuniB : on the very point of becoming, 

69. redegit : called in. Idibua, Kalendia : the regular points 
in the month for financial settlements. 

70. ponere : to put it out, viz, at interest. On quaero with the 
infinitive, cf. Odes, i. 37. 22, perire quaerens. Note the effect of the 
asyndeton in intensifying the surprise reserved for this closing line. 


1. ParentiB senile guttor fregexit : strangle an aged parent ; 
cf. Odes, ii. 13. 6, sui parentis fregisse cervicem. In the present pas- 
sage, fregerit is future perfect. olim stquia : if ever any man. 

Page 168.] EPODE m. 401 

2. senile : grammatically with guttur, but logically with parentis, 

3. edit : archaic subjunctive form for edat, from edo, * eat/ 

. 4. O dura mesBorum ilia : Oh, the tough stomachs of harvesters, 
i,e. to be able to eat garlic with impunity, as was their wont; ilia is 
used for ventres; similarly praecordiis in the following line. 

5. veneni : with quid. 

6. viperinuB cruor : regarded as a potent poison ; cf. Odes, i. 
8. 9. 

7. incoctuB me fefellit : i.e. * has it been brewed with these herbs 
without my knowing it ? ' For the Grecism, cf. Odes, iii. 16. 32, fallit 
sorte beatior, an malaa Canidia tractavit dapea : or did Canidia 
prepare the poisonous dishf Canidia was a notorious sorceress of the 
day ; see Epodes 5 and 17. 

9. ut : when. Argonautaa . . . candldum : te. fair beyond 
all the other Argonauts. 

10. ducem: viz, Jason. 

11. ignota . . . iuga: i,e, as he set out to put upon the fire- 
breathing bulls the yoke to which they were strangers. The yoking 
of these monsters was one of the tasks imposed by Aeetes upon Jason 
when he sought to recover the Golden Fleece. By Medea's magic 
powers, as the legend ran, he was enabled to accomplish the feat. 

12. hoc : viz, garlic, to serve as antidote against the furious bulls. 

13. hoc : the almost immediate repetition of the word and its 
position at the beginning of the verse lend special emphasis, — in 
this were steeped the gifts with which she (Medea) punished her rival. 
The reference is to the cloak and diadem presented by Medea to 
Creusa (or Glauce), daughter of the Corinthian king, Creon. The 
gifts burst into flame and consumed Creusa. Paelicem is literally 
mistress ; Jason had deserted Medea for Creusa. 

14. aerpente alite: i.e. on her chariot of dragons; the singular 
is here collective. 

15. aiderum vapor : i,e. the heat of the dog-star, whose influence 
was supposed to affect the temperature. insedit : brood over, 

16. siticuloaae Apuliae : cf. Odes, iii. 30. 11, pauper aquae 

17. nee munus . . . aeatuoaiuB : nor did the gift burn hotter 
into the shoulders of manful Hercules. The allusion is to the gift of 
the poisoned tunic sent to Hercules by Deianira, when the hero fell in 
love with lole ; the garment proved his death ; efflcacis refers to Her- 
cules^s famous labors ; aestuosius is used predicatively. 

402 EPODE IV. [Page 168. 

19. slquid concupiverlB : i.e. Mf you ever do any such thing 

21. puella: sweetheart. opponat, cubet: optative subjunc- 
tives ; precor is parenthetical. 


1. Bortito : t.6. by nature's decree. obtlgit : ac. discordia. 

2. diflcordla est : sc, tanta. 

3. Hibericia funibua : excellent ropes vrere made of the Spanish 
spartum, a kind of broom. peruate : scarred; the man had been a 
refractory slave and had been visited with the customary slave punish- 
ments, latua, crura : synecdochical (Greek) accusatives. 

4. dura : with compede. 

5. licet ambulea : although you strut about. 

6. genus: i.e. thy origin. 

7. Sacram Viam : the route of triumphal processions, and a favor- 
ite promenade. It passed along the base of the Palatine Hill and 
through the Forum. metiente: i.e. traversing the entire length 
of the street. 

8. bia . . . toga : the size is evidently unusually large, and marks 
the man's effort to ape the extreme of fashion ; bis trium ulnarum 
(about three yards) refers to the width of the toga before being draped 
about the person. 

9. ut vertat, etc. : how righteous indignation spreads over people'^ s 
faeces as they pass by ; vertat is best taken in its literal sense of ^ change,' 
* alter'; hue et hue is poetical for hue et illuc; euntium is toipraetere- 
untium^ — the simple verb for the compound, as frequently in poetry. 

11. * aectus,' etc. : ' scourgedy^ the indignant utterances of those 
passing by. The reference is to the time when the upstart was still a 
slave and had committed offences that incurred the punishment here 
mentioned. flagellis trlumviralibus : the triumviri capitales were 
a board of magistrates, who, in addition to the maintenance of public 
order, took cognizance of petty offences committed by slaves. 

12. praeconls ad fastidium : ^till the beadle was tired'; the 
praeco was charged with securing execution of the penalties imposed 
by the triumviri. Punishment was administered by the tortor, while 
the praeco continued to call out the nature of the offence. The slave's 
violations of the law had been so flagrant or so frequent that the beadle 
had finally become exhausted. 

Page. 171.] EPODE V. 403 

13. arat: t'.e. owns. Falerni fundi : valuable land, as produc- 
ing the famous Falemian wine. 

14. Appiam ; sc, Viam. The Appian Way led south from the 
city ; hence it was the natural thoroughfare to the man's Falemian 
estate. terit : i.e. travels. 

15. aedilibus in primia : at the theatre. rnagnua equea : sar- 
castic, -—as though a great knight, 

16. Othone contempto : in 67 b.c, L. Roscius Otho, a tribune 
for the year, secured the passage of a law providing that the first four- 
teen rows of the theatre should be reserved for those of equestrian 
rank. The upstart is presumably not reaUy an eques^ but his enor- 
mous wealth, vastly in excess of the equestrian census of 400,000 ses- 
terces (about 920,000), makes him thrust himself into the front rows 
of the theatre, in lofty scorn of Otho's law. 

17. quid attinet : of what use is it f tot ora , etc. : for so 
many heavy ships icith (brazen) beaks to be led against the pirates^ lit. 
so many beaked prows of ships of heavy weight. 

19. latrones atque servilem manum : alluding to the free-booters 
and runaway slaves armed by Sextus Fompeius and used to man the 
fleet with which for a time he defied Octavian. 

20. hoc, hoc tribune militum : i.e. there is no hope of success 
with such leaders ; for the emphatic repetition in hoc, hoc, cf. Odes, 
ii. 17. 10, ibimus, ibimus. 


1. At : an abrupt introduction, according with the terror of the 
boy who speaks. o deorum, etc. : i.e. ' in the name of all the gods 
in heaven.* 

3. fert : means. omnium : the four hags, Canidia, Sagana, 
Veia, Folia. 

4. voltus : sc. ferunt. 

5. to: Canidia, leader of the women. si vocata, etc. : i.e. *if 
thou hast ever had offspring.* 

6. Lttclna : an epithet of Juno in her capacity as the patron god- 
dess of child-birth. veria : see 17. 50. 

7. per hoc . . . decua : the purple border of the toga praetexta, 
the dress of boys. inane : as falling to afford the protection due a 
helpless youth. 

8. improbaturum : sure to shoio his disapproval, a milder word 

404 EPODE V. [Page 171. 


instead of puniturum, evidently intended to soften the hearts of his 
tormentors. On Horace's free use of the future participle, see on 
Odes, ii. 3. 4. 

9. noveroa : the type of cruelty. 

11. ut haec, etc. : as the boy halted, having uttered these plaints 
with quivering Up; haec is the accusative of result produced vrith 
questus, which agrees with puer. 

12. InBignibtui: i.e. his toga and bulla, the locket worn at the 
throat of children as an amulet to protect them from the *■ evil eye * 
and other malign influences. 

13. impube corpus : in apposition with puer, quale poaaet 
mollire : such as might soften ; clause of characteristic. 

14. Thraoum: i,e, barbarians. 

15. Canidia: her real name is said to have been Oratidia; for 
such disguises in names, see note on Odes, ii. 12. 13, Licymniae. 
impllcata, etc, : i.e. like a Fury ; the participle is used as a middle ; 
hence the direct objects, crinis and caput, 

16. incomptum : dishevelled. 

17. capxlficoB, cupressuB : i.e. bits of wood from these trees. 
The nouns are subjects of aduri. Note that cupressus, usually of the 
second declension, is here declined according to the fourth; cf, the 
similar use of myrtus in Odes, ii. 15. 6. 

18. funebxia : see on ii. 14. 23. 

19. uncta : to be taken with both ova and plumam, 

20. BtrigiB : the owl was a bird of evil omen ; strigis limits ova as 
well as plumam. 

21. lolcoB : a Thessalian city, mentioned as the source of poison- 
ous herbs, since the Thessalian women were famed as sorceresses. 
Hiberia : the Pontic Hiberia in Asia Minor is meant. 

23. OBBa : bones from a human body. 

24. ColchiciB = magicis, such as Medea of Colchis, the most fa- 
mous of mythical sorceresses, was wont to use in her incantations. 

25. ezpedita Sagana : Sagana (another of the witches) girt high, 
for freedom of movement. 

26. AvemaliB aquaa *. water from ill-omened Avemus, the noi- 
some lake near Cumae, regarded as the entrance to the lower world. 
The water was thought to possess magic power. 

29. abacta nulla, etc: Veia (another of the witches), held back 
by no sense of guilt. 

30. ligonibuB: poetic plural. 

Page 172.] EPODE V. 405 

32. quo poBset, etc. : in order tJiat buried there the boy, etc. ; quo 
is really the relative adverb ('whither '), referring to humum, 

33. longo die bis terque : twice or thrice in the course of the 
weary day ; the words limit mutatae. The sight of fresh viands would 
naturally intensify the sufferings of the boy. 

34. inemori : this verb is found only here. spectaculo : dative. 

35. cum promineret ore : protruding with his face ; a circum- 
stantial cum-clause, equivalent to a present participle. quanttun 
exBtant, etc. : i.e. only as much as the bodies of swimmers are raised 
above the surface of the water. 

38. amoris poculum : a love-charm. 

39. interminato : forbidden ; for the passive use of perfect passive 
participles of deponent verbs, cf. Odes, i. 1. 25, detestata. oum 
semel = simul ac. 

40. intabulBsent : oblique form, after a secondary tense, of an 
original future perfect indicative (cum intabuerint). 

42. Foliam : the fourth of the witches. 

43. otiosa NeapoliB : gossiping Naples. Naples, according to the 
scholiast, was Canidia^s home, and so took a natural interest in her 
doings and those of her associates. 

45. ezcantata : with both sidera and lunam. voce Thessala : 
see on line 21. * 

47. inresectum polllcem : i.e. a thumb whose nail was uncut. 

48. rodens : a mark of frantic rage. 

49. aut quid tacuit : or rather what did she leave unsaid 9 i.e. to 
what abominable utterances did she not give vent ? rebus meia : 
to my deeds. 

51. Diana : i.e. Luna. quae silentium regis : cf. Virg. Aen. 
ii. 266, tacitae per arnica silentia Lunae. 

53. adeste : be propitious to me. hostdlis domos : i.e. the 

homes that resist Canidia's power, particularly that of Varus (the 
senem of line 67). 

55. formidulosis : i.e. inspiring dread. 

57. senem adulterum : the old rake; the Varus of line 73 ; cf 
Odes, i. 1. 1, atavis regibus. quod omnes rideant: a sight for all 
to laugh at ; relative clause of purpose. 

58. latrent : bark at and drive as suppliant to Canidia's presence. 
The word is here transitive and governs senem. Suburanae canes : 
the Subura, to be thought of as Canidia's home, was a disreputable 
quarter of Rome lying between the Esquiline, ViminaK and Quirinal. 

406 EPODE V. [Page 172. 

59. nardo peninctum : Varus had been anointed with the magic 
perfume by Canidia, in order that the dogs might set upon him and 
drive him to her. 

601 laborarint : have wrought, have prepared, 

61. quid accidit : the charm refuses to work. dira : i.e. potent. 
barbarae : Medea^s home was Colchis. minus = non. 

62. venena: philters; venenum originally meant Move-charm,* 

* philter,' from Venes-, root of Venus, *love.' The primitive form 
*venes-num regularly became venenum by compensatory lengthening ; 
B. App. § 89. The meaning * poison,' therefore, is a secondary signi- 
fication of the word. 

63 ff. For the myth see on Epode 3, 13 f. 

63. superbam : in winning Jason's affections from Medea. 
65. tabo : here for veneno. 

69. indormit unctis, etc, : he sleeps on perfumed couch, forgetful 
of all mistresses (Canidia included) ; omnium is emphasized by its 
position ; oblivione is ablative of attendant circumstance. 

71. BolntnB: i.e. freed from my influence. veneficae scien- 
tiorUi carmine : by the charm of some cleverer enchantress. 

73. non uaitatis . . . recurres : i.e. ^ I'll brew a stronger charm 
and bring thee back to me.' The stronger charm, apparently, is to be 
made from the marrow and liver of the unfortunate boy. 

74. O mnlta, etc. : O creature doomed bitterly to weep, viz. for thy 
resistance to my spells. 

75. nee vocata mens toa, etc. : * and by no Marsian spells shall 
thy devotion come back to me.' Canidia, as she goes on to say, will use 
some stronger spell than those employed by Marsian witches. On 
Marsis for Marsicis, cf. Odes, i. 1. 28, Marsus aper, 

77. Infnndam tibi : Fll mix for thee. 

78. fastidienti : i.e. scorning me and my spells. 

79. maxi : ablative of comparison with inferius. 

80. tellure porrecta super: with the earth spread out above it 
(the sea). 

81. qnam non . . . flagres : than thou fail to be consumed with 
love for me ; meo here is equivalent to an objective genitive. 

82. atria ignibuB : smoky flames. 

83. Bub haec : thereat ; sub may mean either * just before ' or 

* just after.' ut ante : see lines 1-10, above. 

84. lenire: historical infinitive, with conative force, — did not 
strive to soothe* impiaa : the wicked hags. 

Page 174.] EPODE VI. 407 

85. unde : with what words, 

86. Thyesteas preces: i.e, such curses as Thyestes had hurled 
at Atreus, who had slain Thyestes's sons and served their flesh to their 
father at a banquet. This curse was familiar to the Romans of Hor- 
ace's day in Ennius's tragedy of Thyestes. 

87. venena maga, etc. : your magic spells have not the power to 
alter right and wrong ^ nor to avert human retribution; maga is for 
magica ; convertere is used zeugmatically ; with vicem it is equivalent 
to avertere. On vicem in this sense, cf. Odes, i. 28(2). 12, vicesque 

89. diris : with curses. dira detestatio : my awful execration. 

91. quin : nay more. perire inaaus : doomed to die. 

92. Furor : as a fury, 

93. umbra : as a ghost; to be taken with the subject oipetam, 

94. deonun Manium : the shades of the departed were regularly 
styled di Manes. 

96. pavore: i.e. by the terror I inspire. 

97. vicatim : from street to street. hinc et hinc : from this 
side and that ; poetic for hinc et illinc ; cf. 4. 9, hue et hue euntium. 

98. anus : in apposition with vos. 

99. post: adverb. 

100. Esquilinae alites : i.e. the carrion birds that haunt the Esqui- 
line cemetery, a sort of potter's field outside the walls ; for the hiatus 
(or possibly only semi-hiatus), cf Odes, i. 28(2). 4, capiti inhumato. 

101. heu xnihi Buperstites : i.e. ^ I, alas, shall not live to behold 
the sight.' 

102. effugerit : the future perfect emphasizes the certainty of 


The identity of the person against whom this epode is directed, is 

1. hoBpiteB: strangers, who can have done no harm to thee, 
cania : like a dog. 

2. ignavos: nominative with canis; Introd. §34. lupos: fig- 
urative for * equal foes.' 

3. quin : why not f hue = in me. 

4. me remorsurum : * me, who will retort with bites.' 

5. quails, etc. : like a Molossian hound or tawny Laconian; with 
Molossus and Laco, canis is to be understood. The like ellipsis is 

408 ' EPODE Vn. [Page 174. 

common in modem languages; c/. our Nmufoundlandj St. Bernard, 

6. arnica vis paBtoribus : sturdy friends of shepherds, lit. strenffth 
friendly to shepherds. In Oeorgics, iii. 404 ff., Virgil speaks of Molos- 
sian and Spartan hounds as faithful watch-dogs. 

7. aure sublata : the pricked up ears mark the keen pursuit. 

8. quaecumqne praeoedet fera : Le. whatever creature I pursue. 

9. tu: emphatic. cum complesti . . . odoraris: the c«fi»- 
clause is explicative, indicating the logical identity of the two state- 
ments, — * thy howl simply means that thou hast sniffed the smell of 
food.' Divested of the figure, the passage means that the man is 
attempting blackmail. 

11. in males : with tollo. 

13. quails . . . gener : the allusion is to the poet Aichilochus of 
Paros (700 n.c). Lycambes had promised Archilochus his daughter 
NeobCLle in marriage, but broke his pledge, whereupon the poet by 
his bitter invectives drove both Lycambes and Neobule to suicide. 
Lycambae is dative of agency ; gener is used prospectively. 

14. acer hostls Bupalo : Bupalus was a Greek sculptor belonging 
to the latter half of the sixth century b.c. He is said to have made a 
bust of his contemporary, the ugly-featured poet Hipp5nax, of Ephesus. 
In revenge for this, Hipponax is reported to have lashed the sculptor 
in satiric verses ; Bupalo is governed by hostis, which is here equiva- 
lent to inimicus. 

15. atro: venomous. 

16. inultus : here with active force, — voithout revenge. flebo : 
equivalent to a deliberative subjunctive, — am I to burst into tears f 


1. Quo, quo : for the repetition, cf. Odes, ii. 17. 10, ibimus, ibir 
mus, with note. 

2. aptantur : i.e. being fitted again to the hand. condltl : that 
have (pnce^ been sheathed. 

3. campls . . . super: anastrophe. Neptuno: for mari, as 

4. Iiatinl : more poetical than Bomani ; cf. Odes, ii. 1. 20. 

5. non, etc. : i.e. non fusus est sanguis, etc. ut . . . ureret : 
i.e. with no such patriotic purpose as in the earlier days. 

7. intactus : i.e. as yet untouched, unsubdued. ut desoende- 

Paqb177.] EPODE IX. 409 

ret : the Sacra Via (see on 4. 7) fell considerably as it approached 
the Forum, after which it rose sharply at the Capitoline Hill, where it 
led up to the Capitolium, the temple of Jupiter. 

8. Via : ablative of the way by which. 

9. secundum vota : in accordance with the prayers, Partho- 
rum : see on Odes, i. 2. 22. sua deztera : by its own right hand. 

12. numquam . . . feris: never savage except against beasts of 
another kind. 

13. furor, an vis acrior, an culpa : madness, or some cruel spell, 
or guilt 9 

17. sic est : the poet answers his own question ; sic looks forward. 
acerba fata : the same idea as in ms acrior above. 

18. sceluB . . . necis : i.e. punishment for the crime of a brother^s 
murder ; necis is appositional genitive. 

19. ut : ever since ; for this force of ut, cf. Odes, iv. 4. 42. 

20. sacer nepotibus: a curse on posterity ; nepotibus depends 
loosely upon sacer. 


1. repostum Caecubum : on the Caecuban wine, see Odes, i. 20. 
9, note. For the syncope in repostum, cf. Epodes, 2. 65, postos. 

2. victore laetus Caesare : r^oicing at Caesar^s victory. 

3. sub alta dome : the reference is to Maecenas's lofty palace on 
the Esquiline ; cf Odes, iii. 29. 10. On the special force of sub, see 
Odes, i. 5. 3, sub antro. sic lovi gratum : i.e. Jove approves the 
celebration of the victory he had vouchsafed. 

4. beate : happy, i.e. rejoicing at the victory. 

5. Bonante, etc. : to the strains of the lyre mingled with those of 
the flute ; mixtum tibiis is compendiary for mixtum tibiarum carmine ; 
cf. Odes, i. 1. 28, lituo tubae permixtus sonitus; tibiis is ablative of. 
association ; Introd. § 38. a. 

6. hac . . . barbarum: i.e. lyra Dorium carmen sonante, tibiis 
barbarum (carmen sonantibus) ; barbarum is equivalent to Phrygium. 
The Doric mood was appropriate to martial songs ; the Phrygian was 
common at festive gatherings ; cf. Odes, iii. 19. 18. 

7. iit nuper : just as recently ; nuper is always a flexible word, and 
here refers to the events of five years previous (36 b.c), when Sextus 
Pompeius was defeated at Naulochus and driven from the sea by 
Agrippa. actus freto: driven from the sea; actus for abactus. 
Neptunius dux : a sarcastic reference to Pompey's claim that he was 

410 EPODE IX. tP^GEl77 

the son of Neptune, — a claim put forth as the result of his earlier 
naval successes. 

10. serviB : dependent upon both detr<zxerat (as dative of separa- 
tion) and amicus. perfidia : viz. to their masters. 

11 ff. In touching upon the disgraceful conduct of Antonius^s fol- 
lowers in submitting to the behests of a foreign queen, — Cleopatra, — 
Horace^s purpose is to bring out in stronger relief the glory of the 
recent victory ; the past shame, urges the poet, is now partially redeemed. 

11. RomannB emancipatus femiiiae, etc. : Bomanus (with miles) 
is emphatic, and emancipatus feminae even more so, — the Roman 
(the type of manly freedom) bears stakes and arm^, at the Be- 
hest OF A Woman (Cleopatra) ; the bearing of stakes and weapons 
was in itself no indignity, being the ordinary duty of the Roman 
soldier ; emancipare is strictly used of transferring the title of prop- 
erty ; where the object is a person, it means * to sell into slavery.' So 
here, lit. enslaved to a woman. poster! negabitis: i.e. such a 
thing will be incredible to future ages. 

13. vallum : the valli were used in making a temporary barricade. 
spadonibua : the attendants in the courts of oriental countries were 
regularly eunuchs. For the Koman contempt of this class, cf. Odes^ i. 
37. 9, contaminato cum grege turpium morbo virorum. 

14. servire potest : can bring itself to obey. rugosis : physical 
decay is rapid among eunuchs. 

15. turpe conopium : the conopium is simply a rational device for 
protection from the attacks of gnats and similar insects ; but it is an 
oriental contrivance with an oriental name, and so evokes the scorn 
of the poet, carried away as he is by his spirit of national feeling. 

17. ad hoc : at sight of this. frementis vertemnt, etc. : two 
thousand Galatians (^Galli), under the command of Amyntias and 

. Dejotarus, had fought for a time in the army of Antonius, but deserted 
to Octavian before the battle of Actium. Note the e of verterunt, — 
not an arbitrary shortening, but a reminiscence of the original quan- 
tity ; cf. ridet, Odes., ii. 6. 14. 

18. canentes Caesarem: i.e. shouting his name; cf. Virg. Aen. 
vii. 698, regem canebant. 

19. hostlllumque navium, etc. : * the ships of the enemy (Antony 
and Cleopatra) , when summoned to draw off to the left and retreat, 
hid in the harbor,' i.e. when Cleopatra gave the signal for retreat 
many of her own ships refused to follow ; citae is here the participle, 
from cieo. 

Page 178.] EPODE IX. 411 

21. lo Triumphe : c/. Odes^ iv. 2. 49 f. moraris . . . boves: 

i.e. * do you delay to bring forth the golden chariot and the victims 
for celebrating the victory ? ' The chariot, richly decorated with gold 
and ivory, is that in which the triumphator rides to the temple of 
Jupiter on the Capitoline, where the priests sacrifice the intactas boves, 
which had formed part of the triumphal procession. 

22. curruB : the poetic plural, as in i. 15. 12. intactas : viz, 
by the yoke. Sacrificial victims must be unsullied by earthly uses. 

23. Ingiirthlno bello . . . ducem: Marius. parem: t.e. equal 
to Octavian. 

25. Africanum : understand parem ducem, in predicate relation. 
The younger Scipio is referred to. col super, etc. : whose valor 
sealed the doom of Carthage. 

27. terra marique victus : the statement is incorrect. Though 
defeated in the naval engagement, Antonius still had nineteen legions 
of soldiers and some twenty-two thousand cavalry at his disposal. 
For several days after Antonyms flight, these troops awaited his return, 
and then surrendered to Octavian. hostis : Antonius. punlco 
. . . sagum : has changed the scarlet cloak for one of sombre hue 
(lit. one of mourning) ; scarlet was the color of the cloak of the com- 
manding general. On mutare, ^ take in exchange,^ see Odes, i. 17. 2 ; 
punico is for the usual puniceo. 

29. centtun . . . urbibus : the Homeric ^KarSfiiroXLv Kp-fyrriv ; cf 
Odes, iii. 27. 33, centum potentem oppidis Creten. Cretam : object 
of petit. 

30. ventis itums non stiis : destined to fare with unpropitious 
winds ; on the general principle that his star is waning and whatever 
be does will be fraught with disaster. On the free use of the future 
participle, cf. Odes, ii. 3. 4. Just as suus often has the special mean- 
ing of * favorable,* so here non suis means * adverse.* 

32. incerto : i.e. he sails aimlessly ; the epithet is transferred 
from Antony to the sea. 

33 ff. Horace imagines himself already at the celebration of the 

33. capaciores : i.e. larger than usual. scyphos : large beak- 
ers with two handles. puer : the attendant slave. 

35. quod . . . coerceat: to stay my rising qualms. Horace 
speaks as though on ship and afraid of sea-sickness, for which the dry 
Caecuban is represented as a preventive. By nauseam, he figuratively 
means his disgust at Antony's escape. 

412 EPODE X. [Page 17a 

37. curam . . . renun: anxious fear for Caesar'* s fortunes. 
Antony and Cleopatra, though put to flight, were still masters of 
powerful resources.. It was not till a year later that they were 
finally vanquished, and Horace was able to burst out into his jubilant 
nunc est hibendum of Odes, i. 37. 

38. Iiyaeo = vino : see on Odes, i. 7. 22. solvere : to banish. 


1. Mala elite : under evil auspices ; ablative of attendant circum- 
stance ; cf. Odes, i. 15. 5, mala duds avi domum, eoluta : setting 


2. olentem : filthy. 

3. ut verberee : jussive subjunctive, introduced by ut instead of 
utinam, as repeatedly in early Latin ; memento is a parenthetic addi- 
tion, latue: sc. navis, 

4. Aueter, etc. : all the storm-winds are invoked to do their worst, 
— Auster, Eurus, Aquilo, and Notus (line 20). 

5. niger Earus : transferred from the black clouds that Eurus 
gathers to Eurus himself ; cf. Odes, i. 5. 6, a^era nigris aequora ventis. 

7. quantUB franglt : ujith all the might with which it breaks. 

9. nee appareat : with the frequent occurrence of nee in optative 
and volitive expressions, cf Odes, i. 9. 15, nee sperne. 

10. qua . . . cadit: for the storms supposed to accompany 
Orion's setting, cf. Odes, i. 28 (2). 1, devexi Orionis; on tristis, i.e. 
bringing gloomy weather, cf Odes, i. 3. 14, tristis Hyadas. 

12. Grala : logically with victorum. 

13. cum Pallas, etc. : Pallas, in consequence of the judgment 
of Paris, had hitherto been angry against the Trojans. But at the 
sack of Troy, Ajax, the son of OUeus, had ravished Cassandra in 
Pallas's temple. Hence the goddess now turned her wrath upon the 
Greeks as they were returning home from Troy. For her vengeance 
upon Ajax in particular, jsee the vivid passage in Virgil, Aen. i. 30 f., 
Pallasne exurere classem Argivom, etc. 

14. impiam : as bearing the impious Ajax. 

17. ilia : viz. that into which you are wont to break on such occa- 

18. preces et : for et preces ; Odes, i. 2. 5. 

19. lonius sinus : the sea off the western coast of Greece, udo : 
i.e. rainy. 

Page 180.] EPODE XI. ' 413 

21. opima praeda porrecta : in apposition with the subject of 

22. mergOB iuveris: you delight the gulU^ viz, by furnishing 
them a rich feast. 

24. TempeatatibuB : the gods of the storm. The Tempestates 
often appear as divinities in Latin literature. The sacrifices offered 
to them are ordinarily made for the purpose of averting bad weather. 
Here the promised victim is vowed under unique conditions. 


4. in pueriB . . . urere : to inflame me with passion for hoys or 
maids; urere depends upon expetit, 

5. hie tertiuB, etc, : lit. this third December is shaking the leaves, 
i,e, Hhe third winter is now shaking,' etc. 

6. Inachia furere : for the ablative, cf. Odes, i. 4. 19, quo virgines 
tepehunt, Bilvia: from the woods ; dative. 

7. me : dependent upon pudet ; the irregular word-order is well 
suited to the sudden whirl of memory with which the past returns. 

8. fabnla : i.e. the talk of the town. conviviorum paenitet : 
i,e. ' it pains me to recall the gatherings.* 

9. quia: ablative plural. axnantem arguit: convicted the 
lover, viz, me. languor : my listlessness. 

11. contrane, etc. : to think that a poor man'*s blameless heart 
can avail naught against gold; i.e. the poor suitor cannot compete 
with a richer rival. Valere is the exclamatory infinitive ; ne in such 
expressions is best taken, with Warren, as the intensive particle, the 
shortened enclitic form of the asseverative ne. lucrum = aurum. 

13. simul calentiB, etc. : as soon as the god had warmed me 
with the quickening wine and brought my secrets from their hiding- 
place ; calentis depends upon the genitive idea involved in mea to be 
understood with arcana. The god is called inverecundus, as banish- 
ing all sense of shame in those who indulge too freely in his gifts. 
Note that simul (= simul ac) is here followed by the pluperfect of 
iterative action. 

15. quodsi, etc. : but if righteous indignation should boil up in 
my heart; libera bilis like Uberrima indignatio in 4. 10; praecordiis 
is ablative. 

16. ut . . . fomenta : so as to scatter to the xoinds the thankless 
remedies that nowise ease my grievous wound ; the fomenta are the 
hopes the lover indulges or the vain consolations of his friends. 

414 EPODE xm. [pagb 18a 

18. deslnet . . . pudor : (false) modesty removed shall cease to 
vie with my unequal rivals; i.e, *I will cast aside false shame and 
cease to vie ' ; we should expect desinat^ parallel with the protasis 
{inaestuet) ; desinet is more vivid. By imparihus^ are meant rivals 
superior in wealth but inferior in mind and heart. For the dative, c/. 
Odes, ii. 6. 15, viridi certat baca Venafro, 

19. nbi . . . landaveram : * whenever I had uttered these praise^ 
worthy sentiments ^ ; iterative, hence the pluperfect tense ; c/. simul 
promorat above. aeverus : with stem resolve, ue, for the time 
being. te palam : in thy presence ; anastrophe. 

20. iuBBOB: sc. a te, incerto: irresolute, uncertain whether 
to return home or to visit his mistress. 

21. non amicos postis : unfriendly doors ; so styled as refusing 
admittance ; for the picture of the lover excluded by his cruel mis- 
tress, cf. Odes, iii. 10. 2 ft, 

23. gloriantia : with Lycisci, quamlibet muliercolam : i.e. 
even the fairest. 

25. unde = a quo. 

26. libera conBilia : the frank counsels, 

28. teretis : slender, longam renodantis comam : like the 
Spartan maidens ; see Odes, ii. 11. 23. 

EPODE xin. 

1. contrazit : viz, by covering the heaven with clouds. 

2. deducunt lovem : Jove was conceived as himself descending 
in the storm. siluae : here trisyllabic, as in Odes, i. 23. 3. 

3. Threiclo Aquilone : the poets set the home of the north wind 
in Thrace ; for the hiatus (or semi-hiatus), cf 5. 100, Esquilinae 
alites, rapiamuB occaaionem de die: let us snatch opportunity 
(of enjoyment) from the day. The day is conceived as offering the 
opportunity to Horace and his friends. 

5. obducta aolvatur fronte senectiia: let seriousness (lit. old 
age) be banished from the clouded brow, 

6. tu : the arbiter bibendi, or master of ceremonies ; see on Odes, 
ii. 7. 25. Torquato consule meo : the Torquatus who was consul 
in 65 B.C., the year of Horace^s birtlv move : bring down, as in 
Odes, iii. 21. 6, (testa) moveri digna bono die. 

7. cetera: i.e, all else except the pleasure of the passing hour, 
mitte loqui : a poetic periphrasis for a prohibition, as Odes^ i. 38. 3, 

Paqb 183.] EPODE XIV. 415 

mitte sectari. haec : present cares and troubles. benigna vice : 
with kindly change, 

8. reducet in sedem: ue. shall bring to a happy ending. 
Achaemenio: Persian ; see on Odes, ill. 1. 44. 

9. perfondi : to anoint oneself ; with middle force. fide Cyl- 
lenea: i.e. the lyre invented by Mercury, who was bom on Mt. Cyl- 
lene, in Arcadia ; c/. Odes, i. 10. 6 ; fide for fldibus is poetical. 

11. nobilis Centaurus : Chiron, the teacher of a number of young 
heroes, among them Achilles. grandi alumno : his tall foster-child, 
viz. Achilles, who, as a hero, was of heroic stature. cecinit : here, 
as often, of prophetic utterance. 

13. manet : awaits, Asaaraci tellus : Troy ; Assaracus was 
one of the Trojan kings. 

14. iindunt : i.e, flow through. lubricns et : for et luhricus, 

15. reditum rupere : have cut off thy return, certo subte- 
mine : by fixed decree; suhtemen is properly the 'woof,' or the part 
woven into the warp of cloth. 

16. mater caenila : the sea-nymph Thetis is called * blue ' from 
the color of the sea ; see on Odes, i. 17. 20, vitream Circen. 

17. illic : viz. at Troy. 

18. alloqulis : here, consolations. 

This epode exhibits Horace's first treatment of a theme with which 
he subsequently deals repeatedly in the Odes, 


1. imis senaibiiB : over my inmost senses ; sensibus is dative of 

2. oblivionem : viz, of the promised poems; see below, line 7. 

3. IiOthaeoB : i.e, such slumbers as are inspired by the waters of 
Lethe's stream. ut si trazerim : as though I had drained; for the 
postponement of ut si, see on Odes, i, 2. 5. 

4. arente fauce: i.e, eagerly ; the singular /auce is poetical. 

5. candide : noble, occidia saepe rogando : cf. Odes, ii. 17. 
1, cur me querellis exanimas tuis f 

6. dens, deus : here the god of love, Cupid. 

7. iambos : the reference is to the Book of Epodes ; Introd. § 8. 

8. ad umbilicum adducere : to bring to completion. In Horace's 
day, works of literature were written on long rolls of papyrus or parch- 
ment, the last page of which was at the extreme right-hand edge of the 

416 EPODE XV. [PAGBisa 

roll. To this outer edge was attached a wooden rod, about which the 
entire manuscript was then rolled. To the end of the rod was fas- 
tened a projecting knob, the umbilicus (^ navel,' 'boss'). Thus, Ho 
bring to the knob ' became equivalent to ' to bring to an end.' 

9. fikunio Bathyllo : some youth of whom Anacreon was enam- 
oured. Anacreon spent some time at the court of Polycrates, king of 
Samos ; for the ablative with ardere^ cf. Odes, ii. 4. 7. 

11. flevit amorem : ' sang of his love in plaintive strains.' 

12. non elaboratom ad pedem : in simple verse. 

13. ureria ipse miaer : i.e, * you yourself are a victim of the ten- 
der passion, and so can understand my distraction.' non pnlchrior 
ignis . . . nion: Mf no fairer beauty kindled Troy (than kindles 
thee),' i,e. * if even Helen was not fairer than thy present love.' 

15. gaude sorte toa: implying that Maecenas's lot is happier 
than Horace's. nee uno contenta : Phryne has other lovers. 


3. nnmen laesora : one offends the majesty of the gods by false 

4. in verba iorabas mea : iurare in verba is to take oath accord- 
ing to a prescribed formula. So here Neaera is represented as plight- 
ing troth according to the form suggested by Horace at .the time, and 
explained in lines 7-10. 

5. artius atque: more closely than. . hedera adstringitor 
ilez : cf. Odes, i. 36. 20, where likewise the clinging ivy is used as a 
symbol of fond devotion. 

6. adhaerena : sc. mihi. 

7. dam : as long as. lupua : sc, esset infestus, Orion : for 
the supposed influence of Orion in bringing stormy weather, cf. Odes, 
i. 28 (2). 1. 

8. torbaret: the secondary sequence is owing to the imperfect 

9. intonaos . . . capilloa : Apollo was conceived as perpetually 
young ; cf. i. 21. 2. 

11. virtute : manhood, manly resentment. 

12. siqnid viri : any manhood ; lit. anything of the man, in 
Flacco = in Horatio. 

13. potiori I to be a more favored rival ; as in iii. 0. 2, nee quia- 
quam potior. 

Page 186.] EPODE XVL 417 

14. et : but. parem : i.e. a mate suited to hiin, one who will 
requite his love with faithful devotion. 

15. nee . . . formae : * nor, once offended, will his stem resolve 
yield to the charms of thy beauty * ; offensi depends upon eius^ to be 
understood with constantia. 

16. si . . . dolor : ^ if my resentment really rises * ; the hypotheti- 
cal statement seems to suggest that reconciliation is still possible. 

17. et tu: the rival. fellclor : as being j>o^or (line 13). 

19. Bis dives licebit: though thou be rich; in prose we should 
have licet. 

20. tibique Pactdlus flnat : i.e. * and shouldst thou have the 
treasures of Midas,' whose fabulous wealth is said to have come from 
the golden sands of the Lydian river PactOlus. 

21. nee . . . arcana: i.e. *and though thou knowest the inner 
mysteries of philosophy.' renati: Pythagoras owed his existence 
to his reincarnation ; see Odes, i. 28 (1). 10, Panthoiden. 

22. Nirea: the fairest of all the Greeks that came to Troy ; cf. 
iii. 20. 15. 

23. tranalatos . . . amores: i.e. 'Neaera will prove faithless to 
thee as she has to me.' alio : adverb ; to another quarter. 

24. ast : archaic for at. ▼ieisslm : i.e. as thou laughest now in 
scorn at me. risero : the future perfect emphasizes the certainty of 
consummation ; cf. 6. 102, ^ugerit. 


1. Altera aetas : a second generation, just as a previous one had 
been sacrificed in the civil dissensions between Marius and Sulla and 
their partisans. 

3. quam : its antecedent is earn, to be supplied in thought as the 
object of perdemus in line 0. finitimi Mand : alluding to the So- 
cial, or Marsian, War of 01-88 b.c. 

4. Porsenae: who endeavored to secure the restoration of the 

5. aemnla virtus Capuae : after the disaster of Cannae, in 216 
B.O., Capua had aspired to the supremacy of Italy, but was soon 
reduced to a Roman praefecture (211 b.c.). Spaitaeus aeer: 
leader of the servile insurrection of 73-71 b.c. ; see on Odes, iii. 
14. 10. 

6. novis rebus iniidelis Allobroz : the Allobroges faithless in 

41S EPODE XVI. [Page 186. 

time of revolution, alluding to the collusion of the Allobroges with 
the Catilinarian conspirators. See Cicero's third speech against Cati- 
Hne. The Allobroges at the time had long been subjects of Rome. 

7. nee fera, etc. : nor savage Germany with its blue-eyed hosts ; 
the reference is to the invasion of Roman teriitory by the Cimbrians 
and Teutons. These were overwhelmingly defeated by M^urius and 
Catulus in 102 and 101 b.c. ; puhe is ablative of quality. 

8. parentibus abominatiui : parentibus is da^.' " of agency ; 
abominatus is used passively ; c/. Odes, i. 1. 25, detestaia. 

9. Impia . . . aetas: we, an impious generation of accursed blood, 
t'.e. of accursed origin ; cf 7. 18, scelus fraternae necis. 

11. cineres insistet : insisto is here used transitively, as occasion- 
ally in the poets. urbem : i.e. the ground on which the city stands. 

12. verberabit : shall trample. 

13. quae oiuui : incorporation of the antecedent in the relative 
clause. carent, etc. : i.e. are in the tomb, and so protected from 
sun and wind. Porphyrio tells us that according to Varro the tomb of 
Romulus was behind the Rostra, in the Forum, or Comitium. The 
ordinary account represents Romulus as ascending to heaven. 

14. insolens : in wanton sport. 

15. qnod ezpediat : a potential characterizing clause, — a course 
that would be wise. The antecedent of quod is id, to be understood in 
apposition with carere laboribus. communiter : virtually equivalent 
to a substantive, omnes or universi. 

16. mails laboribus : our present woes. carere quaerltis : 
for the infinitive, cf. Odes, i. 37. 22, perire quaerens. 

17. sit : jussive. hao : explained by the following ire. sen- 
tentia: resolve. Phocaeorum: forced by the elder Cyrus to 
abandon Phocaea, its inhabitants registered a vow not to return till 
a mass of iron which they threw into the sea should rise to the sur- 

18. ezsecrata : having cursed. 

21. quocumque : i.e. anything will be better than to remain here. 

22. protervos : cf Odes, i. 26. 2, protervis ventis ; for the form, 
see Introd. § 34. 

23. sic placet, suadere : like sententia, above in line 17, these 
are technical terms of legislative procedure, and as such lend impres- 
siveness to the poet's utterance. habet: here in the sense of 
potest ; Greek %x^ is similarly used. secunda alite : under happy 
auspices; see on 10. 1, mala alite. 

Page 187.] EPODE XVI. 419 

25. iuremuB in baec : sc. verba ; see ou 15. 4, in verba iurabas 
mea, simul imis, etc. : i.e. let it not be lawful to return till 
Nature's laws are reversed ; simul for simul atque, as often. 

26. ne alt nefas : i.e. ^ be it lawful.* 

27. domum dare lintea : spread our sails for home. 

28. Matina cacumina : Mt. Matjnus was a spur of Mt. Gargftnus 
on the eastern coast of Apulia. 

30. nova . . . llbidine : unite monsters in unnatural desire. 

31. iuvet ut = ut iuvet, — so that tigers delight. 

32. adulteretur, etc. : and the dove mates with the hawk, its invet- 
erate foe ; miluo is ablative of association ; Introd. § 38. a. For the 
trisyllabic form, cf. 13. 3, siluae. The word is regularly milvos. 

33. credula: prolepsis. 

34. levlB hircuB: the smooth goat; prolepsis. Horace means, 
* when the shaggy goat shall lose his hair and become smooth like the 
fish of the sea.' 

35. haec ezaecrata : i.e. having made these solemn pledges sealed 
by curses. 

37. ant : or at least, indocili grege : the common herd that 
knows no better and can learn no better. moUls et ezspes : sc, 

39. vob; adversative asyndeton, — but ye, i,e, the melior pars, 
tollite : away with ! 

40. EtruBca praeter, etc. : i.e. ^ and speed away from Italy.' 

41. OceanuB circumvagns : the Homeric conception of Oceanus 
as a stream surrounding the circular disk of the earth. 

42. arva, beata arva : the fields, the joyous fields. divites in- 
snlas : according to the mythical conception, the Happy Isles were 
the abode of heroes after death. Subsequently they were conceived 
as an idyllic land situated in the general vicinity of the Canary or the 
Madeira Islands. 

46. Buam . . . arborem : and the ripe fig graces its native tree ; 
the emphasis rests upon suam. Ordinarily the fig required grafting 
and careful attention to insure a proper harvest. pulla : lit. dark, 
the color of the fig when ripe. 

48. leviB crepante, etc. : the repetition of the Z-sound secures a 
happy suiting of the sound to the sense in this line. 

50. tenta : distended. amicuB : i.e, willingly, unbidden. 

51. vespertinuB : at evening-tide' 

52. intumeacit alta viperia : swells high with vipers; wh^^t is a 

420 EPODE XVIL [Page 187. 

peculiarity of the viper, is here attributed to the ground on which the 
yiper lies. 

53. nt: how, 

54. anra radat : lays waste the eor^fieldSt as often happened in 

56. ntmmqne temperante : governing both (extremes), heat and 

57. non hno, etc, : i.e, the Happy Isles to which Horace calls his 
countrymen are as yet uncontaminated by the vices of human kind. 
Argoo remige plnns : i,e, no Argo with its crew ; pinus is for navis, 
as often in the poets. 

58. neqne impndloa CoIoMb: nor shameless Colchian (sor- 
ceress) ; i.e, no Medea ; cf, 5. 24. 

59. Sidonil : Fhoenician ; the Phoenicians were the most daring 
seamen of all antiquity, and so are cited as typical of maritime enter- 
prise, oomna : lit. yard-ends ; and so by metonymy for vessels. 

60. laborioaa: transferred from Ulixei to cohors; cf. Odes, i, 15. 
33, iracunda classis Achillei, 'the fleet of the wrathful Achilles.* 
Ulizel : for the form of the genitive, cf. Odes, i. 6. 7. 

61. nalliixB aatrl aeatuoaa inipotentia : no starts blazing fury. 
Phases of the weather were regularly attributed to the influence of the 
stars ; cf. Odes, i. 28 (2). 1 ; iii. 1. 27. Note the shortening of the i in 
nullius. For the force of impotentia, cf. Odes, iii. 30. 3, impotens, 

64. nt : ever since; so also in 7. 19, utfluxit, 

65. qnomm aeonnda foga : a happy escape firom which, viz, from 
the present hardened generations. 

66. vate me : by my prophecy ; vates is here used in the sense of 
« prophet' ; the construction is ablative absolute. dator : is offered, 


1. lam lam : at length, do manna : / surrender, 

2. Proaerpinae, Dianae : the divinities of the lower world were 
supposed to preside over magic rites. 

3. non moyenda nnmlna : the inviolable majesty. 

4. UbroB carminnm, etc, : books of incantations that can unfix 
the stars and call them down from heaven. 

6. Canidia: see Epode 5, * Occasion of the Poem.' parce: 
cease ! voclbna aacrla : thy magic spells. 

7. oitnm . . . tnrbinem : turbo is the magic wheel, whose revo- 

Paob189.] EPODE XVIL 421 

lution wrought the charm ; reversing its movement was supposed to 
break the spell of the incantation. oitum : participle of cieo, as in 
9. 20; lit. set in motion, and so, revolving, solve, solye: the 
word is not exact, and betrays the agitation of the speaker, who, in 
his desire for release from torment, begs Canidia to release the 
wheel ; volve would have been the correct word. For the repetition, 
c/. Odes, ii. 17. 10, ibimus, ibimus. 

8. movit, etc. : reasons why Canidia should heed his prayer : 
' Others have granted mercy ; so mayst thou.* The nepos Nereius is 
Achilles, son of Thetis, Nereus's daughter. Telephus, king of the 
Mysians, wounded by Achilles, had been told by the oracle of Apollo 
that he could be healed only by the rust of Achilles's spear. He there- 
upon appealed to Achilles for succor, and the hero granted his request. 

11. unzere, etc. : Horace says that the Ilian matrons anointed 
Hector's body after the king (Priam) had fallen at Achilles^s feet, — a 
somewhat involved and obscure way of saying that Achilles, at Priam's 
entreaty, gave up Hector's dead body, thus enabling the Ilian matrons 
to anoint it preparatory to burning it on the funeral pyre. addio- 
tum : given up to. 

12. homioidam Heotorem : a not especially felicitous rendering 
of the Homeric "Ejcropa dv8po<p6yov, ' the man-slayer Hector '; homicida 
means ^ murderer.' 

14. hen : with rex procidit ad pedes Achillei. AohlUei, Ullzel 
(16) : for the form of the genitive, see on Odes, i. 6. 7. 

15 if. Ulysses's comrades were changed back from swine to human 
forms by Circe, i.e. Circe relented and consented to restore Ulysses's 
men to human shapes, aaetosa, etc. : bristling with hardened skins ; 
saetosa limits membra. ezuere : perfect indicative. 

16. laborlosi : with Ulixei. 

17. BonuB = vox. 

18. notuB honor : i.e. their wonted dignity of feature. 

20. amata nautlB, etc. : beloved of sailors andpedlers ; the mock 
compliment is full of scorn. 

21. luyentaB : sc. mea. verecunduB : here in the sense of rosy. 

22. OBBa pelle, etc. : i.e. * my bones are covered with a shrunken 
yellow skin.' 

23. tulB : emphatic ; the poet pretends to concede Canidia'S sover- 
eign power. BBt : has become. odorlbnB : i.e. her magic 

24. ab labore me reclinat : relieves me from torment. 

422 EPODE XVII. [Pagb189. 

25. urget < presses on the heels of. neqne est : nor is it possi- 
ble ; like the Greek o^k tanv. . 

26. levare . . . praecordia : ' by taking breath to ease my sore- 
strained lungs ' (Bryce) . 

27. negatnm : etc. : I am forced to admit what I once denied. 

28. Sabella carmina : the Sabellian (Sabine) women were cur- 
rently regarded as adepts in witchcraft. increpare, dissilire : in 
apposition with negatum. 

29. Maraa nenia : by Marsia'n incantation; witchcraft flourished 
also among the Marsi, cf. 5. 76, Marsis vocibus, where also Marsus 
for Marsicus, as here. 

31. atro dellbutuB, etc. : see note on 3. 17. 

32. nee Sicana, etc. : nor the live Sicilian flame in blazing 

33. donee cinis . . . ferar : i.e. * till I become dry ashes and be 
borne by the winds ' ; ferar is in the subjunctive, owing to the notion 
of expectancy involved in the donee-clause. 

34. iniuriosiB: as scattering the ashes and so preventing their 

35. calea, etc. : * youWe always heated up, a very factory of magic 
drugs * (Bryce) ; venenis is ablative of means ; on Colchicis = magicis, 
see on 5. 24. 

36. quae finis : finis is here feminine, as in Odes, ii. 18. 30, fine 
destinata. Btipendiom = poena. 

39. mendaci lyra : he wishes Canidia to understand mendaci as 
referring to his former utterances ; in reality he uses the word with 
reference to his promised praises of her worth. 

40. Bonazi = laudari. 

41. perambnlablB, etc. : i.e. * I will represent thee as deified and 
as changed into a golden constellation.^ 

42. InfamiB : revUed. vicem : on account of. 

44. adempta . . . Inmina : the poet Stesichorus (630-555 b.c.) 
had reflected upon Helenas character in his verses. Castor and Pollux, 
in revenge for this insult to their sister's memory, were said to have 
stricken the poet with blindness. Later, moved by his recantation, 
they restored his sight — another illustration of clemency, like those 
above ; even the gods, urges Horace, are not unrelenting. 

46 t The poet, with mock sincerity, pretends to be recanting fori- 
mer aspersions cast upon Canidia^s lineage and practices, but the 
mock recantation is really but an effective repetition of the former 

Page 190.] EPODE XVII. 423^ 

charges. O nee patemis obsoleta sordibus : O thou not stained 
by thy father's mean estate. 

47. nee in sepalcrls, etc. : and that art not a hag clever to scattevy 
etc, in sepalcris pauperum : among the graves of the poor. The 
reference is to the graves in the Esquiline burial-ground, where the 
poor were interred, and where Cauidia was in the habit of practising 
her incantations ; see on 5. 100, and cf. Sat. i. 8. 

48. novendiales dissipare pulveres : to scatter funeral ashes, 
i,e. ashes that she had stolen from the graves of the dead. 

49. hospltale: kindly. 

50. tuosque venter Pactumeins : and Pactumeius is a chUd of 
thine; the emphasis rests upon tuos, as it does also upon tuo in tuo. 
cruore. Horace implies that he had previously denied Canidia^s mater- 
nity of the child ; he now recants. 

52. ntctimque fbxtiBJ etc.: whenever you hound forth a lusty 
young mother. The description suggests that Canidia recovers too 
quickly from childbed to warrant the belief that she has really been 

53. quid obseratis, etc. : Canidia speaks. 

54. non saza, etc. : Horace^s way of putting the thought obscures 
the logical perspective. He means : ' Not deafer to the cries of helpless 
sailors are the cliffs that Neptune beats, than I to thine.* 

56. inultUB at, etc.: thou unpunished to have divulged and ridi- 
culed the Cotytian rites ! a so-called ^ repudiating question,* i.e. a ques- 
tion whose form implies that the speaker emphatically repudiates its 
content. It is a further development of the deliberative. The Coty- 
tian rites were celebrated in honor of a Thracian goddess named 
Cotytto. Women only were admitted to the ceremonial. Canidia 
here implies that Horace had secretly attended the celebration of the 
rites, and had then spread the account among his friends. 

57. aacrum liberl Cupldlnis : the festival of unbridled love ; in 
apposition with Cotytia. The Cotytia were extremely licentious* 

58. Esquilini pontiles venefici : director of the Esquiline witch- 
craft. Canidia taunts him with assuming power to regulate the prac- 
tice of witchcraft, just as the pontifex regulated matters of religion. 

60. quid proderit : i.e. ^ if I cannot punish thee.^ ditasse » . 
anus : i.e, to have paid them for the secret of their arts. The Paelig- 
nians, like the neighboring Marsians, were adepts in sorcery. 

61. velociuB : i.e. working swiftly, — potent. It does not mean 
'fatal,* but simply * effective.* tozicum : potion. 

424 EPODE XVII. [Page 190. 

62. sed tardiora, etc. : i,e, * thou shalt long for death.' 

63. in hoc : for this purpose ; explained by the 1l^ clause. 

64. novls nsqne laboiibuB : for torments ever fresh ; dative of 
purpose. nt suppetaa : that thou mctyst be ready. 

65. optat quietem, etc, : desires respite from his perpetual long- 
ing for the bounteous feast Canidia introduces a series of examples 
of men subjected to torment for their misdeeds, in order to intimate 
to Horace that his own sufferings will be like theirs. Pelopis 
iniidl : he had hurled into the sea Mjrrtilus, the charioteer by whose 
help he had won the chariot race and secured the hand of Hippodamla, 
the daughter of Oenomaus, king of Elis. 

67. obligatoa allti : see on Odes, ii. 13. 37. 

68. Bupremo : poetic for summo, SiayphuB : see on Odes, ii. 
14. 20. 

69. yetant leges lovia : i,e. they forbid the impious to escape the 
penalty of their sins. 

70. modo . . . modo: now . . . now, 

71. enae Norioo : cf Odes, i. 16. 9 and note. 

72. vincla : the noose. 

73. faatidlosa triatlB aegrlmonia : ' sad ufith loathing weariness ' 

74. nmerla : se. tuis. eqnea : <is a rider, 

75. meae inaolentiae : to my unexampled might. Nothing can 
withstand her magic power. 

76. an quae, etc, : or am /, wlio, etc. The antecedent of quae is 
the subject of plorem in line 81. mo vera cereas Imagines pos- 
sim : am able to influence wax images. In Sat, i. 8, Canidia is repre- 
sented as practising her arts on waxen images representing the persons 
whom she aimed to influence. 

77. ut ipse noatl curiosns : in Sat, i. 8, Horace describes certain 
of Canidia's incantations. Hence Canidia characterizes him as curio- 
sus, a prying meddler. 

79. crematos ezcitare mortuos: i,e, to call up the shades of 
those who have died and whose bodies have been burned. 

80. deslderi . . . poonla : i,e, to mix love-potions ; cf. 6. 38, 
amoris poculum, 

81. plorem artis, etc. : must I lament the failure of my craft, in- 
effective in the case of thee {alone) f Exitus, literally ^outcome,' is a 
so-called vox media. It may mean either a good outcome (* success ') 
or a bad outcome ( * failure ') . It has the laiter meaning here.